MAHABHARATA- CROWNING OF YUDHISHTHIRA AS YUVARAJA, MACHINATIONS OF DURYODHANA

THE MAHABHARATA
                                 CONDENSED IN
THE POET’S OWN WORDS
                                    By PANDIT
A. M. SRINIVASACHARIAR
         Translated By Dr V, Raghavan M.A.,
Ph.D. & Published By G.A. Natesan & Co., Madras
                                                      
॥    आदिपर्व   ॥
     Crowning of
Yudhishthira as Yuvaraja, Machinations of Duryodhana against Pandavas
.
            धृतराष्ट्रस्तु [राजेन्द्र] यदा कौरवनन्दनम्।
        युधिष्ठरं विजानन्वै समर्थं राज्यरक्षणे।
        यौवराज्याभिषेकार्थममन्त्रयत
मन्त्रिभिः ।
        ते तु बुध्वाऽन्वतप्यन्त
धृतराष्ट्रात्मजास्तदा ॥
When, finding that Yudhishthira, the son of
Pandu (of the Kuru line), was capable of protecting the State, Dhritarashtra
took counsel with his ministers for his installation as heir-apparent, the sons
of Dhritarashtra, coming to know of this, burnt (with envy).
        ततस्संवत्स्ररस्यान्ते यौवराज्याय [पर्थिव]।
        स्थापितो धृतराष्ट्रेण पाण्डुपुत्रो
युधिष्ठिरः ॥
Then, at the end of a year, Yudhishithira, the son of Pandu,
was established as heir-apparent by Dhritarashtra.
       ततोऽदीर्घेण कालेन कुन्तीपुत्रो
युधिष्ठिरः।
       पितुरन्तर्दधे कीर्तिं शीलवृत्तसमाधिभिः
Within a short time then, Yudhishthira, son of Kunti, obscured his
father’s fame by his own character, behaviour and devotion to duty.
      द्रोणो जगाद वचनं समालिङ्ग्य
तु फाल्गुनम्।
Embracing Arjuna, Drona said the words:
      ‘देवा युधि न शक्तास्त्वां
योद्धुं दैत्या न दानवाः।
      नाहं त्वत्तो विशिष्टोऽस्मि
किं पुनर्मानवा रणे ॥
“The gods cannot fight you in battle, nor
can the demons.  I (myself) am not your
superior in battle; why (speak of) ordinary men?
      ‘एकस्तवाधिको लोके यो हि
वृष्णिकुलोद्भवः।
      कृष्णः कमलपत्राक्षः कंसकालियसूदनः
“There is one who is your superior in this world, he who is born in the
Vrishni race, Krishna of lotus eyes, the destroyer of kamsa and of (the
serpent), Kaliya.
      ‘अपि चार्थे तव पुरा शक्रेण
किल चोदितः’
Long ago, he was urged by Indra on your behalf. 
(कृष्णः -)
      ’जानामि पाण्डवे वंशे जातं
शस्त्रभृताम् वरम्।
       आवयोस्सख्यसदृशं न च लोके
भविष्यति॥
(Krishna-)       
 “ I
know the greatest of men who carry arms who has been born in the family of
Pandu.  Equal to the friendship between
us two, there shall be none in the world.”
 
      “यस्तद्भक्तस्स मे भक्तो
यस्तं द्वेष्टि स मामपि।
      यन्मे वित्तं तु तत्तस्य
तं विनाऽहं न जीवये ॥
“He who is his friend is also mine; he who hates him hates me also.   The riches I have are his; (verily), without
him I cannot live.
     ‘इति पार्थ पुरा शक्रमाह
सर्वेश्वरो हरिः।
     तस्मात्तवापि सदृशस्तं विनाऽभ्यधिकः
पुमान्।
     न चेह भविता लोके तमेव शरणं
व्रज’॥
“So, Arjuna!, did Hari (Krishna), the lord of all, tell Indra once
(concerning you),  Therefore, equal to
you or superior to you, there will be none in the world except him; seek Him
for (thy) protection.”
     तथेति च प्रतिज्ञाय द्रोणाय
कुरुपुङ्गवः ।
     उपसङ्गृह्य चरणौ युधिष्ठिरवशोऽभवत्
॥  
Promising Drona that he would do so, the best of the Kuru house, Arjuna,
prostrated at Drona’s feet and placed himself under the control of
Yudhishthira.
    न शशाक वशे कर्तुं यं पाण्डुरपि
वीर्यवान्।
    सोऽर्जुनेन वशं नीतो राजाऽऽसीद्यवनाधिपः॥
Arjuna subdued the king of the Yavanas whom even the valorous Pandu
could not bring under control.
    सुमित्रं नाम सौविरमर्जुनोऽदमयच्छरैः।
With his arrows, Arjuna subdued the Sauvira king named Sumitra.
   भीमसेनसहायश्च रथानामयुतं
च सः।
   अर्जुनस्समरे प्राच्यान्
सर्वानेकरथोऽजयत्॥
With a single chariot and with Bhima as his
aid, Arjuna conquered in battle all the kings of the East with (their) myriad
chariots.
   तथैवेकरथो गत्वा दक्षिणामजयद्दिशम्
   धनौघं प्रापयामास कुरुराष्ट्रं
धनञ्जयः॥
Proceeding similarly with a single chariot,
he conquered the south. Arjuna, the winner of wealth, brought a heap of
treasure to the Kuru empire.
   एवं सर्वे महात्मानः पाण्डवा
मनुजोत्तमाः।
   परराष्ट्राणि निर्जित्य
स्वराष्ट्रं ववृधुः पुरा ॥

Thus did the Pandavas, all of them great souls and best of men, conquer the
enemy kingdoms of yore and expand their own kingdom.   
    
   
     ततो बलमतिख्यातं विज्ञाय
दृढधन्विनाम्।
     दूषितस्सहसा भावो धृतराष्ट्रस्य
पाण्डुषु ।
     स चिन्तापरमो राजा न निद्रामलभन्निशि॥
Learning then that the power of the firm archers, the Pandavas, had
become very celebrated, Dhritarashtra’s feeling towards the Pandavas suddenly
turned evil. All anxiety, the king could not sleep at night.
      गुणैस्समुदितान् दृष्ट्वा
पौराः पाण्डुसुतांस्तदा।
      कथयन्ति स्म संभूय चत्वरेषु
सभासु च ॥
At that time, seeing the sons of Pandu endowed with all good qualities,
the citizens, gathering at the crossroads and assembly halls, began to speak:
      प्रज्ञाचक्षुरचक्षुष्ट्वात्
स कथं नृपतिर्भवेत्।
      तथा शान्तनवो भीष्मस्सत्यसन्धो
महाव्रतः।
      प्रत्याख्याय पुरा राज्यं
न स जातु ग्रहिष्यति॥
’Having no eye, how can Dhritarashtra be
the king?  And Bhishma, son of Santanu,
one who is true to his promise and who rigidly observes his vow, having once
renounced the kingdom, will never take it. 
       ते वयं पाण्डवज्येष्ठं तरुणं
वृद्धशीलिनम्।
       अभिषिञ्चाम साध्वद्य सत्यकारुण्यवेदिनम्
“We shall therefore fittingly crown now the eldest of the Pandavas who
is youthful but experienced, truthful and compassionate.
       तेषां दुर्योधनश्श्रुत्वा
तानि वाक्यानि जल्पताम्।
       ततो विरहितं दृष्ट्वा पितरं
प्रतिपूज्य सः।
       पौरानुरागसन्तप्तः पश्चादिदमभाषत
Hearing the citizens speak those words,
Duryodhana met his father when he was alone, paid his respects and, tormented
by the citizens’ love (for Yudhishthira), spoke thus:
       “श्रुता मे जल्पतां तात पौराणामशिवा
गिरः।
        त्वामनादृत्य भीष्मं च पतिमिच्छन्ति
पाण्डवम् ॥“
“Father, unhappy words of citizens talking have been heard by me.
Slighting you and Bhishma, they wish to have Yudhishthira as ruler”.
       “मतमेतच्च भीष्मस्य न स राज्यं
बुभुक्षति।
       अस्माकं तु परां पीडां चिकीर्षन्ति
पुरे जनाः ॥“
“And this is agreeable to Bhishma, for he does not want to enjoy the
kingdom.  It is to us that the people in
the city want to do great harm.”
        “पितृतः प्राप्तवान् राज्यं
पाण्डुरात्मगुणैः पुरा।
         स एव पाण्डोर्दायाद्यं यदि
प्राप्नोति पाण्डवः।
         अवज्ञाता भविष्यामः परपिण्डोपजीविनः
         न भवेम यथा राजंस्तथा नीतिर्विधीयताम् ॥
“In the past, Pandu, by his qualities,
inherited the kingdom from his father and if this Yudhishthira, son of Pandu,
obtains the inheritance of Pandu, we shall become despised (creatures).  Let such a policy be adopted, O King, that we
shall not have to live at the mercy of others.”
         “यदि त्वं हि पुरा राजन्निदं
राज्यमवाप्तवान्।
         ध्रुवं प्राप्स्याम च वयं
राज्यमप्यवशे जने ॥
“King, if you had secured this kingdom
previously, we should get the kingdom for certain, even if the people are not
under our control.”
         धृतराष्ट्रस्तु सञ्चिन्त्य
दुर्योधनमथाब्रवीत् ।
Dhritarashtra reflected and then told Duryodhana:
        ’धर्मनिष्ठस्तथा पाण्डुस्सुप्रीतो
मयि कौरवः।
        तस्य पुत्रो यथा पण्डुस्तथा
धर्मपरस्सदा ॥’
That ever-righteous Pandu was so loving towards me and his son,
Yudhishthira is, like Pandu, always righteous.
        ’गुणवान् लोकविख्यातो नगरे
च प्रतिष्ठितः।
        स कथं शक्यतेऽस्माभिरपाक्रष्टुं
नरर्षभः ॥’  
’Gifted, famed in the world and established in the capital, how can that
excellent man, Yudhishthira, be removed from his place
by us’.
        दुर्योधनः –
        पाण्डवेभ्यो भयं नस्स्यात्
तान्विवासयतां भवान्।
        निपुणेनाभ्युपायेन नगरं
वारणावतम् ॥
Duryodhana:
There will be danger for us from the Pandavas.  Banish them to the city of Varanavata by some
clever device.
        ‘यदा प्रतिष्ठितं राज्यं
मयि राजन् भविष्यति।
         तदा कुन्ती सहापत्या पुनरेष्यति
भारत॥
’O Bharata king! when the kingdom becomes established as mine, Kunti
shall then return with her sons’.
       ततो  दुर्योधनो राजा सर्वास्तु प्रकृतीश्शनैः।
       अर्थमानप्रदानाभ्यां सञ्जहार
सहानुजः ॥
Then, king Duryodhana, along with his brothers, slowly won over all the
subjects  by bestowing on them wealth and
honour.
       धृतराष्ट्रप्रयुक्तास्तु
केचित्कुशलमन्त्रिणः।
       कथयाञ्चक्रिरे रम्यं नगरं
वारणावतम् ॥
Certain expert ministers, set up by Dhritarashtra, described the city of
Varanavata as beautiful.
       कथ्यमाने तथा रम्ये नगरे
वारणावते।
       गमने पाण्डुपुत्राणां जज्ञे
तत्र मति [र्नृप]
When the city of Varanavata was described as beautiful in that manner,
the idea of going there occurred to the sons of Pandu.
       यदा त्वमन्यत नृपो जातकौतूहला
इति।
       उवाचैतानेत्य तदा पाण्डवानम्बिकासुतः ॥

When King Dhritarashtra, son of Ambika,
understood  that the Pandavas had become
enthusiastic (about Varanavata),  he came
to them and told them then:
        ’हे ताता यदि मन्यध्वमुत्सवं
वारणावते।
        कञ्चित्कालं विहृत्यैवं
सुखिनः पुनरेष्यथ ॥
“Boys, if you have a mind for the festival (of Siva) in Varanavata,
enjoy yourselves there  for sometime and
return happily’
        धृतराष्ट्रस्य तं काममनुबुध्य
युधिष्ठरः।
        आत्मनश्चासहायत्वं तथेति
प्रत्युवाच तम्॥
Perceiving the wish of Dhritarashtra and his own helplessness,
YudhiShthira replied to him: “Even so be it”
        दुयोधनः परं हर्षमगच्छत्स
दुरात्मवान्।
        स पुरोचनमानीय सचिवं वाक्यमब्रवीत्॥
Duryodhana, that wicked soul, exulted greatly.  He brought his minister Purochana and said:
        ‘पाण्डवा धृतराष्ट्रेण
प्रेषिता वारणावतम्।
        तत्र गत्वा चतुश्शालं गृहं
परमसंवृतम्।
        नगरोपान्तमाश्रित्य कारयेथा
महाधनम् ॥‘
“The Pandavas have been sent by
Dhritarashtra to Varanavata.  You shall
go there and construct in the outskirts of the city a costly residence, with
four apartments (facing each other in pairs) and fully enclosed (by high
walls).’
        
‘शणं तैलं घृतं चैव जतु दारूणि चैव हि।
        
तस्मिन्वेश्मनि सर्वाणि निक्षिपेयास्समन्ततः॥’
“Hemp, oil, ghee, lac, wood – all these you
shall place everywhere in that house.
        
“वेश्मन्येवं कृते तत्र कृत्वा तान् परमार्चितान्।
        
वासयेथाः पाण्डवेयान् यथा तुष्येच्च मे पिता ॥
“When the house has been thus built, you
shall give the Pandavas the best reception and make them live in it in such a
manner that my father may be pleased.”
        
“ज्ञात्वा च तान् सुविश्वस्तान् शयानानकुतोभयान्।
          अग्निस्त्वया ततो देयो द्वारतस्तस्य वेश्मनः ॥
“Making sure that they are quite
unsuspecting, and asleep, and without fear from any quarter, you must then set
fie to the house at the entrance”
          
स तथेति प्रतिज्ञाय सर्वं चक्रे पुरोचनः।
           
पाण्डवास्तु कुरून्वृद्धान् अभिवाद्य यतव्रताः।
           
सर्वा  मातॄस्तथाऽऽपृच्छ्य प्रययुर्वारणावतम्
Promising to do so, Purochana did
everything.  And the Pandavas, acting up
to their promises, saluted the Kuru-elders, took leave of all their mothers,
and went to Varanavata.
         
“विदुरः पाण्डवश्रेष्ठमिदं वचनमब्रवीत्।
         
’कक्षघ्नः शिशिरघ्नश्च महाकक्षे बिलौकसः।
         
न दहेदिति चात्मानं यो रक्षति स जीवति
         
अनुशिक्ष्यानुगम्यैतान् विदुरः प्रययौ गृहान् ॥
Vidura spoke these words to Yudhishthira, the
best of the Pandavas: “He survives who protects himself knowing that fire which
burns wood and destroys frost in the interior of a big forest cannot burn the
creatures living in holes,” Having advised (them) thus and accompanied them (to
some distance), Vidura went back to his dwelling.          
  .
         
        
      
         
          
’          

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