GITA GOVINDAM – CHAPTER -5

GITA
GOVINDAM
(गीतगोविन्दम्)

Gita Govindam, lyrical poetry in Sanskrit celebrating the love between Krishna and the gopis, specifically Radha, is authored by Jayadeva, the 12th century devotee-poet from Orissa. The basis for this work is the 5 chapters 29 to 33 of Srimadbhagavatam (known as Rasapanchadhyaayi) which describe the events leading to the rasaleela, the great dance on the banks of the Yamuna where each gopi thinks that Krishna is with her. Srimadbhagavatam, however, does not specifically talk about a gopi named Radha though Radha is described as the very heart of Krishna in some of the other Puranas.

The 
above theme has been developed in Gita Govindam to such an extent that
it  is known as ‘Sringara Mahakavya’
wherein  the predominant sentiment is sringara
(erotic sentiment) in all its various moods in relation to the divine love
between Radha and Krishna. The ecstasy of union,  the agony of separation, the anxious moments
of wait for the loved one are all treated with sensitiviy and poetic
excellence.  The whole work is divided
into twelve chapters ( sargas), each chapter containing one or more prabandhas.
There are 24 prabandhas each containing couplets grouped into eights
called  Ashtapadis, songs with a
refrain specific to that 
Ashatapadi.  There are in all 24 Ashtapadis
in Gita Govindam. Each Chapter may have one or more slokas
in  different metres of Sanskrit poetry
interspersed with the Ashtapadis.  It is said that the Poet-devotee Jayadeva
would sing the Ashtapadis and his wife Padmavati would dance to the music.  There have been many choreographic works  to enact and present the Ashtapadis  as  a
dance drama. 
Given below is the
text of   the Fifth
Chapter (पंचमः सर्गः) with a prosaic
translation in English for those who cannot follow the Sanskrit of the
original. The translation in no way can do justice to the poetic excellence or
the beauty of expression of the original.
CHAPTER-5
Prabandha-10
अहमिह निवसामि याहि राधा-
मनुनय मद्वचनेन चानयेथाः।
इति मधुरिपुणा सखी नियुक्ता
स्वयमिदमेत्य पुनर्जगाद राधाम् ॥ १॥
Krishna says to
Radha’s friend: “ I am staying here.  Go
and, on my behalf, pacify her and bring her here”.  Thus instructed by Kirshna she goes back to
Radha and tells her:
अष्टपदी१०
वहति मलयसमीरे मदनमुपनिधाय।
स्फुटति कुसुमनिकरे विरहिहृदयदलनाय
तव विरहे
वनमाली सखि सीदति राधे ॥१॥
When the cool malaya breeze
blows, helping Cupid in his mission and 
flowers bloom tearing the hearts of 
virahis ( those separated from their lovers), Vanamali,
Krishna,  suffers the misery of
separation from you, O friend Radha!
दहति
शिशिरमयूखे मरणं अनुकरोति।
पतति
मदनविशिखे विलपति विकलतरोऽति॥२॥ (तव विरहे ….)
The
cools rays of the moon burn him and give him a near-death experience and when
Cupid’s arrows pierce him he bewails deeply hurt.  Vanamali etc. …
ध्वनति
मधुपसमूहे श्रवणमपिदधाति।
मनसि
कलितविरहे निशि निशि रुजमुपयाति॥३॥ (तव विरहे ….)
When
honey bees buzz, he plugs his ears. 
Thinking of  separation, he
agonizes every night.

Vanamali etc. …
वसति
विपिनविताने त्यजति ललितधाम।
लुठति
धरणिशयने बहु विलपति तव नाम ॥४॥ (तव विरहे ….)
Leaving
his pretty house he lives in a forest bower;  sleeps on the bare floor on the ground and calls
your name several times.
Vanamali etc. …
रणति
पिकसमुदाये प्रतिदिशमनुयाति।
हसति
मनुजनिचये विरहमपलपति नेति ॥५॥ (तव विरहे ….)
Hearing
the cooing of cuckoos he runs here and there as if mad and when people laugh at
him he denies viraha, separation. Vanamali etc. …
स्फुरति
कलरवरावे स्मरति भणितमेव।
तव रतिसुखविभवे
बहुगणयति गुणमतीव ॥६॥
(तव विरहे ….)
When he
hears the sweet sounds of birds he is reminded of  your sweet words and he holds high in his mind
the pleasures of union with you. 
त्वदभिधशुभमासं
वदति नरि शृणोति।
तमपि
जपति सरसं परयुवतिषु न रतिमुपैति॥७॥ (तव विरहे ….)
If
someone takes the name of the auspicious month bearing your name he hears it
and chants it repeatedly.  He does not
find pleasure in other women. Vanamali etc. …
भणति
कविजयदेवि विरहिविलसितेन।
मनसि
रभसविभवे हरिरुदयतु सुकृतेन ॥८॥ (तव विरहे ….)
             
May Hari
reveal Himself  in the heart of poet
Jayadeva who has described the agony of Krishna on account of his separtion
from Radha and who has earned enough punya
.  Vanamali etc. …
                   [End of prabandha 10]
                      CHAPTER-11
                      Prabandha-11 
पूर्वं
यत्र समं त्वया रतिपतेरासादिताः सिद्धय-
स्तस्मिन्नेव
निकुञ्जमन्मथमहातीर्थे पुनर्माधवः।
ध्यायंस्त्वामनिशं
जपन्नपि तवैवालापमन्त्रावलिं
भूयस्त्वत्कुचकुम्भनिर्भरपरीरम्भामृतं
वांछति ॥
Radha’s
friend continues her dialogue:
“In the same bower on the
banks of Yamuna where you had union with Krishna earlier, Madhava is waiting
for you continually chanting the mantra of your name. Again he wants the sweet
experience of embracing your pot-shaped breasts”
 
अष्टपदी११
रतिसुखसारे
गतमभिसारे मदनमनोहरवेषम्।
न कुरु
नितंबिनि गमनविलम्बनमनुसर तं हृदयेशम् ॥१॥
धीरसमीरे
यमुनातीरे वसति वने वनमाली।
गोपीपीनपयोधरमर्दनचंचलकरयुगशाली
॥१॥
O
broad-hipped Radha! Krishna is at the rendezvous in his captivating best, more
handsome than Cupid himself.  Do not
tarry any more. Follow him, the lord of your heart. He, Vanamali,   who wears a garland of wild flowers and
whose hands itch for squeezing the breasts of gopis,  is there in the bower on the banks of Yamuna,
where the cool breeze blows steadily.
 
नामसमेतं
कृतसङ्केतं वादयते मृदुवेणुम्।
बहु
मनुते तनुते तनुसङ्गतपवनचलितमपि रेणुम् ॥२॥ (धीरसमीरे ….)
He plays
his flute taking your name and giving you a signal.  He considers lucky even a particle of dust
which has touched your body and is carried in the breeze
. He, Vanamali
etc…..
पतति
पतत्रे विचलितपत्रे शंकितभवदुपयानम्।
रचयति
शयनं सचकितनयनं पश्यति तव पन्थानम् ॥३॥(धीरसमीरे ….)
The
sound of falling feathers of birds or the rustling of leaves make him think
that you have arrived.  He makes the bed
and with apprehensive eyes looks towards the path by which you will
approach.  He, Vanamali etc….. 
मुखरमधीरं
त्यज मञ्जीरं रिपुमिव केलिसुलोलम्।
चल सखि
कुञ्जं सतिमिरपुञ्जं शीलय नीलनिचोलम् ।४॥ (धीरसमीरे ….)
Abandon
these anklets as you would an enemy. They would betray by their tinkling sound
and spoil the sport. Walk towards the bower in the darkness with dark blue
clothes on. He, Vanamali etc….
  .
उरसि
मुरारेरुपहितहारे घन इव तरलबलाके।
तडिदिव
पीते रतिविपरीते राजसि सुकृतविपाके ॥५॥ (धीरसमीरे ….)
On
Krishna’s breast adorned with garlands, like a flock of balaka birds
among dark clouds, you will shine like lightning,  in a reversal of roles,  O Radha! as a result of your meritorious deeds
(punya) which are ripe for bearing fruit.
विगलितवसनं
परिहृतरशनं घटय जघनमपिधानम्।
किसलयशयने
पंकजनयने निधिमिव हर्षनिधानम्
Letting
your clothes slip off and discarding your girdle, join your hip,  treasure house of pleasure, with that of
lotus-eyed Krishna lying on the bed of tender leaves. He, Vanamali etc….
हरिरभिमानी
रजनिरिदानीमियमपि याति विरामम्।
कुरु
मम वचनं सत्वररचनं पूरय मधुरिपुकामम् ॥७॥(धीरसमीरे ….)
.
Hari has
self-respect, the night will come to an end, hear my words and act accordingly
very quickly.  Fulfil the desire of the
enemy of Madhu.  He, Vanamali etc….
श्री
जयदेवे कृतहरिसेवे भणति परमरमणीयम्।
प्रमुदितहृदयं
हरिमतिसदयं नमत सुकृतकमनीयम्॥८॥ (धीरसमीरे ….)
Prostrate
before Hari who is very kind and whose heart is gladdened by this beautiful
song by poet Jayadeva, servant of Hari.
  He,
Vanamali etc….
विकिरति
मुहुः श्वासानाशाः पुरो मुहुरीक्षते
प्रविशति
मुहुः कुञ्जं गुञ्जन् मुहुर्बहु ताम्यति ।
रचयति
मुहुः शय्यां पर्याकुलं मुहुरीक्षते
मदनकदनक्लान्तः
कान्ते प्रियस्तव वर्तते ॥१॥
Exhausted
by the agony of separation, Krishna sighs frequently, repeatedly looks in all
directions, enters the bower often muttering something, bewails every now and
then, makes the bed several times and 
anxiously looks around always.  O
Radha! this is the condition of your darling Krishna.

त्वद्वाक्येन
समं समग्रमधुना तिग्मांशुरस्तंगतो
गोविन्दस्य
मनोरथेन च समं प्राप्तं तमः सान्द्रताम्।
कोकानां
करुणस्वनेन सदृशी दीर्घा मदभ्यर्थना
तन्मुग्धे
विफलं विलंबनमसौ रम्योऽभिसारक्षणः ॥२॥
O
Radha! by the time of your reply the sun has set and with the desire of
Govinda, the darkness has become dense. 
Like the pitiful sounds of the koka  birds, my request is long. O Beautiful one!
this dealy will not yield any result. Invitation to the rendezvous by Krishna
is heartening
.
आश्लेषादनु चुम्बनादनु नखोल्लेखादनु स्वान्तजा-
त्प्रोद्बोधादनु
सम्भ्रमादनु रतारंभादनु प्रीतयोः।
अन्यार्थं
गतयोर्भ्रमान्मिलितयोः सम्भाषणैर्जानतोः
दम्पत्योर्निशि
का न को न तमसि व्रीडाविमिश्रोरसः ॥३॥
O
Friend! When the lovers meet at their rendezvous in the darkness of the night
they understand each other by their intimate conversation. They embrace, plant
kisses, leave nail marks and are aroused and excited. Then there is the ecstatic
union of their bodies and fulfilment.  What
erotic sentiments ( shringara rasa), mixed with shyness, do the lovers
not experience?  
सभयचकितं
विन्यस्यन्तीं दृशौ तिमिरे पथि
प्रतितरु
मुहुः स्थित्वा मन्दं पदानि वितन्वतीम्।
कथमपि
रहः प्राप्तामङ्गैरनङ्गतरङ्गिभिः
सुमुखि
सुमुखः पश्यंस्त्वामुपैतु कृतार्थताम् ॥४॥
In
the darkness you look at the path with apprehension. You stop at every tree and
step slowly. You somehow reach the rendezvous with passionate love in your
heart. O good looking one! may the handsome one, Krishna, seeing you, be
fulfilled. 
राधामुग्धमुखारविन्दमधुपस्त्रैलोक्यमौलिस्थली
नेपथ्योचितनीलरत्नमवनीभारावतारक्षमः।
स्वच्छन्दं
व्रजसुन्दरीजनमनस्तोषप्रदोषश्चिरं
कंसध्व्सनधूमकेतुरवतु
त्वां देवकीनन्दनः॥५॥
Krishna,
son of Devaki is like the honey bee for the beautiful lotus-face of Radha.  He is like the crown of the three worlds and like
the blue gem stone for adornment. He is competent to relieve the Earth of her
load. He gladdens the hearts of the beuties of vraja and is like the dhumaketu
(comet) for the death of Kamsa. May that Krishna protect you.  
                   [End of prabandha – 11]
      
इति
श्रीगीतगोविन्दे शृङ्गारमहाकाव्ये अभिसारिकावर्णने
साकांक्षपुण्डरीकाक्षो
नाम पञ्चमः सर्गः

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4 Comments on GITA GOVINDAM – CHAPTER -5

  1. Bharat says:

    एतस्मै कोटि कोटि धन्यवदमि श्री राममूर्ते ! I have been searching the words to this ever since I heard the beautiful rendition of a verses of this by Kavita Krishnamurthy in the Swami Vivekananda film (song is called Vanamali).

    Could you please help me understand the translation? In दहति शिशिरमयूखे मरणं अनुकरोति।
    पतति मदनविशिखे विलपति विकलतरोऽति॥२॥ doesn't शिशिर mean winter not moon? Should it be शशि? Also, what does विशिखे mean?

    Thank you very much

  2. शिशिरमयूख means one whose rays (मयूख) are cool(शिशिर)i.e. the moon. The moon is scorching (दहति) Radha in separation. पतति मदनविशिखे = when the arrows of Cupid fall she cries out in extreme pain. विशिख means arrow. मदन is the Love god (Kamadeva)

  3. Virad says:

    भवतो बोधनकारिणे उत्तराय बहुधन्यवदामि ! तव मंगलमस्तु ।

  4. Bharat says:

    भवतो बोधनकारिणे उत्तराय बहुधन्यवदामि ! तव मंगलमस्तु ।