FAMILIARISE  YOURSELF  WITH  SANSKRIT
                                                                   LESSON  11
In the earlier chapters we studied 
about  nouns, pronouns and adjectives  which change form depending upon the (third,
second and first)   number ( singuler,
dual and plural)  and case(nominative,
accusative, instrumental, dative, ablative, possessive , locative and vocative).We
alo studied about roots of verbs which change form according to person (third,
second and  first) tense (present ,
future and past) and  mood (
imperative,  conditional and potential).
In this chapter we shall take a look at that category of words which
remain unchanged in all cicrumstances. In general these correspond to what in
English grammar can be referred to as (1) conjunctions (2) interjections (3)
prepositions (4) particles and (5) adverbes
अथ  (then, afterwards) उत (or)  च ( and)   किञ्च (moreover,
further)  वा (or)  अथवा (or) तु  (but)  किन्तु  (but, yet)  किंवा ( or)  चेत् ( if)  यदि ( if)  नोचेत् (if not)  हि  (because, indeed) तत् (
therefore)  तेन  (by that, on that account)  किन्नु  (what, indeed)  किमुत (how much, more)  किंस्वित् (whether, how)  अङ्ग  (yes)  अथकिम्  (yes) आम् ( yes)  अद्धा
( truly, certainly)  यावत्

तावत्  (till ……then)   यदा  ……तदा   (when ….. then)  अथ  and इति are used to mark
the beginning  and the close of a work
are sudden exclamations prompted by feelings of wonder, grief, comtempt, anger
इ, उ, ए, ओ, अह, अह्ह्, अहो, बत, हा, हाहा etc. are expressive of wonder, grief or regret etc.
धिक् etc express contempt
बत etc. express sorrow, dejection etc
हम्, हुम्  express anger, contempt etc
are some interjections used to call attention:
अये, अहो, अहो बत,
उ, ए, ओ, भोः, हंहो, हे, है, हो etc.   show respect
अबे, रे, रेरे, अरेरे   show comtempt
वौषट्, वषट्, स्वाहा,
स्वधा   these are
used while offering oblations to the gods or manes
(उपसर्ग or गति):
prefixed to verbs and their derivatives to modify, reinforce or totally
alter  the sense of the root word.  For example, the root  ‘हृ’ , takes on the  meanings given below with different
prepositions (उपसर्गाः)
प्र+हृ  = strike, 
आ+ हृ = to eat सं+
हृ=  to
contract  वि+ हृ =  to sport  परि+ हृ
= to avoid
The following upasargas are commonly prefixed to roots
अति = over, beyond  अतिक्रम् = to
transgress, to overstep
अधि = over, above, on अधिकृ  to place over
= after, behind, along etc अनुगम = to go after, अनुकृ =  to imitate, अनुरूप् = matching the form
अप = away, away from अपमान्  = insult (away
from respect)
अपि (sometimes पि) near to, over, taking to अपिधानम्  or पिधानम् =covering 
अभि towards, near to  अभिसृ  to go towards 
अभिमान  pride
(sometimes व) away, off, down अवतॄ to
descend,  वगाह् or अवगाह्  to bathe
  from, upto, a little, all round  आच्छद्  to cover all round, आकारः
shape (within due bounds) आकाशः  that which shines around (i.e. the ether) आकम्प  to shake a little.
उत्, उद्
upon, up, out उद्गम् 
to go up उत्सृज् 
to pour out उद्यमः 
to elevate, to put up  or to be
near to, towards, by the side of, under उपकृति  an act of help उपरति
death उपमिति comparison
, दुर्  bad, hard to
be done दुराचार bad conduct  दुष्कर  hard to be done
नि  in,into,down 
निषद् = to sit down, उपनिषद् =
to sit down near (the guru)
   निकेतन –  a house, निचय –  a heap
/ निर् – out of, without निर्दोष =
out of or free from blame  निःसृ
=  to issue out
– away, back, opposed to  परावृत्
–  to turn away from पराजय
–opposed to victory i.e. defeat. पराञ्च् –  to turn back)
– all round, round about परिधिः  a wall that surrounds,  परीक्षा – examination
(judging all round)
– forth, forward    प्रयाण  = to go forward,  प्रगति = progress
– towards, back, re प्रतिवद् = reply  प्रतिबिम्ब reflection प्रतिगम् –go towards
– apart, separate from, reverse to वियुज् = to be separate
विक्री = to sell (opposite of क्री  to buy)
सम्  together with, excellent, full  संगम्  – to be united सन्तुष्ट
– fully satisfied
– well, easily, thorough  (opposite of दुस्, दुर्) सुकृतम्
=done well सुशासितम्=
trained, well governed सुलभ = easily obtainable
                                  [to be
continued in the next lesson]

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