GITA GOVINDAM -CHAPTER – 8

GITA
GOVINDAM
(गीतगोविन्दम्)

Gita Govindam, lyrical poetry in Sanskrit celebrating the love between Krishna and the gopis, specifically Radha, is authored by Jayadeva, the 12th century devotee-poet from Orissa. The basis for this work is the 5 chapters 29 to 33 of Srimadbhagavatam (known as Rasapanchadhyaayi) which describe the events leading to the rasaleela, the great dance on the banks of the Yamuna where each gopi thinks that Krishna is with her. Srimadbhagavatam, however, does not specifically talk about a gopi named Radha though Radha is described as the very heart of Krishna in some of the other Puranas.

The 
above theme has been developed in Gita Govindam to such an extent that
it  is known as ‘Sringara Mahakavya’
wherein  the predominant sentiment is sringara
(erotic sentiment) in all its various moods in relation to the divine love
between Radha and Krishna. The ecstasy of union,  the agony of separation, the anxious moments
of wait for the loved one are all treated with sensitiviy and poetic
excellence.  The whole work is divided
into twelve chapters ( sargas), each chapter containing one or more prabandhas.
There are 24 prabandhas each containing couplets grouped into eights
called  Ashtapadis, songs with a
refrain specific to that 
Ashatapadi.  There are in all 24 Ashtapadis
in Gita Govindam. Each Chapter may have one or more slokas
in  different metres of Sanskrit poetry
interspersed with the Ashtapadis.  It is said that the Poet-devotee Jayadeva
would sing the Ashtapadis and his wife Padmavati would dance to the music.  There have been many choreographic works  to enact and present the Ashtapadis  as  a
dance drama. 
Given below is the
text of   the Eigth
Chapter (अष्टमः सर्गः) with a prosaic
translation in English for those who cannot follow the Sanskrit of the
original. The translation in no way can do justice to the poetic excellence or
the beauty of expression of the original.
CHAPTER-8
Prabandha-17
अथ कथमपि यामिनीं विनीय
स्मरशरजर्जरितापि
सा प्रभाते।
अनुनयवचनं
वदन्तमग्रे
प्रणतमपि
प्रियमाह साभ्यसूयम् ॥१॥
Radha
somehow passed the night and in the morning, 
though tormented by the arrows of Cupid, spoke thus to Krishna, who was bowing
down and trying to pacify her, jealousy in her voice.
अष्टपदी१७
रजनिजनितगुरुजागररागकषायितमलसनिमेषम्
वहतिनयनमनुरागमिवस्फुटमुदितरसाभिनिवेशम्।
हरि
हरि याहि माधव याहि केशव मा कुरु कैतववादम्।
तामनुसर
सरसीरुहलोचन या तव हरति विषादम् ॥१॥
Krishna’s
eyes are red because of the sleepless night and his eye-lids are idle. There is
the mark of passionate love in his eyes. Radha says with jealousy in her voice:
“ O Madhava!, O Keshava! please go; don’t tell me deceitful words.  O lotus-eyed one! follow her who will remove
your grief.”
कज्जलमलिनविलोचनचुम्बनविरचितनीलिमरूपम्।
दशनवसनमरुणं
तव कृष्ण तनोति तनोरनुरूपम् ॥२॥ (हरि हरि….)
O
Krishna! Your lips have become dark by repeatedly planting kisses on eyes
adorned with black kajal. Thus the colour of your lips have become the
same as the colour of your body. “O  Madhava” etc.
वपुरनुसरति
तव स्मरसङ्गरखरनखरक्षतरेखम्।
मरकतशकलकलितकलधौतलिपेरिव
रतिजयलेखम् ॥३॥
(हरि हरि….)
O
Krishna!  Your body bears marks of nails
inflicted by your partner during the fight of Love. Those marks on your body
resemble the record of her victory in this fight written on emerald bits in
white characters
.
“O Madhava” etc.
चरणकमलगलदलक्तकसिक्तमिदं
तव हृदयमुदारम्।
दर्शयतीव
बहिर्मदनद्रुमनवकिसलयपरिवारम् ॥४॥(हरि हरि….)
O
Krishna! The lac paint on the lotus feet of your partner has spilled on your
chest resembling tender leaf buds sprouting from the tree of Love . “O Madhava”
etc.
दशनपदं
भवदधरगतं मम जनयति चेतसि खेदम् ।
कथयति
कथमधुनापि मया सह तव वपुरेतदभेदम् ॥५॥ (हरि हरि….)
O
Krishna! I am sorry to see the mark of the teeth of your partner on your
lips.  It says “How even now this body of
yours  is no different from mine”.   “O
Madhava” etc.
बहिरिव
मलिनतरं तव कृष्ण मनोऽपि भविष्यति नूनम्।
कथमथ
वञ्चयसे जनमनुगतमसमशरज्वरदूनम् ॥६॥ (हरि हरि….)‘
O
Krisha! Just like your exterior your heart will also be certainly dark.
Otherwise how would you deceive one who follows you and is tormented by the
arrows of Cupid? “O Madhava” etc.
भ्रमति
भवानबलाकबलाय वनेषु किमत्र विचित्रम्।
प्रथयति
पूतनकैव वधूवधनिर्दयबालचरित्रम् ॥७॥ (हरि हरि….)
O
Krishna! It is no wonder that you wander the forests to hurt women. The story
of Putana tells about your cruelty to women even as child. O Madhava” etc. 
श्रीजयदेवभणितरतिवञ्चितखण्डितयुवतिविलापम्।
शृणुत
सुधामधुरं विबुधा विबुधालयतोऽपि दुरापम् ॥८॥ (हरि हरि….)
                —-
Thus has
Jayadeva chronicled the wailings of the Khandita( one who has been spurned by
the lover who courts another young woman) 
Let the wise and learned hear this song, sweet as nectar and difficult
to get even in heaven “O Madhava” etc.
तवेदं
पश्यन्त्याः प्रसरदनुरागं बहिरिव
प्रियापादालक्तकच्छुरितमरुणच्छायहृदयम्।
ममाद्य
प्रख्यातप्रणयभरभङ्गेन कितव!
त्वदालोकः
शोकादपि किमपि लज्जां जनयति ॥१॥
Radha
says:
I
see the red mark on your breast which has been planted their from the lac paint
on the feet of your love.  You deceiver, by
your spurning of my love, I feel more shame than sorrow when I see you.
 
प्रातर्नीलनिचोलमच्युत
उरःसंवीतपीतांशुकं
राधायाश्चकितं
विलोक्य हसति स्वैरं सखीमण्डले।
व्रीडाचञ्चलमञ्चलं
नयनयोराधाय राधानने
स्मेरस्मेरमुखोऽयमस्तुजगदानन्दाय
नन्दात्मजः ॥२॥
One
early morning Radha’s friends are surprised to see Krishna waking up in blue
clothes (which belonged to Radha) and Radha 
wrapped in yellow silk (which was Krishna’s).  There is uncontrollable laughter among the
friends.  Krishna smiles and casts a
bashful wavering glance at Radha. May that Krishna, son of Nanda make the world
happy. 
इति
श्रीगीतगोविन्दे शृङ्गारमहाकाव्ये खण्डितावर्णने
विलक्षणलक्ष्मीपतिर्नाम
अष्टमः सर्गः


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