GITA GOVINDAM – CHAPTER-10

GITA
GOVINDAM
(गीतगोविन्दम्)

Gita Govindam, lyrical poetry in Sanskrit celebrating the love between Krishna and the gopis, specifically Radha, is authored by Jayadeva, the 12th century devotee-poet from Orissa. The basis for this work is the 5 chapters 29 to 33 of Srimadbhagavatam (known as Rasapanchadhyaayi) which describe the events leading to the rasaleela, the great dance on the banks of the Yamuna where each gopi thinks that Krishna is with her. Srimadbhagavatam, however, does not specifically talk about a gopi named Radha though Radha is described as the very heart of Krishna in some of the other Puranas.

The 
above theme has been developed in Gita Govindam to such an extent that
it  is known as ‘Sringara Mahakavya’
wherein  the predominant sentiment is sringara
(erotic sentiment) in all its various moods in relation to the divine love
between Radha and Krishna. The ecstasy of union,  the agony of separation, the anxious moments
of wait for the loved one are all treated with sensitivity and poetic
excellence.  The whole work is divided
into twelve chapters ( sargas), each chapter containing one or more prabandhas.
There are 24 prabandhas each containing couplets grouped into eights
called  Ashtapadis, songs with a
refrain specific to that 
Ashatapadi.  There are in all 24 Ashtapadis
in Gita Govindam. Each Chapter may have one or more slokas
in  different metres of Sanskrit poetry
interspersed with the Ashtapadis.  It is said that the Poet-devotee Jayadeva
would sing the Ashtapadis and his wife Padmavati would dance to the music.  There have been many choreographic works  to enact and present the Ashtapadis  as  a
dance drama. 
Given below is the
text of   the Tenth
Chapter (दशमः सर्गः) with a prosaic
translation in English for those who cannot follow the Sanskrit of the
original. The translation in no way can do justice to the poetic excellence or
the beauty of expression of the original.
CHAPTER-10
Prabandha-19
अत्रान्तरे मसृणरोषवशादसीम-
निःश्वासनिःसहमुखीं समुपत्ये राधाम्।
सव्रीडमीक्षितसखीवदनां दिनान्ते
सानन्दगद्गदमिदं हरिरित्युवाच
By
this time it was sunset and Radha was still in an angry mood, her breathing was
fast and her face had a tired look. 
Seeing Krishna, she looked at her friend with a tinge of shyness on her
face.  Krishna, whose happiness knew no
bounds on seeing Radha, spoke to her thus, his voice choking with emotion.  
अष्टपदी१९
वदसि यदि किञ्चिदपि दन्तरुचिकौमुदी
हरति दरतिमिरमतिघोरम्
स्फुरदधरसीधवे तव वदनचन्द्रमा
रोचयति लोचनचकोरम्  
प्रिये चारुशीले प्रिये चारुशीले
मुञ्च मयि मानमनिदानम् ।
सपदि मदनानलो दहति मम मानसं
देहि मुखकमलमधुपानम् ॥१॥
O
Radha! even if you talk only a little the moonlight-like radiance of your teeth
dispels the terrible darkness of my grief. Your moon-like face is prompting my
chakora-eyes to drink the nectar from your lips.
My
love, your conduct is indeed charming. Give up this aloofness from me. You have
no cause to be cross with me. The fire of passion is burning my heart;  allow me to drink the nectar from your
lotus-face.   
सत्यमेवासि
यदि सुदति! मयि कोपिनी
देहि
खरनखरशरघातम्।
घटय
भुजबन्धनं जनय रदखण्डनं
येन
वा भवति सुखजातम् ॥२॥
(प्रिये चारुशीले ….)
O
Radha with beautiful teeth! If you are really angry with me, claw at my body
with your sharp nails, bind me with your arms or inflict injury with your teeth-all
of which will be a source of pleasure for me. 
My love, etc…..
त्वमसि
मम भूषणं त्वमसि मम जीवनं
त्वमसि
मम भवजलधिरत्नम्।
भवतु
भवतीह मयि सततमनुरोधिनी
तत्र
मम हृदयमतियत्नम्॥३॥ (प्रिये चारुशीले ….)
You
are my ornament, you are my life, you are the gem of my ocean of samsara
. My heart always endeavours to see that you are always in  my favour. 
My love, etc…
नीलनलिनाभमपि
तन्वि! तव लोचनं
धारयति
कोकनदरूपम्।
कुसुमशरबाणभावेन
यदि रञ्जयसि
कृष्णमिदमेतदनुरूपम्
॥४॥ (प्रिये चारुशीले ….)
Though
your eyes are like the blue lotus they are also red like the red lotus because
of your being angry.  If you use them on
me as the arrows of Cupid, it would be most appropriate.  My love, etc..
                                                      
स्फुरतु
कुचकुम्भयोरुपरिमणिमञ्जरी
रञ्जयतु
तव हृदयदेशम् ।
रसतु
रशनापि तव घनजघनमण्डले
घोषयतु
मन्मथनिदेशम् ॥५॥ (प्रिये चारुशीले ….)
Let the
necklace of gems shining on your breasts gladden the region of your heart and
the tinkling sound of the girdle around your hips announce the command of
Cupid. My love, etc
स्थलकमलगञ्जनं
मम हृदयरञ्जनं
जनितरतिरङ्गपरभागम्।
भण मसृणवाणि
करवाणि चरणद्वयं
सरसलसदलक्तकरागम्
॥६॥ (प्रिये चारुशीले ….)
Tell me
O Radha of soft voice! May I adorn, with shining red lac paint, your feet which
excel the hibiscus and delights my heart…. etc. My love, etc…….   
स्मरगरलखण्डनं
मम शिरसि मण्डनं
देहिपदपल्लवमुदारम्।
ज्वलति
मयि दारुणो मदनकदनानलो
हरतु
तदुपहितविकारम् ॥७॥ (प्रिये चारुशीले  ….)
Place
your feet, tender and smooth as leaf buds, on my head so that it will adorn
my  head and counteract the poison of
Cupid. It will quench the fire of passion which is burning the inside of
me.  My love, etc…. 
इति
चटुलचाटुपटुचारुमुरवैरिणो
राधिकामधिवचनजातम्।
जयति
पद्मावतीरमणजयदेवकवि-
भारतीभणितमिति
गीतम् ॥८॥ (प्रिये चारुशीले ….)
Thus has
the poet Jayadeva, consort of Padmavati, sung about the sweet, charming and
pleasing words of Krishna addressed to Radha. 
My love etc
परिहर
कृतातङ्के शङ्कां त्वया सततं घन-
स्तनजघनयाक्रान्ते
स्वान्ते परानवकाशिनि।
विशति
वितनोरन्यो धन्यो न कोऽपि ममान्तरं
स्तनभरपरीरम्भारंभे
विधेहि विधेयताम् ॥१॥
O
Radha! Do not have any doubt that I am dallying with another young woman. My
heart is fully occupied by you with your heavy breasts and hips and there is no
room there for someone else.  Allow me
therefore to embrace you with your breasts pressed against me.  
मुग्धे! विधेहि मयि
निर्दयदन्तदंशं
दोर्वल्लिबन्धनिबिडस्तनपीडनानि।
चण्डि! त्वमेव मुदमञ्चय
पञ्चबाण-
चण्डालकाण्डदलनादसवः
प्रयान्ति ॥२॥
O
Beautiful One! Inflict on me merciless bites of your teeth. Bind me with the
creepers of your hands. Inflict on me the pressure of your full breasts. You
only can delight me. e. My life is ebbing out pierced by the arrows of Cupid
who is a chandala
शशिमुखि! तव भाति भङ्गुरभ्रू-
र्युवजनमोहकरालकालसर्पी।
तदुदितभयभञ्जनाय
यूनां
त्वदधरसीधुसुधैव
सिद्धमन्त्रः ॥३॥
O
moon-faced one! Your arched brows are black serpents which seduce the
young.  To counteract the fear from those
brows the nectar of your lips is the only mantra.
व्यथयति
वृथा मौनं तन्वि!
प्रपञ्चय पञ्चमं
तरुणि! मधुरालापैस्तापं
विनोदय दृष्टिभिः।
सुमुखि! विमुखीभावं
तावद्विमुञ्च न वञ्चय
स्वयमतिशयस्निग्धो
मुग्धे! प्रियोऽहमुपस्थितः॥४॥
O
slender one! Your purposeless silence pains me. 
Remove the sorrow in my heart by your sweet talk and delight me with
your glance. O pretty one! shake off your aloofness. Do not deceive me.  I am extremely loving and I am present here
before very eyes.   
बन्धूकद्युतिबान्धवोऽयमधरः
स्निग्धो मधूकच्छवि-
र्गण्डश्चण्डि! चकास्ति नीलनलिनश्रीमोचनं
लोचनम्।
नासाभ्येति
तिलप्रसूनपदवीं कुन्दाभदन्ति प्रिये!
प्रायस्त्वन्मुखसेवया
विजयते विश्वं स पुष्पायुधः ॥५॥
Darling!
your lips are red like the bandhuka flower,  your cheeks are soft as the madhuka
flower, your eyes are more beautiful than the blue lotus, the nose resembles
sesame flower and teeth are like jasmine buds. 
I think that Cupid relies on your face which has the flower-arrows he
uses for conquering the world.       
दृशौ
तव मदालसे वदनमिन्दुमत्यान्वितं
गतिर्जनमनोरमा
विधुतरंभमूरुद्वयम् ।
रतिस्तव
कलावती रुचिरचित्रलेखे भ्रुवा-
वहो
विबुधयौवनं वहसि तन्वि!
पृथ्वीगता ॥६॥
Your
eyes are lazy with exhilaration, your face is like the moon, your gait is
captivating, your thighs are like stems of banana trees, your loving is a fine
art, your eyebrows are pretty and picture-perfect.  Being of the Earth, you carry the youth of the
celestials.
प्रीतिं
वस्तनुतां हरिः कुवलयापीडेन सार्धं रणे
राधापीनपयोधरस्मरणकृत्कुम्भेन
सम्भेदवान्।
यत्र
स्विद्यति मीलति क्षणमथ क्षिप्ते द्विपे तत्क्षणात्
कंसस्यालमभूज्जितं
जितं जितमिति व्यामोहकोलाहलः ॥७॥
While
fighting with the kuvalayapida, Krishna remembered the ample bosom of
Radha and here was the bulging forehead of the elephant.  Confused, Krishna closed his eyes for a
moment and then killed the elephant which fell dead.  Immediately pandemonium broke out with the
people shouting in confusion  “Kamsa has
been vanquished, Kamsa has been vanquished”.   May
that Krishna give you happiness. 
इति
श्रीगीतगोविन्दे शृङ्गारमहाकाव्ये राधावर्णने
मुग्धमाधवो
नाम दशमः सर्गः

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