SELECTIONS FROM KENOPANISHAD

Selections from
KENOPANISHAD (केनोपनिषद)
The Kenopanishad  belonging to the Sama Veda is a small text in
four sections dealing essentially with the nature of Brahman as the efficient
cause and the knowledge thereof. The central point is that Brahman is not what
can come within the scope of our ordinary knowledge.  The Upanishad derives its name from the first
word in the text, namely, Kena (by whom)
Prayer:
आप्यायन्तु ममाङ्गानि वाक्
प्राणश्चक्षुः श्रोत्रमथो बलमिन्द्रियाणि च सर्वाणि। सर्वं ब्रह्मौपनिषदम्। माहं ब्रह्म
निराकुर्याम्। मा मा ब्रह्म निराकरोत्।अनिराकरण्मस्तु। अनिराकरणं मेऽस्तु। तदात्मनि
निरते य उपनिषत्सु धर्मास्ते मयि सन्तु ते मयि सन्तु।  ओं शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः॥
May my limbs grow
vigorous, my speech, breath, eye, ear, also my strength and all my senses! All
is the Brahman of the Upanishads.  May I
never discard Brahman!  May not Brahman
discard me ! May there be no discarding! May there be no discarding of me! Therefore,
let those dharmas which are in the Upanishads be in me dedicated to Atman; let
them be in me. Om peace, peace, peace.
  
                    प्रथमः खण्डः
                    SECTION ONE
केनेषितं पतति प्रेषितं
मनः
केन प्राणः प्रथमः
प्रैति युक्तः।
केनेषितां वाचमिमां
वदन्ति
चक्षुः श्रोत्रं क
उ देवो युनक्ति ॥
     
By whom urged
does the mind, well urged, alight (on its objects)? By whom directed does the first
breath go forth?  By whom urged do men
utter the speech? The eye and the ear, which god indeed directs?
          
               श्रोत्रस्य श्रोत्रं
मनसो मनो य
               द्वाचो ह वाचं स उ
प्राणस्य प्राणः।
               चक्षुषश्चक्षुरतिमुच्य
धीराः
               प्रेत्यास्माल्लोकादमृता
भवन्ति
 
It is that which
is the ear of the ear, the mind of the mind, the speech, indeed, of the speech,
the breath of the breath, the eye of the eye. 
Having abandoned (the sense of self in these) and departing from this
world, the wise become immortal.
           न तत्र चक्षुर्गच्छति
न वाग्गच्छति नो मनः।
           न विद्मो न जानीमो
यथैतदनुशिष्यात् ॥
Thither the eye
does not go, speech does not go, nor the mind. 
We do not know, we do not understand, how one can teach this.
           अन्यदेव तद्विदितादथो
अविदितादपि।
           इति  श्रुश्रुम पूर्वेषां ये नस्तद्व्याचचक्षिरे॥
Other than the
known, verily, it is, also above the unknown. 
Thus have we heard from the ancients who have discriminated it for us.
          यद्वाचानभ्युदितं
येन
वागभ्युद्यते।
          तदेव ब्रह्म त्वं
विद्धि नेदं यदिदमुपासते ॥
What cannot be
expressed through speech, and whereby speech is expressed, that alone, know ye,
as Brahman; not this which people worship.
        यन्मनसा न मनुते येनाहुर्मनो
मतम्।
       
        तदेव ब्रह्म त्वं
विद्धि नेदं यदिदमुपासते ॥
  
What one cannot
contemplate with the mind, and whereby, they say, the mind is contemplated,
that alone, know ye, as Brahman; not this which people worship.
[Here follow
three further stanzas, identical in wording with the above two stanzas and
dealing with the eye, the ear and the breath]
                   द्वितीयःखण्डः
                  SECTION TWO
        यदि मन्यसे सुवेदेति
दभ्रमेवापिनूनं त्वं वेत्थ
        ब्रह्मणो रूपं यदस्य
त्वं यदस्य च देवेषु।
        अथ नु मीमांस्यमेव
ते॥
        मन्ये विदितम्॥
If thou
thinkest. “ I know well”, only little in truth thou knowest of Brahman’s form,
which (form) of that (Brahman) art thou, and which (form) of that (Brahman)
exists among gods. Hence it is indeed to be inquired into by you.
(The disciple):
I think it has been known
      नाहं मन्ये सुवेदेति
नो न वेदेति वेद च।
      यो नस्तद्वेद तद्वेद
नो न वेदेति वेद च॥
I do not think I
know it well; nor do I know that I do not know it. He, who amongst us knows it,
knows it, and he knows not too that he does not know.
      यस्यामतं तस्य मतं
मतं यस्य न वेद सः।
      अविज्ञातं विजानतां
विज्ञातमविजानताम् ॥
He by whom it is
not contemplated, by him it is contemplated. 
He by whom it is contemplated, knows it not.  It is not understood by those who understand
it.  It is understood by those who do not
understand  it.
     प्रतिबोधविदितं मतममृतत्त्वं
हि विन्दते।
     आत्मना विन्दते वीर्यं  विद्यया विन्दतेऽमृतम् ॥
When it is
contemplated as known in every cognition, one attains,  indeed, immortality.  By the self one attains vitality. By
knowledge one attains the immortal. 
                   
     इहचेदवेदीदथ सत्यमस्ति
     न चेदिहावेदीन्महती
विनष्टिः।
     भूतेषु भूतेषु विचित्य
धीराः
    प्रेत्यास्माल्लोकादमृता
भवन्ति॥
If here a man
knows it, then truth there is; and if here he knows it not, there is great
destruction.  Discerning (it) in beings
after beings, the wise become immortal on departing from this world.
                   त्रितीयः खण्डः
                  SECTION THREE
ब्रह्म ह देवेभ्यो
विजिग्ये। तस्य ह ब्रह्मणो विजये देवा अमहीयन्त। त ऐक्षन्तास्माकमेवायं विजयोऽस्मकमेवायं
महिमा इति॥
Once Brahman won
a victory for the gods. By that victory of Brahman, the gods attained
glory.  They felt  “ Ours alone is this victory, ours alone this
glory”.

तद्वैषां विजज्ञौ। तेभ्यो ह प्रादुर्बभूव। तन्न
विजानत किमिदं यक्षम्
इति। तेऽग्निमब्रुवन्
जातवेद एतद्विजानीहि किमेतद्यक्षम्इति ॥
Brahman, indeed,
knew this (false pride) of theirs.  He
appeared before them.  They did not know
what spirit (yaksha) it was.  They spoke
to Agni:
“O Knower of
beings (jatavedas), find this out, what this spirit is “
तथेति तदभ्यद्रवत्। तमभ्यद्रवत्कोऽसिइति। अग्निर्वा अहमस्मिइत्यब्रवीत्।
जातवेदा अहमस्मि इति॥
Saying that (he
would do) so, he ran after that.  He (the
spirit) asked him (Agni): “Who art thing that (he would do) so, he ran after
that.  He (the spirit) asked him (Agni):
“Who art thou?” He replied: “I am vou?” He replied: “I am verily Agni, I am the
knower of beings  (jatavedas)
   
तस्मिस्त्वयि किं
वीर्यं
इति। अपीदं सर्वं दहेयं यदिदं पृथिव्याम्इति॥
(He again asked): “What vitality (is there) in thee?” (He replied):
“Even all this I
can burn, what there is on this earth.”
तस्मै तृणं निदधौ।
एतद्दह
इति। तदुपप्रेयाय सर्वजवेन। तन्न शशाक दग्धुम्
। स तत एव निववृते। नैतदशकं विज्ञातुं
  यदेतद्यक्षम्इति॥
He placed a
blade of grass before him, (and said): “Burn this.”
He approached it
with all his speed.  He was not able to
burn it.
He even returned
thence, (He told the gods): “ I was not able to know what this spirit is.”

Then the gods sent Vayu to find out the iddentity of the spirit.  Vayu was not able to lift up the grass,
though he said that he could lift anything on earth. Vayu also returned in
failure. Then they sent Indra for the purpose; but  the spirit vanished before him.
स तस्मिन्नेवाकाशे
स्त्रियमाजगाम बहु शोभमानामुमां हैमवतीम्। तां होवाच
किमेतद्यक्षम्इति॥
Then in the same
etherial region, he (indra) came across a woman who was shining intensely, Uma the
daughter of Himavan.  He asked her “What
spirit is this?”
                  चतुर्थः खण्डः
                  SECTION FOUR
साब्रह्मइति होवाच। ब्रह्मणो
वा एतद्विजये महीयध्वम्
इति । ततो हैव विदाञ्चकार
ब्रह्म
इति॥
She replied ”(It
is) Brahman.” (And she added) “Through the victory of Brahman, verily,
you(gods) have attained glory”.  Then,
indeed, he knew that (it was) Brahman.
तस्माद्वा एते देवा
अतितरामिवान्यान् देवान् यदग्निर्वायुरिन्द्रः । ते ह्येनं नेदिष्ठं पस्पर्शुः।
ते ह्येनं प्रथमो
 विदाञ्चकार ब्रह्म
इति॥

Therefore these gods, namely, Agni, Vayu and Indra, far surpass, as it were,
the other gods.  They have indeed, come
into very intimate contact with him (Brahman). 
They, indeed, for the first time knew that (it was) Brahman. 
तस्माद्वा इन्द्रोऽतितरामिवान्यान्
देवान् । स ह्येनं नेदिष्ठं पस्पर्श।
स ह्येनत् प्रथमो
 विदाञ्चकार ब्रह्म
इति॥
Therefore,
Indra, far surpasses, as it were, the other gods.  He has, indeed, come into very intimate
contact with him (Brahman).  He, indeed,
for the first time knew that (it was) Brahman.
तस्यैष आदेशो यतेदद्विद्युदो
व्यद्युतदा ३ इतीं न्यमीमिषदा ३। इत्यधिदैवतम्॥
(Of this)
(Brahman) there is this teaching;  this
is, as it were, the flash of lightning and it has vanished.   Thus (the teaching) concerning the gods.
अथाध्यात्मम्। यदेतत्गच्छतीव
च मनः । अनेन चैतदुपस्मरत्यभीक्ष्णं संकल्पः ॥
Now the teaching
concerning the self: It is this towards which the mind appears as moving.  In association with that, this (self)
repeatedly remembers as resolve.     
तद्ध तद्वनं नाम तद्वनमित्युपासितव्यम्
स य एतदेवं वेदाभि हैनं सर्वाणि भूतानि संवाञ्छन्ति॥
That, indeed, is
what is called tadvana (that desire), 
As tadvana  
It is to be
worshipped,  He who knows this (Brahman)
thus, him all beings love.
उपनिषदं भो ब्रूहिइति ।
उक्ता उपनिषत्। ब्राह्मीं
वाव त उपनिषदमश्रुम
इति॥
“Sir, teach (me)
the Upanishad”
“(To thee) has
been explained the Upanishad.  Now we
will explain to thee the Upanishad relating to Brahman”.
तस्यै तपो दमः कर्मेति
प्रतिष्ठा। वेदाः सर्वाङ्गानि। सत्यमायतनम्। यो वा एतामेवं वेदापहत्य
पाप्मानमन्ते स्वर्गे
लोके ज्येये प्रतितिष्ठति प्रतितिष्ठति ॥
Penance,
restraint, sacrificial rites, these are its (Upanishad) support.
The Vedas are
all its limbs.  Truth is its abode.  He who knows it (Upanishad) thus, shaking off
sin, in the end he is firmly established in the supreme world of heaven; yes,
he is firmly established.





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1 Comment on SELECTIONS FROM KENOPANISHAD

  1. M S Patel says:

    Thanks for this very kind publication work.