GITA GOVINDAM – CHAPTER- 6

GITA
GOVINDAM
(गीतगोविन्दम्)

Gita Govindam, lyrical poetry in Sanskrit celebrating the love between Krishna and the gopis, specifically Radha, is authored by Jayadeva, the 12th century devotee-poet from Orissa. The basis for this work is the 5 chapters 29 to 33 of Srimadbhagavatam (known as Rasapanchadhyaayi) which describe the events leading to the rasaleela, the great dance on the banks of the Yamuna where each gopi thinks that Krishna is with her. Srimadbhagavatam, however, does not specifically talk about a gopi named Radha though Radha is described as the very heart of Krishna in some of the other Puranas.

The 
above theme has been developed in Gita Govindam to such an extent that
it  is known as ‘Sringara Mahakavya’
wherein  the predominant sentiment is sringara
(erotic sentiment) in all its various moods in relation to the divine love
between Radha and Krishna. The ecstasy of union,  the agony of separation, the anxious moments
of wait for the loved one are all treated with sensitiviy and poetic
excellence.  The whole work is divided
into twelve chapters ( sargas), each chapter containing one or more prabandhas.
There are 24 prabandhas each containing couplets grouped into eights
called  Ashtapadis, songs with a
refrain specific to that 
Ashatapadi.  There are in all 24 Ashtapadis
in Gita Govindam. Each Chapter may have one or more slokas
in  different metres of Sanskrit poetry
interspersed with the Ashtapadis.  It is said that the Poet-devotee Jayadeva
would sing the Ashtapadis and his wife Padmavati would dance to the music.  There have been many choreographic works  to enact and present the Ashtapadis  as  a
dance drama. 
Given below is the
text of   the Sixth
Chapter (षष्ठः सर्गः) with a prosaic
translation in English for those who cannot follow the Sanskrit of the
original. The translation in no way can do justice to the poetic excellence or
the beauty of expression of the original.
CHAPTER-6
Prabandha-12
अथ तां गन्तुमशक्तां चिरमनुरक्तां लतागृहे दृष्ट्वा ।
तच्चरितं गोविन्दे मनसिजमन्दे सखी प्राह ॥१॥
Radha’s friend finds her
in the leafy bower unable to move about as her body had become very weak
because of the agony of a long separation. She speaks about her condition to
Krishna who is tormented by the arrows of Cupid.
अष्टपदी१२
पश्यति दिशि दिशि रहसि भवन्तम्।
तदधरमधुरमधूनि पिबन्तम्
नाथ हरे जय नाथ हरे सीदति राधा वासगृहे ॥१॥
Radha sees you everywhere drinking the nectar from her
lips. O Lord Hari! Radha pines away in separation in her lonely bower.
त्वदभिसरणरभसेन वलंती
पतति पदानि कियन्ति चलन्ती ॥२॥  (नाथ हरे….)
Hastening towards the rendezvous she takes a few
steps and then falls down. O Lord Hari! Etc….
विहितविशदबिसकिसलयवलया।
जीवति
परमिह तव रतिकलया ॥३॥ (नाथ हरे….)
She wears a garland of lotus stalk and bracelets of
leaf buds.  She holds on to life only in
the hope of union with you. O Lord Hari! etc.
मुहुरवलोकितमण्डन लीला
मधुरिपुरहमितिभावनशीला ॥४॥  (नाथ हरे….)
She puts on clothes and ornaments like you and says “I
am krishna” and also imagines that she is Krishna.  O Lord Hari! …
त्वरितमुपैति न कथमभिसारम्।
हरिरिति वदति सखीमनुवारम् ॥५॥  (नाथ हरे….)
Radha repeatedly asks her friend why Krishna does not
come to the rendezvous quickly. O Lord Hari!..
श्लिष्यति चुम्बति जलधरकल्पम्।
हरिरुपगत इति तिमिरमनल्पम् ॥६॥  (नाथ हरे….)
Seeing dense darkness like the dark clouds Radha
thinks that Hari has come and starts embracing and kissing him. O Lord
Hari!… 
भवति विलम्बिनि विगलितलज्जा।
विलपति रोदिति वासकसज्जा ॥७॥  (नाथ हरे….)
When you delay in coming, she bewails, cries and decks
herself casting away all sense of shame. O Lord Hari! ….
श्रीजयदेवकवेरिदमुदितम्।
रसिकजनं तनुतामतिमुदितम् ॥८॥  (नाथ हरे….)
May this song by poet Jayadeva gladden the heats of
connoisseurs of poetry.  O Lord Hari…..
विपुलपुलकपालिः स्फीतसीत्कारमन्त-
र्जनितजडिमकाकुव्याकुलं व्याहरन्ती।
तव कितव विधायामन्दकन्दर्पचिन्तां
रसजलधिनिमग्ना ध्यानलग्ना मृगाक्षी॥१॥
The doe-eyed Radha always
thinks of you as if in meditation.  She
is immersed in the ocean of sringara rasa (erotic sentiment) in this state. She
bristles, whistles, embraces, kisses and does other things in her imagined
world of union with you O deceiver.
अंगेष्वाभरणं करोति बहुधा पत्रेऽपि संचारिणि
प्राप्तं त्वां परिशङ्कते वितनुते शय्यां चिरं ध्यायती।
इत्याकल्पविकल्पतल्परचनासंकल्पलीलाशत-
व्यासक्तापि विना त्वया वरतनुर्नैषा निशां नेष्यति ॥२॥
Even the flutter of a leaf
makes her think that you have come and she starts adorning herself in different
ways.  Meditating long she makes the bed
and thinks many thoughts and does many playful things.  But without you she cannot pass a single
night.
किं विश्राम्यसि कृष्णभोगिभवने भाण्डीरभूमीरुहि
भ्रातर्यासि न दृष्टिगोचरमितः सानन्दनन्दास्पदम्।
राधाया वचनं तदध्वगमुखान्नन्दान्तिके गोपतो
गोविन्दस्य जयन्ति सायमतिथिप्राशस्त्यगर्भा गिरः ॥३॥
Radha tells a wayfarer
who wants to rest under the bhandira tree that it was the abode of a krishnasarpa
( which has two meanings :black cobra, cobra named Krishna). “Bother! Don’t you
see the abode of Nanda? Go there for rest” 
The wayfarer comes to Nanda’s abode but Krishna wants to hide from Nanda
Radha’s comments. So before the traveler talks to Nanda,  Krishna praises and welcomes him  so that he does not repeat Radha’s words to
Nandagopa.  Victory to those words of
Krishna
.   
इति
श्रीगीतगोविन्दे शृङ्गारमहाकाव्ये वासकसज्जावर्णने
सोत्कण्ठधन्यवैकुण्ठो
नाम षष्ठः सर्गः

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