PEARLS FROM VIVEKACHOODAMANI -II

PEARLS FROM
VIVEKACHOODAMANI -II


Vivekachoodamani meaning ‘The Crest-Jewel of
Discrimination’ is one of the greatest texts written by Adi Sankaracharya, in
581 verses,  as an introduction to
Vedanta.  A careful study of these verses
will be of immense help to the aspirants on the spiritual path.  Given below 
are selected slokas from this work maintaining the continuity of the
narrative. The bare translations (leaving out the detailed commentary) are
based on those of Swami Chinmayananda in ‘Talks on Sankara’s Vivekachoodamani ‘
published by the Central Chinmaya Mission Trust, Mumbai. 
ADVICE FOR SELF-CONTROL
नियमितमनसामुं त्वं स्वमात्मानमात्म-
न्ययमहमिति साक्षाद्विद्धिबुद्धिप्रसादात्।
जनिमरणतरंगापारसंसार सिन्धुं
प्रतर भव कृतार्थो ब्रह्मरूपेण संस्थः॥१३६॥
With a regulated mind and a purified intellect, realize
your own self while in this body. Identify yourself with it and cross the shore-less
ocean of samsar whose waves are births and deaths.  Become blessed by getting firmly established
in Brahman which is your own essence.
WHAT IS BONDAGE?
अत्रानात्मन्यहमिति मतिर्बंन्ध एषोऽस्य पुंसः
प्राप्तोऽज्ञानाज्जननमरणक्लेशसंपातहेतुः।
येनैवायं वपुरिदमसत्सत्यमित्यात्मबुद्ध्या
पुष्यत्युक्षत्यवति विषयैस्तन्तुभिः कोशकृद्वत्॥१३७॥
Due to ignorance man identifies the Self with the
not-self.  This is the bondage of man and
brings, in its wake, the miseries of birth and death.
Through this, he considers his perishable body as
real.  He identifies himself with it and
nourishes, bathes and preserves it with the help of sense-objects.  Thereby, he becomes bound like the silk-worm
in its cocoon woven by its own threads.
अतस्मिंस्तद्बुद्धिः प्रभवति विमूढस्य तमसा
विवेकाभावाद्वै स्फुरति भुजगे रज्जुधिषणा।
ततोऽनर्थव्रातो निपतति समादातुरधिक-
स्ततोयोऽसद्ग्राहः स हि भवति बन्धः शृणु सखे ॥१३८॥
When one is overcome by ignorance one mistakes a thing
for what it is not.  In the absence of
discrimination, the snake is mistaken for a rope, and great danger befalls him
who seizes it through this false notion. So listen, my friend, it is mistaking
the not-Self for the Self (the unreal for the Real)
that creates bondage.
अखण्डनित्याद्वयबोधशक्त्या
स्फुरन्तमात्मानमनन्तवैभवम्।
समावृणोत्यावृतिशक्तिरेषा
तमोमयी राहुरिवार्कबिम्बम् ॥१३९॥
Avriti (the veiling power) is of the nature of Tamas (ignorance);
it covers,  just as Rahu covers the sun
during a solar eclipse, the Self whose glories are infinite, which is
indivisible, Eternal and one without a second.
तिरोभूते स्वात्मन्यमलतरतेजोवति पुमा-
ननात्मानं मोहादहमिति शरीरं कलयति।
ततः कामक्रोधप्रभृतिभिरमुं बन्धनगुणैः
परं विक्षेपाख्या रजस उरुशक्तिर्व्यथयति॥१४०॥
When a man’s own Self of purest splendour is hidden
from his direct experience, that man, due to ignorance, comes to falsely
identify himself with his body which is the not-self.  Then the merciless persecution of Rajas
(projecting power) binds him down with fetters
of lust, anger etc.
एताभ्यामेव शक्तिभ्यां बन्धः पुंसः समागतः।
याभ्यां विमोहितो देहं मत्वाऽऽत्मानं भ्रमत्ययम् ॥१४४॥
Man’s bondage has sprung forth from these two
‘powers’. Deluded by them he mistakes his body for the Self and wanders from
life to life. 
BONDAGE IN ACTION
बीजं संसृतिभूमिजस्य तु तमो देहात्मधीरङ्कुरो
रागः पल्लवमम्बुकर्म तु वपुः स्कन्धोऽसवः शाखिकाः।
अग्राणीन्द्रियसंहतिश्च विषयाः पुष्पाणि दुःखं फलं
नानाकर्मसमुद्भवं बहुविधं भोक्ताऽत्र जीवः खगः ॥१४५॥
Ignorance is the seed for the tree of samsar,
identifying with the body is the sprout, desires are tender leaves, work is
water, the body is the trunk, the pranas  are the branches, the sense-organs are twigs,
sense-objects are flowers, different miseries born out of the varieties of
actions are the fruits, and the individual jeeva is the bird which
enjoys the fruits perching upon it.
अज्ञानमूलोऽयमनात्मबन्धो
नैसर्गिकोऽनादिरनन्त ईरितः।
जन्माप्ययव्याधिजरादिदुःख-
प्रवाहपातं जनयत्यमुष्य ॥१४॥
This bondage caused by the not-self springs from
ignorance and is self-caused.  It is
described as without beginning and without end. 
It subjects one to the endless flood of miseries  – birth, death, disease and senility.
ATMAN AND ANATMAN – DISCRIMINATION
नास्त्रैर्न शस्त्रैरनिलेन वह्निना
छेत्तुं न शक्यो न च कर्मकोटिभिः।
विवेकविज्ञानमहासिना बिना
धातुः प्रसादेन सितेन मञ्जुना ॥१४७॥
Neither by weapons, nor by wind, nor by fire, nor by
millions of actions can this bondage be destroyed . By nothing save the wonder
sword of Knowledge which comes from discrimination and is sharpened by the
purification of the mind and the intellect, can we end this bondage.
श्रुतिप्रमाणैकमतेः स्वधर्म-
निष्ठा तयैवात्मविशुद्धिरस्य।
विशुद्धबुद्धेः परमात्मवेदनं
तेनैव संसारसमूलनाशः ॥१४८॥
He who has deep devotion to the Srutis and who is
established in his swadharma  –
for these alone contribute to the purity of his mind – and is of pure mind realizes
the supreme Self.  By this knowledge
alone is samsar destroyed, root and branch.
कोशैरन्नमयाद्यैः पञ्चभिरात्मा न संवृतो भाति।
निजशक्तिसमुत्पन्नैः शैवालपटलैरिवाम्बु वापीस्थम् ॥१४९॥
Covered by the five sheaths, such as the food-sheath,
which are produced by its own Dvine Power, the Self ceases to appear, just as
the water in a tank ceases to appear due to the collection of moss, which is
born out of itself (water).
तच्छैवालापनये सम्यक् सलिलं प्रतीयते शुद्धम्।
तृष्णासन्तापहरं सद्यः सौख्यप्रदं परं पुंसः ॥१५०॥
When the moss is removed, absolutely pure water which
can quench the pangs of thirst and give immediate joy, becomes visible.
पञ्चानामपि कोशानामपवादे विभात्ययं शुद्धः।
नित्यानन्दैकरसः प्रत्यग्रूपः परः स्वयंज्योति: ॥१५१॥
When all the sheaths have been negated, the self is
apprehended as being the essence of everlasting Bliss, as the indwelling,
self-effulgent Spirit Supreme. 
NEGATION OF THE FIVE SHEATHS(KOSAS)
Annamaya Kosa (Food-sheath)
देहोऽयमन्नभवनोऽन्नमयस्तुकोश-
श्चान्नेन जीवति विनश्यति तद्विहीनः।
त्वक्चर्ममांसरुधिरास्थिपुरीषराशि-
र्नायं स्वयं भवितुमर्हति नित्यशुद्धः ॥१५४॥
The body is a product of food. It constitutes the
food-sheath, it exists because of food 
and dies without it.  It is a
bundle of skin, flesh, blood, bones and filth. Never can it be the
Self-existing, the eternally pure Atman.
पाणिपादादिमान्देहो नात्मा व्यङ्गोऽपि जीवनात्।
तत्तच्छक्तेरनाशाच्च न नियम्यो नियामकः ॥१५६॥
The body which is made of arms, legs etc. cannot be
the Atman, for even if these organs are amputated or removed, it continues to
function efficiently.  It is thus subject
to the rule of another and cannot be the Atman, the Ruler of all.
देहतद्धर्मतत्कर्मतदवस्थादिसाक्षिणः।
सत एव स्वतःसिद्धं तद्वैलक्षण्यमात्मनः ॥१५७॥
It is self-evident that the Atman is the enduring
Reality, that it is different from the body and its characteristics, its states
and activities, that it is a witness of them all.
देहोऽहमित्येव जडस्य बुद्धि-
र्देहे च जीवे विदुषस्त्वहंधीः।
विवेकविज्ञानवतो महात्मनो
ब्रह्माहमित्येव मतिः सदात्मनि॥१६०॥
‘I am the body’ – thus thinks a foolish man.  A man of mere book knowledge considers
himself to be a combination of the body and the jeeva.
But the realized sage, because of his discrimination,
knows that ‘I am Brahman’, and looks upon the Eternal Atman as his Self.
देहात्मधीरेव नृणामसद्धियां
जन्मादिदुःखप्रभवस्य बीजम्।
यतस्ततस्त्वं जहि तां प्रयत्ना-
त्त्यक्ते तु चित्ते न पुनर्भवाशा ॥१६४॥
For those who are attached to the unreal,
identification with the body is the seed from which the misery of births etc.
stems forth.  Therefore, put in all your
efforts to destroy it.  There can be no
chance of rebirth if this identification caused by the mind is renounced.
Pranamaya Kosa (Vital-air-sheath)
कर्मेन्द्रियैः पञ्चभिरञ्चितोऽयं
प्राणो भवेत्प्राणमयस्तु कोशः।
येनात्मवानन्नमयोऽनुपूर्णः
प्रवर्ततेऽसौ सकलक्रियासु ॥१६५॥
The prana  alone with the organs of action constitutes
the vital-air-sheath, pervaded by which the food-sheath (physical body)
performs all its activities as though it were living.
नैवात्मापि प्रानमयो वायुविकारो
गन्ताऽऽगन्ता वायुवदन्तर्बहिरेषः।
यस्मात्किञ्चित्क्वापि न वेत्तीष्टमनिष्टं
स्वं वान्यं वा किञ्चन नित्यं परतन्त्रः ॥१६६॥
The vital-air-sheath cannot be the Self because it is
a modification of air(vayu).  Like air it
enters the body and goes out of it, never knowing its joys or sorrows or those
of others. It is ever dependent upon the Self.
Manomaya Kosa (Mental sheath)
ज्ञानेन्द्रियाणि मनश्च मनोमयः स्यात्
कोशो ममाहमिति वस्तुविकल्पहेतुः।
संज्ञादिभेदकलनाकलितो बलीयां-
स्तत्पूर्वकोशमभिपूर्य विजृम्भते यः ॥१६७॥
The organs of perception along with the mind form the mental-sheath
which is the sole cause for the “I” and “mine” diversity of things. It has the essential
faculty of creating differences of names etc. and it is powerful.  It pervades the sheath preceding it – the
vital-air-sheath.
पञ्चेन्द्रियैः पञ्चभिरेव होतृभिः
प्रचीयमानो विषयाज्यधारया।
जाज्वल्यमानो बहुवासनेन्धनै-
र्मनोमयाग्निर्वहति प्रपञ्चम् ॥१६८॥
The five sense organs act as priests who feed the fuel
of numerous desires into the mental sheath which is the sacrificial fire.  This fire (mental sheath)
brings about and maintains the entire phenomenal world
when it is set ablaze by the sense-objects which act as a continuous stream of
oblations.
न ह्यस्त्यविद्या मनसोऽतिरिक्ता
मनो ह्यविद्या भवबन्धहेतुः।
तस्मिन्विनष्टे सकलं विनष्टं
विजृंभितेऽस्मिन्सकलं विजृम्भते ॥१६९॥
Apart from the mind there is no ignorance (avidya).
The mind itself is the ignorance which is the cause for the bondage of
rebirth.  When the mind is destroyed,
everything is destroyed.  When the mind
manifests, everything else manifests.
स्वप्नेऽर्थशून्ये सृजति स्वशक्त्या
भोक्त्रादिविश्वं मन एव सर्वम्।
तथैव जाग्रत्यपि नो विशेष-
स्तत्सर्वमेतन्मनसो विजृम्भणम्॥१७०॥
In the dream state, even though there is no contact
with the outside world, the mind alone projects the entire dream-universe of enjoyer
etc. Similarly, the waking state is no different.  All this (world of pluralistic phenomena)
Is but a projection of the mind.
सुषुप्तिकाले मनसि प्रलीने
नैवास्ति किञ्चित्सकलप्रसिद्धेः।
अतो मनः कल्पित एव पुंसः
संसार एतस्य न वस्तुतोऽस्ति ॥१७१॥
In deep-sleep, the mind is reduced to its causal state
and nothing perceivable exists as is proved by the universal experience of all
people.  Therefore, man’s world of change
is just the creation of his own mind and has no objective Reality.
देहादिसर्वविषये परिकल्प्य रागं
बध्नाति तेन पुरुषं पशुवद्गुणेन।
वैरस्यमत्र विषवत्सुविधाय पश्चा-
देनं विमोचयति तन्मन एव बन्धात्॥१७३॥
The mind causes man’s attachment for the body and the
sense-organs.  These attachments bind him
like an animal that is bound by ropes. Thereafter, the same mind creates a
distaste for the very same sense objects as though they were poison and
liberates man from his bondage.
विवेकवैराग्यगुणातिरेका-
च्छुद्धत्वमासाद्य मनो विमुक्त्यै।
भवत्यतो बिद्धिमतो मुमुक्षो-
स्ताभ्यां दृढाभ्यां भवितव्यमग्रे ॥१७५॥
Where the mind hs been made pure due to a predominance
of discrimination and dispassion, it turns towards liberation.  These two must be strengthened by one who is
an intelligent seeker of liberation.
मनः प्रसूते विषयानशेषान्
स्थूलात्मना सूक्ष्मतया च भोक्तुः।
शरीरवर्णाश्रमजातिभेदान्
गुणक्रियाहेतुफलानि नित्यम् ॥१७७॥
The mind continuously delivers for the experiencer,
(1) all sense-objects, gross or subtle, without exception, (2) distinctions
based upon body, cast, order-of-life and creed 
as well as (3) the difference of qualities, actions, motives and
results.
असंगचिद्रूपममुं विमोह्य
देहेन्द्रियप्राणगुणैर्निबद्ध्य।
अहंममेति भ्रमयत्यजस्रं
मनः स्वकृत्येषु फलोपभुक्तिषु॥१७८॥
Unattached Pure Intelligence is the essence of the
jeeva, but the mind beguiles it and binds it by ties of body, sense-organs and
Pranas.  It causes this jeeva to wander
with the idea of “I’ and “mine” in the varied experiences of “results” gathered
by itself.
अध्यासदोषात्पुरुषस्य संसृति-
रध्यासबन्धस्त्वमुनैव कल्पितः।
रजस्तमोदोषवतोऽविवेकिनो
जन्मादिदुःखस्य निदानमेतत् ॥१७९॥
The evil of superimposition  causes man’s transmigration and the mind
alone is responsible for the bondage of superimposition.  For a man who is tainted with Rajas
and Tamas and who lacks discrimination, this causes the misery of birth
etc.
अतः प्राहुर्मनोऽविद्यां पण्डितास्तत्त्वदर्शिनः
येनैव भ्राम्यते विश्वं वायुनेवाभ्रमण्डलम्
॥१८०॥
Hence the mind is considered to be avidya by
sages who have discovered its secret.  By
this alone the universe of experience is tossed around like the clouds by the
wind.
तन्मनः शोधनं कार्यं प्रयत्नेन मुमुक्षुणा ।
विशुद्धे सति चेतस्मिन्मुक्तिः करफलायते ॥१८१॥
Therefore, the mind must be diligently purified by one
who seeks liberation.  When the mind has
been purified, liberation becomes as readily available as a fruit in one’s own
hand.
मोक्षैकसक्त्या विषयेषु रागं
निर्मूल्य संन्यस्य च सर्व कर्म।
सच्छ्रद्धया यः श्रवणादिनिष्ठो
रजःस्वभावं स धुनोति बुद्धेः ॥१८२॥
With single-pointed devotion for liberation, he who
roots out his attachments for sense objects, renounces all actions and with
faith in Truth, constantly hears (the Truth) etc. he can purge the Rajasic
nature  in his intellect.

मनोमयो नापि भवेत्परात्मा
ह्याद्यन्तवत्त्वात्परिणामिभावात्।
दुःखात्मकत्वाद्विषयत्वहेतो-
र्द्रष्टा हि दृश्यात्मतया न दृष्टः ॥१८३॥
The mental sheath cannot be the supreme Self either,
for it has a beginning and an end.  It is
subject to modifications; pain and suffering characterize it and it is an
‘object’ of cognition. The subject can never be identified with the ‘object of
knowledge’
Vignanamaya-kosa (Intellectual sheath)
बुद्धिर्बुद्धीन्द्रियै: सार्धं सवृत्तिः कर्तृलक्षणः।
विज्ञानमयकोशः स्यात्पुंसः संसारकारणम् ॥१८४॥
The intellect with its modifications along with the
organs of perception form the intellectual sheath (vignaanamaya kosa).  It has the characteristics of the “the
agent”  (or doer) which is the cause for
transmigration. 
अनुव्रजच्चित्प्रतिबिम्बशक्ति-
र्विज्ञानसंज्ञः प्रकृतेर्विकार:।
ज्ञानक्रियावानहमित्यजस्रं
देहेन्द्रियादिष्वभिमन्यते भृशम् ॥१८५॥
Accompanied by a reflection of the light of Chit, the
intellectual sheath is a modification of Prakriti, it is endowed with
the function of knowledge and is always completely identified with the body,
sense organs etc.
अनादिकालोऽयमहंस्वभावो
जीवः समस्तव्यवहारवोढा।
करोति कर्माण्यपि पूर्ववासनः
पुण्यान्यपुण्यानि च तत्फलानि ॥१८६॥
भुङ्क्ते विचित्रास्वपि योनिषु व्रज-
न्नायाति निर्यात्यध ऊर्ध्वमेषः।
अस्यैव विज्ञानमयस्य जाग्रत्-
स्वप्नाद्यवस्थाः सुखदुःखभोगः ॥१८७॥
It is without beginning, is of the nature of the ego
and is called the jeeva,
which carries out the entire range of activities on
the relative plane.  It performs good and
evil actions according to its previous vasanas, and experiences their
results.  It comes and goes, up and down,
taking birth in various bodies.
देहादिनिष्ठाश्रमधर्मकर्म-
गुणाभिमानं सततं ममेति।
विज्ञानकोशोऽयमतिप्रकाशः
प्रकृष्टसान्निध्यवशात्परात्मनः
अतो भवत्येष उपाधिरस्य
यदात्मधीः संसरति भ्रमेण ॥१८८॥
Identifying with the attributes of the order-of-life,
their duties and functions, which actually belong to the body, it considers
them as its own.  The vignanamayakosa
is extremely radiant because of its nearness to the supreme self.  It is a superimposition on the Self, which,
when it identifies with it (vignanamayakosa) , suffers transmigration
through delusion.  
योऽयं विज्ञानमयः प्राणेषु हृदि स्फुरत्ययं ज्योतिः
कूटस्थः सन्नात्मा कर्ता भोक्ता भवत्युपाधिस्थः ॥१८९॥
The Atman, which is Knowledge Absolute, shines within
the Prana, in the heart.  Though it is
immutable, it becomes the doer and the experiencer because of its
superimposition (the intellectual sheath).
उपाधिसम्बन्धवशात्परात्मा
ह्युपाधिधर्माननुभाति तद्गुणः।
अयोविकारानविकारि वह्निव-
त्सदैकरूपोऽपि परः स्वभावात् ॥१९१॥
Even though the supreme self is by nature perfect and
ever unchanging, due to its relationship with the superimpositions, it assumes
the characteristics of these superimpositions and seems to act just as the
equipments do – like the changeless fire assuming the forms of the iron-pieces
which it turns red hot.
SELF-KNOWLEDGE GIVES LIBERATION
स्वस्य द्रष्टुर्निर्गुणस्याक्रियस्य
प्रत्यग्बोधानन्दरूपस्य बुद्धेः।
भ्रान्त्या प्राप्तो जीवभावो न सत्यो
मोहापाये नास्त्यवस्तुस्वभावात् ॥१९६॥
The jeeva-hood of the Atman which is the
Witness, which is beyond all qualities and activities, and which is
subjectively experienced as Bliss and Knowledge Absolute, is unreal and is but
a delusion caused by the intellect. 
Since by nature it (jeeva-hood) is unreal, it ceases to exist
once the delusion is lifted. 
यावद्भ्रान्तिस्तावदेवास्य सत्ता
मिथ्याज्ञानोज्जृम्भितस्य प्रमादात्।
रज्ज्वां सर्पो भ्रान्तिकालीन एव
भ्रान्तेर्नाशे नैव सर्पोऽपि तद्वत् ॥१९७॥
Having been caused by an error of judgment and false
understanding,  the jeeva-hood can exist
only as long as the delusion lasts.  The
rope is mistaken to be the snake only when there is an illusion.  Once the illusion is destroyed, there can be
no snake.  So too, in this case.
विनिवृत्तिर्भवेत्तस्य सम्यग्ज्ञानेन नान्यथा।
ब्रह्मात्मैकत्वविज्ञानं सम्यग्ज्ञानं श्रुतेर्मतम् ॥ २०२॥
The superimposition will cease to function at the dawn
of right knowledge and in no other way. 
According to the scriptures, realisation of the identity of the soul and
Brahman is right knowledge.
तदात्मानात्मनोः सम्यग्विवेकेनैव सिध्यति।
ततो विवेकः कर्तव्यः प्रत्यगात्मसदात्मनोः ॥२०३॥
The realisation comes only through right
discrimination made between the Self and the not-Self.  That is why one must strive to discriminate
between the individual Self and the Eternal Self everywhere.
जलं पंकवदत्यन्तं पंकापाये जलं स्फुटम्।
यथा भाति तथात्मापि दोषाभावे स्फुटप्रभः ॥२०४॥
Water which is extremely muddy appears as transparent
water when the mud has been removed. So too, the Atman manifests its clear
lustre when the impurities have been removed.
अतो नायं परात्मा स्याद्विज्ञानमयशब्दभाक्।
विकारित्वाज्जडत्वाच्चपरिच्छिन्नत्वहेतुतः।
दृश्यत्वाद्व्यभिचारित्वान्नानित्यो नित्य इष्यते ॥२०६॥

For the following reasons, the intellectual sheath which we have so far spoken
of cannot be supreme Self. It is subject to change, it is inert and insentient,
it is limited, it is an object of the senses and it is not constant. A mortal,
perishable thing indeed cannot be said to be the immortal, imperishable Atman.
ANANDAMAYA-KOSA(BLISS-SHEATH)
आनन्दप्रतिबिम्बचुम्बिततनुर्वृत्तिस्तमोजृम्भिता
स्यादानन्दमयः प्रियादिगुणकः स्वेष्टार्थलाभोदयः।
पुण्यस्यानुभवे विभाति कृतिनामानन्दरूपः स्वयं
सर्वो नन्दति यत्र साधु तनुभृन्मात्रः प्रयत्नं विना ॥२०७॥
The Anandamaya-kosha (bliss-sheath) is that
modification of Nescience which is kissed by a reflection of the Atman, which
is Bliss Absolute.  Pleasure etc. are its
attributes and it springs into expression when an object agreeable to it presents
itself. The fortunate feel it spontaneously when the fruits of their good
actions manifest.  Every being without
the least effort derives great joy from it. 
आनन्दमयकोशस्य सुषुप्तौ स्फूर्तिरुत्कटा।
स्वप्नजागरयोरीषदिष्टसंदर्शनादिना ॥२०८॥
The Anandamaya-kosa is fully manifest in the
deep-sleep state,  while in the dream and
waking states it is only partially manifest depending upon the sight of
pleasing objects etc.
   
नैवायमानन्दमयः परात्मा
सोपाधिकत्वात्प्रकृतेर्विकारात्॥
कार्यत्वहेतोः सुकृतक्रियाया
विकारसंघातसमाहितत्वात् ॥२०९॥
Nor can the Anandamaya-kosa be the supreme Self
because it has attributes which are ever-changing.  It is a modification of Prakriti, is created
as the result of good actions of the past, and it lies embedded in the other
sheaths which are in themselves all modifications.
पञ्चानामपि कोशानां निषेधे युक्तितः श्रुतेः।
तन्निषेधावधि साक्षी बोधरूपोऽवशिष्यते ॥२१०॥
When the five sheaths have been negated through
reasoning based upon authoritative scriptural texts, then at the acme of the
process what remains is the Witness, Knowledge Absolute, the Self. 


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