PEARLS FROM VIVEKACHOODAMANI – I

                  PEARLS FROM VIVEKACHOODAMANI – I


Vivekachoodamani meaning
‘The Crest-Jewel of Discrimination’ is one of the greatest texts written by Adi
Sankaracharya, in 581 verses,  as an
introduction to Vedanta.  A careful study
of these verses will be of immense help to the aspirants on the spiritual
path.  Given below  are selected slokas from this work
maintaining the continuity of the narrative. The bare translations (leaving out
the detailed commentary) are based on those of Swami Chinmayananda in ‘Talks on
Sankara’s Vivekachoodamani ‘ published by the Central Chinmaya Mission Trust,
Mumbai.  
GLORY OF SPIRITUAL LIFE
जन्तूनां नरजन्म दुर्लभमतः पुंस्त्वं ततो विप्रता
तस्माद्वैदिकधर्ममार्गपरता विद्वत्त्वमस्मात्परम्।
आत्मानात्मविवेचनं स्वनुभवो ब्रह्मात्मना संस्थितिः
मुक्तिर्नो शतजन्मकोटि सुकृतैः पुण्यैर्विना लभ्यते ॥१॥
For all living beings, a human birth is indeed rare;
much more difficult is  manhood; rarer
than this is a sattwic attitude in life; still rarer is steadfastness on the spiritual
path propounded in the Vedas; more so is a profound knowledge in the scriptures
and the capacity to distinguish between the real and the unreal.  A step above this is the personal experience
of spiritual Glory and a state of being fully established in the consciousness
of the individual Self as the Self in all. Mukti, liberation, cannot be
attained without merits earned in a hundred crores of births.
लब्ध्वा कथंचिन्नरजन्म दुर्लभं
तत्रापि पुंस्त्वं श्रुतिपारदर्शनम्।
यस्त्वात्ममुक्तौ न यतेत मूढधीः
स ह्यात्महा स्वं विनिहन्त्यसद्ग्रहात्॥४॥
Having obtained human
birth which is rare, having attained manhood and acquired a deep knowledge of
the scriptures, if a person is foolish enough not to strive for self-realization,
he commits suicide, holding on to unreal things.    
MEANS OF WISDOM
अतो विमुक्त्यै प्रयतेत विद्वान्
सन्यस्तबाह्यार्थसुखस्पृहःसन्।
सन्तं महान्तं समुपेत्य देशिकं
तेनोपदिष्टार्थसमाहितात्मा ॥८॥
Therefore, the learned seeker should abandon his
desire for pleasures from  external  objects and 
strive to gain liberation (from the cycle of births and deaths).  To this end he must approach a saintly and
generous Master and must lead a life reflecting and contemplating on the words
of advice given by his spiritual guru
उद्धरेदात्मनात्मानं  मग्नं संसारवारिधौ
योगारूढत्वमासाद्य सम्यग्दर्शननिष्ठया ॥९॥
One should lift oneself out of the ocean of this samasara
 by attaining the status of a yogaarooDha
by the constant practice of self-control and discrimination.
चित्तस्य शुद्धये कर्म न तु वस्तूपलब्धये।
वस्तुसिद्धिर्विचारेण न किंचित्कर्मकोटिभिः॥११॥
Selfless action done without expectation of the fruits
thereof purifies the heart but does not lead to Self-realization which is
obtained only by contemplation and discrimination, not by any number of
actions.
सम्यग्विचारतः सिद्धा रज्जुतत्त्वावधारणा।
भ्रान्त्योदितमहासर्पभयदुःखविनाशिनी ॥१२॥
The fear and sorrow arising from the delusory serpent
superimposed on a piece of rope can be destroyed only by fully understanding
the truth of the rope through contemplation and enquiry.
अर्थस्य निश्चयो दृष्टो विचारेण हितोक्तितः।
न स्नानेन न दानेन प्राणायामशतेन वा ॥१३॥
The knowledge about the nature of the Self cannot be
obtained by ablutions, charities or even by hundreds of pranayamas.  It can only be obtained by enquiry,
contemplation and reflection and by listening to the sage advice of men of
wisdom and realization.
THE FOUR QUALIFICATIONS
साधनान्यत्र चत्वारि कथितानि मनीषिभिः।
येषु सत्स्वेव सन्निष्ठा यदभावे न सिध्यति॥१८॥
The wise have spoken about four qualifications the
presence of which in an aspirant will lead to realization and the absence of
which will result in not achieving that goal.
आदौ नित्यानित्यवस्तुविवेकः परिगण्यते।
इहामुत्रफलभोगविरागस्तदनन्तरम्।
शमादिषट्कसम्पत्तिर्मुमुक्षुत्वमिति स्फुटम् ॥१९॥
The ability to discriminate between the Real and the unreal,
absence of any attachment to enjoyment of the fruits of actions herein and
hereafter, the presence of the six qualities like shama and a burning
desire for liberation are the four qualifications mentioned above.
ब्रह्म सत्यं जगन्मिथ्येत्येवंरूपो विनिश्चयः।
सोऽयं नित्यानित्यवस्तुविवेकः समुदाहृतः ॥२o॥
The conviction that Brahman is the only Reality and
the phenomenal world is illusory and unreal is known as discrimination between
the Real and the unreal.
तद्वैराग्यं जिहासा या दर्शनश्रवणादिभिः ।
देहादिब्रह्मपर्यन्तेह्यनित्ये भोगवस्तुनि॥२१॥
The desire to give up all transitory enjoyments gained
through seeing, hearing etc. and also experiences gained through equipments
ranging from a mortal body to the form of Brahma is called vairagyam (detachment).
विरज्य विषयव्राताद्दोषदृष्ट्या मुहुर्मुहुः।
स्वलक्ष्ये नियतावस्था मनसः शम उच्यते ॥२२॥
Sama  is that peaceful state of the mind which is
constantly and unwaveringly engaged in the contemplation of Goal realizing,
again again, the adverse effects of indulging in the pleasures of the senses.
विषयेभ्यः परावर्त्य स्थापनं स्वस्वगोलके।
उभयेषामिन्द्रियाणां स दमः परिकीर्तितः॥
बाह्यानालम्बनं वृत्तेरेषोपरतिरुत्तमा ॥२३॥
Dama (self-control) is the process of
withdrawing the senses, both of knowledge and of action, from their objects of
enjoyment and placing them in their respective centres of activity.  The best Uparati (self withdrawal) is that
condition of the thought waves in which they are free from the influence of external
objects.
सहनं सर्वदुःखानामप्रतीकारपूर्वकम्।
चिन्ताविलापरहितं सा तितिक्षा निगद्यते ॥२४॥
Titiksha is the capacity to endure all
sorrows and sufferings without making any effort to counteract them and without
worrying and lamenting over them.
शास्त्रस्य गुरुवाक्यस्य सत्यबुद्ध्याऽवधारणा।
सा श्रद्धा कथिता सद्भिर्यया वस्तूपलभ्यते ॥२५॥
Mentally acknowledging. without questioning,  the words of the scriptures and of the guru
as Truth is called sraddha by the wise. 
By this alone does Reality become manifest.      
सर्वदा स्थापनं बुद्धेः शुद्धे ब्रह्मणि सर्वथा।
तत्समाधानमित्युक्तं न तु चित्तस्य लालनम् ॥२६॥
Samadhana is that condition when the mind is
constantly engaged in the contemplation of the Supreme Reality. It is not a
condition in which the mind is continuously vacillating.
अहंकारादिदेहान्तान् बन्धानज्ञानकल्पितान्।
स्वस्वरूपावबोधेन मोक्तुमिच्छा मुमुक्षुता ॥२७॥
Mumukshuta is the burning
desire to free oneself from all bondages, 
beginning with egoism and ending with the physical body; bondages
created as a result of ignorance of the true nature of the Self.   
BHAKTI – FIRM AND DEEP
मोक्षकारणसामग्र्यां भक्तिरेव गरीयसी।
स्वस्वरूपानुसन्धानं भक्तिरित्यभिधीयते ॥३१॥
Among the instruments for attaining liberation bhakti
alone carries more weight.  Constant
contemplation on the one’s own Real (Divine) Nature is called bhakti or
devotion.
LOVING ADVICE OF THE GURU
वेदान्तार्थविचारेण जायते ज्ञानमुत्तमम्।
तेनात्यन्तिकसंसारदुःखनाशो भवत्यनु॥४५॥
The highest knowledge arises from the contemplation
and reflection upon the meaning of the Upanishadic mantras. From this one gets
release from the sorrows and sufferings of the illusory phenomenal world.
श्रद्धाभक्तिध्यानयोगान्मुमुक्षॊः
मुक्तेर्हेतून्वक्ति साक्षाच्छ्रुतेर्गीः।
यो वा एतेष्वेव तिष्ठत्यमुष्य
मोक्षोऽविद्याकल्पिताद्देहबन्धात् ॥४६॥
Shruti herself says that shraddha, bhakti
and dhyanayoga (faith, devotion and the practice of meditation) are the
means by which liberation can be attained. 
Whosoever pursues this path is liberated from the bondages of the body
created as a result of ignorance of the real nature of the Self
अज्ञानयोगात्परमात्मनस्तव
ह्यनात्मबन्धस्तत एव संसृतिः।
तयोर्विवेकोदितबोधवह्नि-
रज्ञानकार्यं प्रदहेत्समूलम् ॥४७॥
It is only because of ignorance that you, who are the
supreme self, have the experience of bondage to the not-self.  This bondage, created by ignorance,  will be rooted out by the fire of knowledge
which arises from discrimination between the self and the not-self.        

 
KNOWLEDGE OF THE SELF – ITS BEAUTY
न योगेन न सांख्येन कर्मणा नो न विद्यया।
ब्रह्मात्मैकत्वबोधेन मोक्षः सिध्यति नान्यथा ॥५६॥
Liberation can be attained only by the realization of
the identity of the Self with the Brahman, not by any other means such as yoga,
samkhya, karma (action) or vidya (learning)
    
वाग्वैखरी शब्दझरी शास्त्रव्याख्यानकौशलम्।
विदुषामिह वैदुष्यं भुक्तये न तु मुक्तये ॥५८॥
अविज्ञाते परे तत्त्वे शास्त्राधीतिस्तु निष्फला। Loud speech, a torrent of words, skill in interpreting
the scriptures- these are useful only as means to material enjoyment; they will
not lead to liberation.  
अविज्ञातेऽपि परे तत्त्वे शास्त्राधीतिस्तु निष्फला ।
विज्ञातेऽपि परे तत्त्वे शास्त्राधीतिस्तु निष्फला ॥५९॥
Without knowing the Supreme Reality, the study of the sastras
is futile.  Having known the Supreme
Reality, the study of the sastras is again futile.
अज्ञानसर्पदष्टस्य ब्रह्मज्ञानौषधं विना।
किमु वेदैश्च शास्त्रैश्च किमु मन्त्रैः किमौषधैः ॥६१॥
What is the use of Vedas, sastras, mantras
and medicines for one who has been bitten by the snake of ignorance.  Only Knowledge of the Brahman will
save him.
DIRECT EXPERIENCE:
LIBERATION
अकृत्वा दृश्यविलयमज्ञात्वा तत्त्वमात्मनः।
ब्रह्मशब्दैः कुतो मुक्तिरुक्तिमात्रफलैर्नृणाम् ॥६३॥
Without achieving the disappearance of the entire
pluralistic world and without realising the Real Nature of the Self what is the
use of repeating the word “Brahman”? Surely it will end only in a wasteful effort
of speech.  
तस्मात्सर्वप्रयत्नेन भवबन्धविमुक्तये।
स्वैरेव यत्नः कर्तव्यो रोगादाविव पण्डितैः॥६६॥
Therefore, an intelligent seeker should exert himself,
by all means available, to release himself from the bondage of this samsara
(cycle of births and deaths) just as one suffering from a disease (who has to
take the medicine himself).
मोक्षस्य कांक्षा यदि वै तवास्ति
त्याजातिदूराद्विषयान्विषं यथा।
पीयूषवत्तोषदयाक्षमार्जव-
प्रशान्तिदान्तीर्भज नित्यमादरात् ॥८२॥
If you desire liberation then you should cast away,
like poison, all sense objects at a distance and embrace such nectarine virtues
as contentment, forgiveness, straightforwardness, calmness and self-control.
मोह एव महामृत्युः मुमुक्षोर्वपुरादिषु।
मोहो विनिर्जितो येन स मुक्तिपदमर्हति ॥८५॥
For the one desiring liberation, infatuation with the
body etc. is verily the great death.  One
who has conquered this attachment deserves the state of liberation.
GROSS BODY
त्वङ्मांसरुधिरस्नायुमेदोमज्जास्थिसंकुलम्।
पूर्णं मूत्रपुरीषाभ्यां स्थूलं निन्द्यमिदं वपुः ॥८७॥
This gross body is disgusting composed as it is of
skin, flesh, blood, nerves, fat, marrow and bones and is filled with urine and
fecal matter
    
पञ्चीकृतेभ्यो भूतेभ्यः स्थूलेभ्यः पूर्वकर्मणा ।
समुत्पन्नमिदं स्थूलं भोगायतनमात्मनः।
अवस्था जागरस्तस्य स्थूलाद्यनुभवो यतः ॥८८॥
The gross body is formed, as a result of past
actions,  out of the gross elements which
themselves are formed of the combinations of the subtle elements.  This gross body is the seat of enjoyment for
the Self.  The state in which it
perceives gross objects is its waking condition.
SUBTLE BODY
वागादि पञ्च श्रवणादि पञ्च
प्राणादि पञ्चाभ्रमुखानि पञ्च।
बुध्याद्यविद्यापि च कामकर्मणी
पुर्यष्टकं सुक्ष्मशरीरमाहुः ॥९६॥
The five organs of action such as speech etc. (2) the
five organs of perception such as ears etc (3) the five vital airs like prana
etc. (4) the five elements starting with space (5) the discriminating intellect
etc. (6) ignorance (avidya), (7) desire and (8) action – these eight
cities together constitute the subtle body.
इदं शरीरं शृणु सूक्ष्मसंज्ञितं
लिङ्गं त्वपञ्चीकृतभूतसंभवम्।
सवासनं  कर्मफलानुभावकं
स्वाज्ञानतोऽनादिरुपाधिरात्मनः ॥९७॥
The subtle body, also known as the lingasharira  is composed of subtle elements. It carries the
vasanas with it and it causes the individual to experience the fruits of
his past actions. It is the beginningless conditioning of the self brought
about by its own ‘ignorance’.     
स्वप्नो भवत्यस्य विभक्त्यवस्था
स्वमात्रशेषेण विभाति यत्र  ।
स्वप्ने तु बुद्धिः स्वयमेव जाग्र-
त्कालीननानाविधवासनाभिः ॥98||
कर्त्रादिभावं प्रतिपद्य राजते
यत्र स्वयं भाति ह्ययं परात्मा।
धीमात्रकोपाधिरशेषसाक्षी
न लिप्यते तत्कृतकर्मलेशैः ।
यस्मादसङ्गस्तत एव कर्मभि-
र्न लिप्यते किञ्चिदुपाधिना कृतैः ॥९९॥
In the dream state the subtle body expresses all by
itself.  In the dream state it is the
intellect which is the seat of experiences which it has gathered in the waking
state. In this condition the Supreme Self shines conditioned only by the
intellect and is the witness of everything. 
It is not contaminated by the activities of the intellect. Since it is
entirely unattached, it is not tainted by any action of the conditioning
adjuncts. 
EGO DISCUSSED
अन्तःकरणमेतेषु चक्षुरादिषु वर्ष्मणि।
अहमित्यभिधानेन तिष्ठत्याभासतेजसा ॥१०३॥
The inner equipment has its seat of expression in the
sense-organs such as the eye etc. Identifying with them, it exists, clothed in
just the the reflection of the Atman.  
अहंकारः स विज्ञेयः कर्त्ता भोक्ताभिमान्ययम्।
सत्त्वादिगुणयोगेन चावस्थात्रयमश्नुते ॥१०४॥
Know that it is the ego which, identifying with the
body, becomes the doer or the experiencer, and in union with the gunas
such as sattwa, this ego assumes the three different states (of waking,
dreaming, and deep sleep).
विषयाणमानुकूल्ये सुखी दुःखी विपर्यये।
सुखं दुःखं च तद्धर्म सदानन्दस्य नात्मनः ॥१०५॥
When the sense objects are favourable, there is
happiness. When they are not favourable, it is miserable. Happiness and misery
are therefore the attributes of the ego and not of the Atman which is ever
blissful.
INFINITE LOVE – THE SELF
आत्मार्थत्वेन हि प्रेयान्विषयो न स्वतः प्रियः।
स्वत एव हि सर्वेषामात्मा प्रियतमो यतः
तत आत्मा सदानन्दो नास्य दुःखं कदाचन ॥१०६॥
Sense objects are pleasurable only because of the Self
which manifests through them, and not independently, for the Self is, by its
very nature, the most beloved of all. 
The Self, therefore, is ever-blissful and can never suffer any grief or
misery.
यत्सुषुप्तौ निर्विषय आत्मानन्दोऽनुभूयते।
श्रुतिः प्रत्यक्षमैतिह्यमनुमानं च जाग्रति॥१०७॥
Scriptural declarations, direct experience, tradition
and inference clearly say that in deep-sleep, we experience the Bliss of the
Atman independent of sense-objects.
MAYA – POINTED OUT
अव्यक्तनाम्नी परमेशशक्ति-
रनाद्यविद्या त्रिगुणात्मिका परा।
कार्यानुमेया सुधियैव माया
यया जगत्सर्वमिदं प्रसूयते ॥१०८॥
Nescience (Avidya), or Maya, is also called the
‘Unmanifest’, and is the power of the Lord. It is without beginning. It
comprises the three Gunas and is superior to their effects. It is to be
inferred only by one who has a clear intellect, from the effects it
produces.  It is this avidya which
projects the entire universe.
सन्नाप्यसन्नाप्युभयात्मिका नो
भिन्नाप्यभिन्नाप्युभयात्मिका नो।
सांगाप्यनंगाप्युभयात्मिका नो
महाद्भुताऽनिर्वचनीयरूपा ॥१०९॥
It (Maya) is neither existent nor non-existent,
nor both; neither same nor different nor both; neither made up of parts nor
whole nor both. Most wonderful it is and beyond description in words.
शुद्धाद्वयब्रह्मविबोधनाश्या
सर्पभ्रमो रज्जुविवेकतो यथा।
रजस्तमःसत्त्वमिति प्रसिद्धा
गुणास्तदीयैः प्रथितैः स्वकार्यैः ॥११०॥
By realization of the pure, non-dual Brahman, Maya can
be destroyed, just as the illusion of the snake is removed by the
discriminative knowledge of the rope. 
Its gunas are Rajas, Tamas and Sattwa, distinguished
by their respective functions.
RAJOGUNA – NATURE AND EFFECTS
विक्षेपशक्ती रजसः क्रियात्मिका
यतः प्रवृत्तिः प्रसृता पुराणी।
रागादयोऽस्याः प्रभवन्ति नित्यं
दुःखादयो ये मनसो विकाराः ॥१११॥
Rajas has projecting power. Activity is its very
nature. From it the initial flow of activity has originated.  From it, mental modifications such as
attachment and grief are also continuously produced. 
कामः क्रोधो लोभदम्भाद्यसूयाऽ
हंकारेर्ष्यामत्सराद्यास्तु घोराः
धर्मा एते राजसाः पुंप्रवृत्ति-
र्यस्मादेषा तद्रजो बन्धहेतुः ॥११२॥
Desire, anger, greed, hypocrisy, jealousy, egoism, envy
etc.  – these are the dreadful attributes
of Rajas, from which the worldly tendencies of man are produced.  Rajas is therefore the cause of
bondage in life.
TAMOGUNA – NATURE AND EFFECTS
एषाऽऽवृतिर्नाम तमोगुणस्य
शक्तिर्यया वस्त्ववभासतेऽन्यथा।
सैषा निदानं पुरुषस्य संसृते-
र्विक्षेपशक्तेः प्रवणस्य हेतुः ॥११३॥  
The veiling power is the power of Tamas, which makes
things appear to be other than what they what they actually are.  It causes man’s repeated transmigration and initiates
the action of the projecting power (vikshepa)
अज्ञानमालस्यजडत्वनिद्रा-
प्रमादमूढत्वमुखास्तमोगुणाः।
एतैः प्रयुक्तो नहि वेत्ति किंचि-
न्निद्रालुवत्स्तंभवदेव तिष्ठति ॥११६॥
Ignorance, laziness, dullness, sleep, inadvertence,
stupidity etc. are the attributes of Tamas.  One tied up with these cannot comprehend
anything but remains like one asleep, or like a stump of wood or a block of
stone
SATTWAGUNA – NATURE AND EFFECTS
सत्त्वं विशुद्धं जलवत्तथापि
ताभ्यां मिलित्वा सरणाय कल्पते।
यत्रात्मबिम्बः प्रतिबिम्बितः सन्
प्रकाशयत्यर्क इवाखिलं जडम् ॥११७॥
Pure Sattwa is like clear water, yet in
combination with Rajas and Tamas it leads to transmigration. But
when the light of the Self gets reflected in sattwa alone, then, like
the Sun, it illumines entire world of matter.
मिश्रस्य सत्त्वस्य भवन्ति धर्मा-
स्त्वमानिताद्या नियमा यमाद्याः।
श्रद्धा च भक्तिश्च मुमुक्षुता च
दैवी च सम्पत्तिरसन्निवृत्तिः ॥११८॥
Predominance of sattwa guna,  mixed with rajas and tamas, is characterized  by absence of pride etc., niyama, yama etc
and also faith, devotion, yearning for liberation, divine tendencies and a
natural turning away from everything unreal.
विशुद्धसत्त्वस्य गुणाः प्रसादः
स्वात्मानुभूतिः परमा प्रशान्तिः।
तृप्तिः प्रहर्षः परमात्मनिष्ठा
यया सदानन्दरसं समृच्छति ॥११९॥
Pure sattwa is characterized by cheerfulness, the
experience of one’s own Self, supreme peace, contentment, bliss and and
constant devotion to the supreme Self, by which the aspirant comes to enjoy
everlasting bliss.
THE CAUSAL BODY – ITS NATURE
अव्यक्तमेतत्त्रिगुणैर्निरुक्तं
तत्कारणं नाम शरीरमात्मनः।
सुषुप्तिरेतस्य विभक्त्यवस्था
प्रलीनसर्वेन्द्रियबुद्धिवृत्तिः॥१२०॥
This ‘Unmanifest’ defined as the combination of the
three gunas, is the causal body of the individual. Its special state is deep-sleep
in which all the functions of the mind intellect and the sense organs are
totally suspended.
सर्वप्रकारप्रमितिप्रशान्ति-
र्बीजात्मनावस्थितिरेव बुद्धेः।
सुषुप्तिरेतस्य किल प्रतीतिः
किंचिन्न वेद्मीति जगत्प्रसिद्धेः॥१२१॥
The mind remains in a subtle seed-like form in
deep-sleep which is the state of complete cessation of all kinds of
perceptions.  Indeed, the universal
experience in this state is “I did not know anything”.
NOT-SELF – DESCRIPTION
देहेन्द्रियप्राणमनोऽहमादयः
सर्वे विकारा विषयाः सुखादयः।
व्योमादिभूतान्यखिलं च विश्व-
मव्यक्तपर्यन्तमिदं ह्यनात्मा ॥१२२॥
The body, the sense
organs, the vital airs, mind and ego etc. and all their modifications, sense
objects and their pleasures etc. the gross elements such as ether etc. the
whole universe up to the Unmanifest- these constitute the not-self (अनात्मा)
माया मायाकार्यं सर्वं महदादिदेहपर्यन्तं।
असदिदमनात्मतत्त्वं विद्धि
त्वं मरुमरीचिकाकल्पम् ॥१२३॥
Everything is due to the
effect of Maya, from Mahat down to the gross body. All these including
Maya  are not-self.  Therefore they are unreal like the waters of
the mirage in a desert.
THE SELF – ITS NATURE
अस्ति कश्चित्स्वयं  नित्यमहंप्रत्ययलम्बनः।
अवस्थात्रयसाक्षी सन्पञ्चकोशविलक्षणः
॥१२५॥
Something there is, which
is the Absolute Entity, the Eternal substratum for the very awareness of the
Ego. It is the witness of the three states, namely waking, dreaming and
deep-sleep states. It is also distinct from the five sheaths (annamaya, pranamaya,
manomaya, vignanamaya and anandamaya koshas) 

यो विजानाति सकलं जाग्रत्स्वप्नसुषुप्तिषु।
बुद्धितद्वृत्तिसद्भावमभावमहमित्ययम् ॥१२६॥
That which knows everything that happens in the
waking, dream and deep-sleep states, that which is aware of the presence or
absence of the mind and its functions, that which is the essence behind the
ego, That is ‘This’
यः पश्यति स्वयं सर्वं  यं न पश्यति कश्चन।
यश्चेतयति बुद्ध्यादि न तद्यं चेतयत्ययम्॥१२७॥
That which sees all but which no one can see; That
which illumines the intellect etc. but which they cannot illumine; That is
‘This’
येन विश्वमिदं व्याप्तं यं न व्याप्नोति किञ्चन।
आभारूपमिदं सर्वं यं भान्तमनुभात्ययम्॥१२८॥  
That by which the universe is pervaded, but which is
not pervaded by anything, which,  when it
shines, the entire universe shines as its reflection, that is ‘This’.
यस्य सन्निधिमात्रेण देहेन्द्रियमनोधियः।
विषयेषु स्वकीयेषु वर्तन्ते प्रेरिता इव ॥१२९॥
That by whose very presence the body and the sense
organs, the mind and the intellect perform their respective functions like a
team of servants prompted by their master!
अहंकारादिदेहान्ता विषयाश्च सुखादयः।
वेद्यन्ते घटवद् येन नित्यबोधस्वरूपिणा॥१३०॥
That, because of which everything – the ego, the body,
the sense objects and their pleasures etc are known as clearly as a pot, is of
the nature of Eternal Knowledge(Awareness).
एषोऽन्तरात्मा पुरुषः पुराणो
निरन्तराखण्डसुखानुभूतिः।
सदैकरूपः प्रतिबोधमात्रो
येनेषिता वागसवश्चरन्ति ॥१३१॥
This (great Truth) is the innermost Self, the ancient Purusha
whose essential nature is the constant experience of infinite Bliss, which is
ever the same. Yet, it constantly gets reflected through different mental
modifications and, commanded by it, the sense organs and the Pranas
perform their functions.
अत्रैव सत्त्वात्मनि धीगुहाया-
मव्याकृताकाश उशत्प्रकाशः।
आकाश उच्चै रविवत्प्रकाशते
स्वतेजसा विश्वमिदं प्रकाशयन् ॥१३२॥
In this very body, in a mind full of sattwa, in the
secret cave of the intellect, in the atmosphere of the Unmanifest, the Atman, of
captivating  glory, shines like the Sun,
high in the sky, illumining this Universe by its very effulgence.  
ज्ञाता मनोऽहंकृतिविक्रियाणां
देहेन्द्रियप्राणकृतक्रियाणाम्।
अयोऽग्निवत्ताननुवर्तमानो
न चेष्टते नो विकरोति किञ्चन॥१३३॥
The knower of the modifications of the mind and the
ego, and the activities of the body, the sense organs and the pranas,
which apparently take their forms like the fire in a ball of iron, is the Self,
which neither acts nor changes in the least.
न जायते नो म्रियते न वर्धते
न क्षीयते नो विकरोति नित्यः।
विलीयमानेऽपि वपुष्यमुष्मि-
न्न लीयते कुम्भ इवाम्बरं स्वयम् ॥१३४॥
Neither it is born nor does it die; neither does it
grow nor does it decay; being eternal it does not undergo any change.  Even when this body is destroyed it does not
cease to exist. It is like the space in the pot that is broken – it is
independent of the pot.
प्रकृतिविकृतिभिन्नः शुद्धबोधस्वभावः
सदसदिदमशेषं भासयन्निर्विशेषः।
विलसति परमात्मा जाग्रदादिष्ववस्था-
स्वहमहमिति साक्षात्साक्षिरूपेण बुद्धेः ॥१३५॥  
Different from Prakruti and its modifications
is the Supreme Self , all of the nature of pure knowledge.  It is Absolute and directly manifests the
entire gross and subtle universe as the very essence behind the steady sense of
egoism. It manifests itself as the Witness of the intellect, the determining
faculty of in man.
Vivekachoodamani meaning
‘The Crest-Jewel of Discrimination’ is one of the greatest texts written by Adi
Sankaracharya, in 581 verses,  as an
introduction to Vedanta.  A careful study
of these verses will be of immense help to the aspirants on the spiritual
path.  Given below  are selected slokas from this work
maintaining the continuity of the narrative. The bare translations (leaving out
the detailed commentary) are based on those of Swami Chinmayananda in ‘Talks on
Sankara’s Vivekachoodamani ‘ published by the Central Chinmaya Mission Trust,
Mumbai.  
GLORY OF SPIRITUAL LIFE
जन्तूनां नरजन्म दुर्लभमतः पुंस्त्वं ततो विप्रता
तस्माद्वैदिकधर्ममार्गपरता विद्वत्त्वमस्मात्परम्।
आत्मानात्मविवेचनं स्वनुभवो ब्रह्मात्मना संस्थितिः
मुक्तिर्नो शतजन्मकोटि सुकृतैः पुण्यैर्विना लभ्यते ॥१॥
For all living beings, a human birth is indeed rare;
much more difficult is  manhood; rarer
than this is a sattwic attitude in life; still rarer is steadfastness on the spiritual
path propounded in the Vedas; more so is a profound knowledge in the scriptures
and the capacity to distinguish between the real and the unreal.  A step above this is the personal experience
of spiritual Glory and a state of being fully established in the consciousness
of the individual Self as the Self in all. Mukti, liberation, cannot be
attained without merits earned in a hundred crores of births.
लब्ध्वा कथंचिन्नरजन्म दुर्लभं
तत्रापि पुंस्त्वं श्रुतिपारदर्शनम्।
यस्त्वात्ममुक्तौ न यतेत मूढधीः
स ह्यात्महा स्वं विनिहन्त्यसद्ग्रहात्॥४॥
Having obtained human
birth which is rare, having attained manhood and acquired a deep knowledge of
the scriptures, if a person is foolish enough not to strive for self-realization,
he commits suicide, holding on to unreal things.    
MEANS OF WISDOM
अतो विमुक्त्यै प्रयतेत विद्वान्
सन्यस्तबाह्यार्थसुखस्पृहःसन्।
सन्तं महान्तं समुपेत्य देशिकं
तेनोपदिष्टार्थसमाहितात्मा ॥८॥
Therefore, the learned seeker should abandon his
desire for pleasures from  external  objects and 
strive to gain liberation (from the cycle of births and deaths).  To this end he must approach a saintly and
generous Master and must lead a life reflecting and contemplating on the words
of advice given by his spiritual guru
उद्धरेदात्मनात्मानं  मग्नं संसारवारिधौ
योगारूढत्वमासाद्य सम्यग्दर्शननिष्ठया ॥९॥
One should lift oneself out of the ocean of this samasara
 by attaining the status of a yogaarooDha
by the constant practice of self-control and discrimination.
चित्तस्य शुद्धये कर्म न तु वस्तूपलब्धये।
वस्तुसिद्धिर्विचारेण न किंचित्कर्मकोटिभिः॥११॥
Selfless action done without expectation of the fruits
thereof purifies the heart but does not lead to Self-realization which is
obtained only by contemplation and discrimination, not by any number of
actions.
सम्यग्विचारतः सिद्धा रज्जुतत्त्वावधारणा।
भ्रान्त्योदितमहासर्पभयदुःखविनाशिनी ॥१२॥
The fear and sorrow arising from the delusory serpent
superimposed on a piece of rope can be destroyed only by fully understanding
the truth of the rope through contemplation and enquiry.
अर्थस्य निश्चयो दृष्टो विचारेण हितोक्तितः।
न स्नानेन न दानेन प्राणायामशतेन वा ॥१३॥
The knowledge about the nature of the Self cannot be
obtained by ablutions, charities or even by hundreds of pranayamas.  It can only be obtained by enquiry,
contemplation and reflection and by listening to the sage advice of men of
wisdom and realization.
THE FOUR QUALIFICATIONS
साधनान्यत्र चत्वारि कथितानि मनीषिभिः।
येषु सत्स्वेव सन्निष्ठा यदभावे न सिध्यति॥१८॥
The wise have spoken about four qualifications the
presence of which in an aspirant will lead to realization and the absence of
which will result in not achieving that goal.
आदौ नित्यानित्यवस्तुविवेकः परिगण्यते।
इहामुत्रफलभोगविरागस्तदनन्तरम्।
शमादिषट्कसम्पत्तिर्मुमुक्षुत्वमिति स्फुटम् ॥१९॥
The ability to discriminate between the Real and the unreal,
absence of any attachment to enjoyment of the fruits of actions herein and
hereafter, the presence of the six qualities like shama and a burning
desire for liberation are the four qualifications mentioned above.
ब्रह्म सत्यं जगन्मिथ्येत्येवंरूपो विनिश्चयः।
सोऽयं नित्यानित्यवस्तुविवेकः समुदाहृतः ॥२o॥
The conviction that Brahman is the only Reality and
the phenomenal world is illusory and unreal is known as discrimination between
the Real and the unreal.
तद्वैराग्यं जिहासा या दर्शनश्रवणादिभिः ।
देहादिब्रह्मपर्यन्तेह्यनित्ये भोगवस्तुनि॥२१॥
The desire to give up all transitory enjoyments gained
through seeing, hearing etc. and also experiences gained through equipments
ranging from a mortal body to the form of Brahma is called vairagyam (detachment).
विरज्य विषयव्राताद्दोषदृष्ट्या मुहुर्मुहुः।
स्वलक्ष्ये नियतावस्था मनसः शम उच्यते ॥२२॥
Sama  is that peaceful state of the mind which is
constantly and unwaveringly engaged in the contemplation of Goal realizing,
again again, the adverse effects of indulging in the pleasures of the senses.
विषयेभ्यः परावर्त्य स्थापनं स्वस्वगोलके।
उभयेषामिन्द्रियाणां स दमः परिकीर्तितः॥
बाह्यानालम्बनं वृत्तेरेषोपरतिरुत्तमा ॥२३॥
Dama (self-control) is the process of
withdrawing the senses, both of knowledge and of action, from their objects of
enjoyment and placing them in their respective centres of activity.  The best Uparati (self withdrawal) is that
condition of the thought waves in which they are free from the influence of external
objects.
सहनं सर्वदुःखानामप्रतीकारपूर्वकम्।
चिन्ताविलापरहितं सा तितिक्षा निगद्यते ॥२४॥
Titiksha is the capacity to endure all
sorrows and sufferings without making any effort to counteract them and without
worrying and lamenting over them.
शास्त्रस्य गुरुवाक्यस्य सत्यबुद्ध्याऽवधारणा।
सा श्रद्धा कथिता सद्भिर्यया वस्तूपलभ्यते ॥२५॥
Mentally acknowledging. without questioning,  the words of the scriptures and of the guru
as Truth is called sraddha by the wise. 
By this alone does Reality become manifest.      
सर्वदा स्थापनं बुद्धेः शुद्धे ब्रह्मणि सर्वथा।
तत्समाधानमित्युक्तं न तु चित्तस्य लालनम् ॥२६॥
Samadhana is that condition when the mind is
constantly engaged in the contemplation of the Supreme Reality. It is not a
condition in which the mind is continuously vacillating.
अहंकारादिदेहान्तान् बन्धानज्ञानकल्पितान्।
स्वस्वरूपावबोधेन मोक्तुमिच्छा मुमुक्षुता ॥२७॥
Mumukshuta is the burning
desire to free oneself from all bondages, 
beginning with egoism and ending with the physical body; bondages
created as a result of ignorance of the true nature of the Self.   
BHAKTI – FIRM AND DEEP
मोक्षकारणसामग्र्यां भक्तिरेव गरीयसी।
स्वस्वरूपानुसन्धानं भक्तिरित्यभिधीयते ॥३१॥
Among the instruments for attaining liberation bhakti
alone carries more weight.  Constant
contemplation on the one’s own Real (Divine) Nature is called bhakti or
devotion.
LOVING ADVICE OF THE GURU
वेदान्तार्थविचारेण जायते ज्ञानमुत्तमम्।
तेनात्यन्तिकसंसारदुःखनाशो भवत्यनु॥४५॥
The highest knowledge arises from the contemplation
and reflection upon the meaning of the Upanishadic mantras. From this one gets
release from the sorrows and sufferings of the illusory phenomenal world.
श्रद्धाभक्तिध्यानयोगान्मुमुक्षॊः
मुक्तेर्हेतून्वक्ति साक्षाच्छ्रुतेर्गीः।
यो वा एतेष्वेव तिष्ठत्यमुष्य
मोक्षोऽविद्याकल्पिताद्देहबन्धात् ॥४६॥
Shruti herself says that shraddha, bhakti
and dhyanayoga (faith, devotion and the practice of meditation) are the
means by which liberation can be attained. 
Whosoever pursues this path is liberated from the bondages of the body
created as a result of ignorance of the real nature of the Self
अज्ञानयोगात्परमात्मनस्तव
ह्यनात्मबन्धस्तत एव संसृतिः।
तयोर्विवेकोदितबोधवह्नि-
रज्ञानकार्यं प्रदहेत्समूलम् ॥४७॥
It is only because of ignorance that you, who are the
supreme self, have the experience of bondage to the not-self.  This bondage, created by ignorance,  will be rooted out by the fire of knowledge
which arises from discrimination between the self and the not-self.        

 
KNOWLEDGE OF THE SELF – ITS BEAUTY
न योगेन न सांख्येन कर्मणा नो न विद्यया।
ब्रह्मात्मैकत्वबोधेन मोक्षः सिध्यति नान्यथा ॥५६॥
Liberation can be attained only by the realization of
the identity of the Self with the Brahman, not by any other means such as yoga,
samkhya, karma (action) or vidya (learning)
    
वाग्वैखरी शब्दझरी शास्त्रव्याख्यानकौशलम्।
विदुषामिह वैदुष्यं भुक्तये न तु मुक्तये ॥५८॥
अविज्ञाते परे तत्त्वे शास्त्राधीतिस्तु निष्फला। Loud speech, a torrent of words, skill in interpreting
the scriptures- these are useful only as means to material enjoyment; they will
not lead to liberation.  
अविज्ञातेऽपि परे तत्त्वे शास्त्राधीतिस्तु निष्फला ।
विज्ञातेऽपि परे तत्त्वे शास्त्राधीतिस्तु निष्फला ॥५९॥
Without knowing the Supreme Reality, the study of the sastras
is futile.  Having known the Supreme
Reality, the study of the sastras is again futile.
अज्ञानसर्पदष्टस्य ब्रह्मज्ञानौषधं विना।
किमु वेदैश्च शास्त्रैश्च किमु मन्त्रैः किमौषधैः ॥६१॥
What is the use of Vedas, sastras, mantras
and medicines for one who has been bitten by the snake of ignorance.  Only Knowledge of the Brahman will
save him.
DIRECT EXPERIENCE:
LIBERATION
अकृत्वा दृश्यविलयमज्ञात्वा तत्त्वमात्मनः।
ब्रह्मशब्दैः कुतो मुक्तिरुक्तिमात्रफलैर्नृणाम् ॥६३॥
Without achieving the disappearance of the entire
pluralistic world and without realising the Real Nature of the Self what is the
use of repeating the word “Brahman”? Surely it will end only in a wasteful effort
of speech.  
तस्मात्सर्वप्रयत्नेन भवबन्धविमुक्तये।
स्वैरेव यत्नः कर्तव्यो रोगादाविव पण्डितैः॥६६॥
Therefore, an intelligent seeker should exert himself,
by all means available, to release himself from the bondage of this samsara
(cycle of births and deaths) just as one suffering from a disease (who has to
take the medicine himself).
मोक्षस्य कांक्षा यदि वै तवास्ति
त्याजातिदूराद्विषयान्विषं यथा।
पीयूषवत्तोषदयाक्षमार्जव-
प्रशान्तिदान्तीर्भज नित्यमादरात् ॥८२॥
If you desire liberation then you should cast away,
like poison, all sense objects at a distance and embrace such nectarine virtues
as contentment, forgiveness, straightforwardness, calmness and self-control.
मोह एव महामृत्युः मुमुक्षोर्वपुरादिषु।
मोहो विनिर्जितो येन स मुक्तिपदमर्हति ॥८५॥
For the one desiring liberation, infatuation with the
body etc. is verily the great death.  One
who has conquered this attachment deserves the state of liberation.
GROSS BODY
त्वङ्मांसरुधिरस्नायुमेदोमज्जास्थिसंकुलम्।
पूर्णं मूत्रपुरीषाभ्यां स्थूलं निन्द्यमिदं वपुः ॥८७॥
This gross body is disgusting composed as it is of
skin, flesh, blood, nerves, fat, marrow and bones and is filled with urine and
fecal matter
    
पञ्चीकृतेभ्यो भूतेभ्यः स्थूलेभ्यः पूर्वकर्मणा ।
समुत्पन्नमिदं स्थूलं भोगायतनमात्मनः।
अवस्था जागरस्तस्य स्थूलाद्यनुभवो यतः ॥८८॥
The gross body is formed, as a result of past
actions,  out of the gross elements which
themselves are formed of the combinations of the subtle elements.  This gross body is the seat of enjoyment for
the Self.  The state in which it
perceives gross objects is its waking condition.
SUBTLE BODY
वागादि पञ्च श्रवणादि पञ्च
प्राणादि पञ्चाभ्रमुखानि पञ्च।
बुध्याद्यविद्यापि च कामकर्मणी
पुर्यष्टकं सुक्ष्मशरीरमाहुः ॥९६॥
The five organs of action such as speech etc. (2) the
five organs of perception such as ears etc (3) the five vital airs like prana
etc. (4) the five elements starting with space (5) the discriminating intellect
etc. (6) ignorance (avidya), (7) desire and (8) action – these eight
cities together constitute the subtle body.
इदं शरीरं शृणु सूक्ष्मसंज्ञितं
लिङ्गं त्वपञ्चीकृतभूतसंभवम्।
सवासनं  कर्मफलानुभावकं
स्वाज्ञानतोऽनादिरुपाधिरात्मनः ॥९७॥
The subtle body, also known as the lingasharira  is composed of subtle elements. It carries the
vasanas with it and it causes the individual to experience the fruits of
his past actions. It is the beginningless conditioning of the self brought
about by its own ‘ignorance’.     
स्वप्नो भवत्यस्य विभक्त्यवस्था
स्वमात्रशेषेण विभाति यत्र  ।
स्वप्ने तु बुद्धिः स्वयमेव जाग्र-
त्कालीननानाविधवासनाभिः ॥98||
कर्त्रादिभावं प्रतिपद्य राजते
यत्र स्वयं भाति ह्ययं परात्मा।
धीमात्रकोपाधिरशेषसाक्षी
न लिप्यते तत्कृतकर्मलेशैः ।
यस्मादसङ्गस्तत एव कर्मभि-
र्न लिप्यते किञ्चिदुपाधिना कृतैः ॥९९॥
In the dream state the subtle body expresses all by
itself.  In the dream state it is the
intellect which is the seat of experiences which it has gathered in the waking
state. In this condition the Supreme Self shines conditioned only by the
intellect and is the witness of everything. 
It is not contaminated by the activities of the intellect. Since it is
entirely unattached, it is not tainted by any action of the conditioning
adjuncts. 
EGO DISCUSSED
अन्तःकरणमेतेषु चक्षुरादिषु वर्ष्मणि।
अहमित्यभिधानेन तिष्ठत्याभासतेजसा ॥१०३॥
The inner equipment has its seat of expression in the
sense-organs such as the eye etc. Identifying with them, it exists, clothed in
just the the reflection of the Atman.  
अहंकारः स विज्ञेयः कर्त्ता भोक्ताभिमान्ययम्।
सत्त्वादिगुणयोगेन चावस्थात्रयमश्नुते ॥१०४॥
Know that it is the ego which, identifying with the
body, becomes the doer or the experiencer, and in union with the gunas
such as sattwa, this ego assumes the three different states (of waking,
dreaming, and deep sleep).
विषयाणमानुकूल्ये सुखी दुःखी विपर्यये।
सुखं दुःखं च तद्धर्म सदानन्दस्य नात्मनः ॥१०५॥
When the sense objects are favourable, there is
happiness. When they are not favourable, it is miserable. Happiness and misery
are therefore the attributes of the ego and not of the Atman which is ever
blissful.
INFINITE LOVE – THE SELF
आत्मार्थत्वेन हि प्रेयान्विषयो न स्वतः प्रियः।
स्वत एव हि सर्वेषामात्मा प्रियतमो यतः
तत आत्मा सदानन्दो नास्य दुःखं कदाचन ॥१०६॥
Sense objects are pleasurable only because of the Self
which manifests through them, and not independently, for the Self is, by its
very nature, the most beloved of all. 
The Self, therefore, is ever-blissful and can never suffer any grief or
misery.
यत्सुषुप्तौ निर्विषय आत्मानन्दोऽनुभूयते।
श्रुतिः प्रत्यक्षमैतिह्यमनुमानं च जाग्रति॥१०७॥
Scriptural declarations, direct experience, tradition
and inference clearly say that in deep-sleep, we experience the Bliss of the
Atman independent of sense-objects.
MAYA – POINTED OUT
अव्यक्तनाम्नी परमेशशक्ति-
रनाद्यविद्या त्रिगुणात्मिका परा।
कार्यानुमेया सुधियैव माया
यया जगत्सर्वमिदं प्रसूयते ॥१०८॥
Nescience (Avidya), or Maya, is also called the
‘Unmanifest’, and is the power of the Lord. It is without beginning. It
comprises the three Gunas and is superior to their effects. It is to be
inferred only by one who has a clear intellect, from the effects it
produces.  It is this avidya which
projects the entire universe.
सन्नाप्यसन्नाप्युभयात्मिका नो
भिन्नाप्यभिन्नाप्युभयात्मिका नो।
सांगाप्यनंगाप्युभयात्मिका नो
महाद्भुताऽनिर्वचनीयरूपा ॥१०९॥
It (Maya) is neither existent nor non-existent,
nor both; neither same nor different nor both; neither made up of parts nor
whole nor both. Most wonderful it is and beyond description in words.
शुद्धाद्वयब्रह्मविबोधनाश्या
सर्पभ्रमो रज्जुविवेकतो यथा।
रजस्तमःसत्त्वमिति प्रसिद्धा
गुणास्तदीयैः प्रथितैः स्वकार्यैः ॥११०॥
By realization of the pure, non-dual Brahman, Maya can
be destroyed, just as the illusion of the snake is removed by the
discriminative knowledge of the rope. 
Its gunas are Rajas, Tamas and Sattwa, distinguished
by their respective functions.
RAJOGUNA – NATURE AND EFFECTS
विक्षेपशक्ती रजसः क्रियात्मिका
यतः प्रवृत्तिः प्रसृता पुराणी।
रागादयोऽस्याः प्रभवन्ति नित्यं
दुःखादयो ये मनसो विकाराः ॥१११॥
Rajas has projecting power. Activity is its very
nature. From it the initial flow of activity has originated.  From it, mental modifications such as
attachment and grief are also continuously produced. 
कामः क्रोधो लोभदम्भाद्यसूयाऽ
हंकारेर्ष्यामत्सराद्यास्तु घोराः
धर्मा एते राजसाः पुंप्रवृत्ति-
र्यस्मादेषा तद्रजो बन्धहेतुः ॥११२॥
Desire, anger, greed, hypocrisy, jealousy, egoism, envy
etc.  – these are the dreadful attributes
of Rajas, from which the worldly tendencies of man are produced.  Rajas is therefore the cause of
bondage in life.
TAMOGUNA – NATURE AND EFFECTS
एषाऽऽवृतिर्नाम तमोगुणस्य
शक्तिर्यया वस्त्ववभासतेऽन्यथा।
सैषा निदानं पुरुषस्य संसृते-
र्विक्षेपशक्तेः प्रवणस्य हेतुः ॥११३॥  
The veiling power is the power of Tamas, which makes
things appear to be other than what they what they actually are.  It causes man’s repeated transmigration and initiates
the action of the projecting power (vikshepa)
अज्ञानमालस्यजडत्वनिद्रा-
प्रमादमूढत्वमुखास्तमोगुणाः।
एतैः प्रयुक्तो नहि वेत्ति किंचि-
न्निद्रालुवत्स्तंभवदेव तिष्ठति ॥११६॥
Ignorance, laziness, dullness, sleep, inadvertence,
stupidity etc. are the attributes of Tamas.  One tied up with these cannot comprehend
anything but remains like one asleep, or like a stump of wood or a block of
stone
SATTWAGUNA – NATURE AND EFFECTS
सत्त्वं विशुद्धं जलवत्तथापि
ताभ्यां मिलित्वा सरणाय कल्पते।
यत्रात्मबिम्बः प्रतिबिम्बितः सन्
प्रकाशयत्यर्क इवाखिलं जडम् ॥११७॥
Pure Sattwa is like clear water, yet in
combination with Rajas and Tamas it leads to transmigration. But
when the light of the Self gets reflected in sattwa alone, then, like
the Sun, it illumines entire world of matter.
मिश्रस्य सत्त्वस्य भवन्ति धर्मा-
स्त्वमानिताद्या नियमा यमाद्याः।
श्रद्धा च भक्तिश्च मुमुक्षुता च
दैवी च सम्पत्तिरसन्निवृत्तिः ॥११८॥
Predominance of sattwa guna,  mixed with rajas and tamas, is characterized  by absence of pride etc., niyama, yama etc
and also faith, devotion, yearning for liberation, divine tendencies and a
natural turning away from everything unreal.
विशुद्धसत्त्वस्य गुणाः प्रसादः
स्वात्मानुभूतिः परमा प्रशान्तिः।
तृप्तिः प्रहर्षः परमात्मनिष्ठा
यया सदानन्दरसं समृच्छति ॥११९॥
Pure sattwa is characterized by cheerfulness, the
experience of one’s own Self, supreme peace, contentment, bliss and and
constant devotion to the supreme Self, by which the aspirant comes to enjoy
everlasting bliss.
THE CAUSAL BODY – ITS NATURE
अव्यक्तमेतत्त्रिगुणैर्निरुक्तं
तत्कारणं नाम शरीरमात्मनः।
सुषुप्तिरेतस्य विभक्त्यवस्था
प्रलीनसर्वेन्द्रियबुद्धिवृत्तिः॥१२०॥
This ‘Unmanifest’ defined as the combination of the
three gunas, is the causal body of the individual. Its special state is deep-sleep
in which all the functions of the mind intellect and the sense organs are
totally suspended.
सर्वप्रकारप्रमितिप्रशान्ति-
र्बीजात्मनावस्थितिरेव बुद्धेः।
सुषुप्तिरेतस्य किल प्रतीतिः
किंचिन्न वेद्मीति जगत्प्रसिद्धेः॥१२१॥
The mind remains in a subtle seed-like form in
deep-sleep which is the state of complete cessation of all kinds of
perceptions.  Indeed, the universal
experience in this state is “I did not know anything”.
NOT-SELF – DESCRIPTION
देहेन्द्रियप्राणमनोऽहमादयः
सर्वे विकारा विषयाः सुखादयः।
व्योमादिभूतान्यखिलं च विश्व-
मव्यक्तपर्यन्तमिदं ह्यनात्मा ॥१२२॥
The body, the sense
organs, the vital airs, mind and ego etc. and all their modifications, sense
objects and their pleasures etc. the gross elements such as ether etc. the
whole universe up to the Unmanifest- these constitute the not-self (अनात्मा)
माया मायाकार्यं सर्वं महदादिदेहपर्यन्तं।
असदिदमनात्मतत्त्वं विद्धि
त्वं मरुमरीचिकाकल्पम् ॥१२३॥
Everything is due to the
effect of Maya, from Mahat down to the gross body. All these including
Maya  are not-self.  Therefore they are unreal like the waters of
the mirage in a desert.
THE SELF – ITS NATURE
अस्ति कश्चित्स्वयं  नित्यमहंप्रत्ययलम्बनः।
अवस्थात्रयसाक्षी सन्पञ्चकोशविलक्षणः
॥१२५॥
Something there is, which
is the Absolute Entity, the Eternal substratum for the very awareness of the
Ego. It is the witness of the three states, namely waking, dreaming and
deep-sleep states. It is also distinct from the five sheaths (annamaya, pranamaya,
manomaya, vignanamaya and anandamaya koshas) 

यो विजानाति सकलं जाग्रत्स्वप्नसुषुप्तिषु।
बुद्धितद्वृत्तिसद्भावमभावमहमित्ययम् ॥१२६॥
That which knows everything that happens in the
waking, dream and deep-sleep states, that which is aware of the presence or
absence of the mind and its functions, that which is the essence behind the
ego, That is ‘This’
यः पश्यति स्वयं सर्वं  यं न पश्यति कश्चन।
यश्चेतयति बुद्ध्यादि न तद्यं चेतयत्ययम्॥१२७॥
That which sees all but which no one can see; That
which illumines the intellect etc. but which they cannot illumine; That is
‘This’
येन विश्वमिदं व्याप्तं यं न व्याप्नोति किञ्चन।
आभारूपमिदं सर्वं यं भान्तमनुभात्ययम्॥१२८॥  
That by which the universe is pervaded, but which is
not pervaded by anything, which,  when it
shines, the entire universe shines as its reflection, that is ‘This’.
यस्य सन्निधिमात्रेण देहेन्द्रियमनोधियः।
विषयेषु स्वकीयेषु वर्तन्ते प्रेरिता इव ॥१२९॥
That by whose very presence the body and the sense
organs, the mind and the intellect perform their respective functions like a
team of servants prompted by their master!
अहंकारादिदेहान्ता विषयाश्च सुखादयः।
वेद्यन्ते घटवद् येन नित्यबोधस्वरूपिणा॥१३०॥
That, because of which everything – the ego, the body,
the sense objects and their pleasures etc are known as clearly as a pot, is of
the nature of Eternal Knowledge(Awareness).
एषोऽन्तरात्मा पुरुषः पुराणो
निरन्तराखण्डसुखानुभूतिः।
सदैकरूपः प्रतिबोधमात्रो
येनेषिता वागसवश्चरन्ति ॥१३१॥
This (great Truth) is the innermost Self, the ancient Purusha
whose essential nature is the constant experience of infinite Bliss, which is
ever the same. Yet, it constantly gets reflected through different mental
modifications and, commanded by it, the sense organs and the Pranas
perform their functions.
अत्रैव सत्त्वात्मनि धीगुहाया-
मव्याकृताकाश उशत्प्रकाशः।
आकाश उच्चै रविवत्प्रकाशते
स्वतेजसा विश्वमिदं प्रकाशयन् ॥१३२॥
In this very body, in a mind full of sattwa, in the
secret cave of the intellect, in the atmosphere of the Unmanifest, the Atman, of
captivating  glory, shines like the Sun,
high in the sky, illumining this Universe by its very effulgence.  
ज्ञाता मनोऽहंकृतिविक्रियाणां
देहेन्द्रियप्राणकृतक्रियाणाम्।
अयोऽग्निवत्ताननुवर्तमानो
न चेष्टते नो विकरोति किञ्चन॥१३३॥
The knower of the modifications of the mind and the
ego, and the activities of the body, the sense organs and the pranas,
which apparently take their forms like the fire in a ball of iron, is the Self,
which neither acts nor changes in the least.
न जायते नो म्रियते न वर्धते
न क्षीयते नो विकरोति नित्यः।
विलीयमानेऽपि वपुष्यमुष्मि-
न्न लीयते कुम्भ इवाम्बरं स्वयम् ॥१३४॥
Neither it is born nor does it die; neither does it
grow nor does it decay; being eternal it does not undergo any change.  Even when this body is destroyed it does not
cease to exist. It is like the space in the pot that is broken – it is
independent of the pot.
प्रकृतिविकृतिभिन्नः शुद्धबोधस्वभावः
सदसदिदमशेषं भासयन्निर्विशेषः।
विलसति परमात्मा जाग्रदादिष्ववस्था-
स्वहमहमिति साक्षात्साक्षिरूपेण बुद्धेः ॥१३५॥  
Different from Prakruti and its modifications
is the Supreme Self , all of the nature of pure knowledge.  It is Absolute and directly manifests the
entire gross and subtle universe as the very essence behind the steady sense of
egoism. It manifests itself as the Witness of the intellect, the determining
faculty of in man.


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