MAHABHARATA-KRISHNA HONOURED IN RAJASUYA, SLAYS SISUPALA- YUDHISHTHIRA LOSES ALL TO SAKUNI IN GAMBLING

THE MAHABHARATA
CONDENSED IN THE POET’S OWN WORDS
By PANDIT A. M. SRINIVASACHARIAR
॥    सभापर्व   ॥
                                        Krishna honoured in Rajasuya, slays Sisupala,
                    Yudhishthira loses all to Sakuni in gambling.          
                                  अनुज्ञातस्तु कृष्णेन पाण्डवोऽरिनिबर्हणः।
            प्रेषयामास नकुलं भीष्माय
[भरतर्षभ]।
            द्रोणाय धृतराष्ट्राय विदुराय
कृपाय च ।
            भ्रातॄणां चैव सर्वेषां
येऽनुरक्ता युधिष्ठिरे ॥
Permitted
by Krishna, yudhishthira, the destroyer of his foes, sent Nakula to Bhishma,
Drona, Dhritarashtra, Vidura and Krupa, to all his brothers and also to those
who had love for Yudhishthira.
           दीक्षितस्सतु धर्मात्मा
धर्मराजो युधिष्ठिरः।
           जगाम यज्ञायतनं वृतो विप्रैः
सहस्रशः।
              भ्रातृभिर्ज्ञातिभिश्चैव धर्मो
विग्रहवानिव॥
Initiated,
the righteous king Yudhishthira surrounded by thousands of Brahmins, his
brothers and kinsmen, went to the sacrificial hall, looking verily like Dharma
incarnate. 
           ततो भीष्मश्शान्तवो बुद्ध्या
निश्चित्य वीर्यवान्।
           वार्ष्णेयं मन्यते कृष्णमर्हनीयतमं
भुवि ॥
Then
the mighty Bhishma, deciding with his knowledge, considered Krishna as the
greatest of those fit to be worshipped in the world. 
              भीष्मः –
              एष ह्येषां समस्तानां
तेजोबलपराक्रमैः।
              मध्ये तपन्निवाभाति ज्योतिषामिव
भास्करः ॥
Bhishma
“In
the midst of all these men, He shines forth, with his splendour, might and
valour, blazing like the sun in the midst of the planets”
            तस्मै भीष्माभ्यनुज्ञातस्सहदेवः
प्रतापवान्।
            उपजह्रेऽथ विधिवद् वार्ष्णेयायार्घ्यमुत्तमम्॥
Permitted
by Bhishma, the valorous Sahadeva then brought to Krishna best articles for
worship in the prescribed manner.
           शिशुपालस्तु तां पूजां वासुदेवे
न चक्षमे ।
Sisupala
did not brook that worship of Vasudeva.
           शिशुपालः-
           अतिपश्यसि वा सर्वान्न वा
पश्यसि पाण्डव।
           तिष्ठत्स्वन्येषु पूज्येषु
गोपमर्चितवानसि ॥
Sisupala-        
“Yudhishthira,
you overlook all or do not see them at all? When there are others who deserve
worship you have honoured a cowherd.
           ननु त्वयाऽपि बोद्धव्यं
यां पूजां माधवार्हसि।
           अयुक्तामात्मनः पूजां त्वं
पुनर्बहुमन्यसे ॥
‘“
Krishna, should you at least not have known what honour you deserve? You esteem
an honour which you do not deserve?”
           ‘आह्वये त्वां रणं गच्छ
मया सार्धं जनार्दन।
            यावदद्य निहन्मि त्वां
सहितं सर्वपाण्डवैः ॥
“I  challenge you, Krishna; come for a fight with
me; I shall kill
you
now, along with all the Pandavas.”
          ‘इत्युक्त्वा प्रययौ क्षिप्रं
पार्थयज्ञजिघांसया।
Having
spoken thus, Sisupala proceeded forth, desiring to ruin the sacrifice of the
Pandavas.
           ततश्चक्रगदापाणिः केशवः
केशिहा हरिः।
           चिच्छेद च सुनीथस्य शिरश्चक्रेण
संयुगे ॥
Then,
Krishna, armed with the discus and the mace, the destroyer of (the Asura)
Kesin, cut off with his discus sunitha’s (Sisupala’s) head in the fight.
          ततः प्रववृते यज्ञः केशवेन
सुरक्षितः।
The
sacrifice then went on, protected well by Krishna.
          ततस्त्ववभृथस्नातं धर्मात्मानं युधिष्ठिरम्।
          समस्तं पार्थिवं क्षत्रमुपागम्येदमब्रवीत्॥
The
whole world of kings then came and said this to the righteous Yudhishthira  who had performed the ablution marking the
end of the sacrifice.
          दिष्ट्या वर्धसि धर्मज्ञ
साम्राज्यं प्राप्तवानसि। 
          कर्मणैतेन राजेन्द्र धर्मश्च
सुमहान् कृतः ।
          स्वराष्ट्राणि गमिष्यामस्तदनुज्ञातुमर्हसि
“Righteous
king of kings, we are glad you are prosperous; you have attained complete
sovereignty.  And by this sacrifice, a
very great Dharma has been done by you. 
We shall proceed to our countries; you must give us leave.”
         पाण्डवा नृपतीन्सर्वानेकैकं समनुव्रजन्।
         प्रययौ पुण्डरीकाक्षस्ततो
द्वारवतीं पुरीम् ॥
The
Pandavas accompanied everyone of those kings, as befitting them.  Then Krishna left for the city of Dwaraka.
        गतेषु क्षत्रियेन्द्रेषु सर्वेषु
[भरतर्षभ]
        पाण्डवेयाभ्यनुज्ञातस्ततो दुर्योधनो
नृपः।
        अप्रहृष्टेन मनसा जगाम गजसाह्वयम्
Then,
after all the kings had gone, king Duryodhana, given leave by Yudhishthira,
left for Hastinapura with a depressed mind.
        पार्थान् सुमनसो दृष्ट्वा मन्दः
क्रोधवशानुगः।
        पितरं प्रत्युवाचेदं स्वमतिं
संप्रकाशयन् ॥
Dull
in spirits on seeing the Pandavas happy, Duryodhana told his father,
overpowered by anger and disclosing his mind:
 
        न मां प्रीणाति मद्भुक्तं श्रियं
दृष्ट्वा युधिष्ठिरे।
        शान्तिं न परिगच्छामि दह्यमानेन
चेतसा॥
“Seeing
Yudhishthira’s prosperity, the food I eat does not please me.  I have no peace, with a heart that is
burning.”
       शकुनिः-
       यामेतामतुलां लक्ष्मीं दृष्टवानसि
पाण्डवे।
       तस्याः प्राप्तावुपायं मे शृणु
सत्यपराक्रम॥
“Warrior
of unfailing valour! hearken to this stratagem of mine for obtaining those
immense riches that you saw with Yudhishthira.” 
       “अहमक्षेष्वभिज्ञोऽस्मि विशेषज्ञश्च
देवने।
        द्यूतप्रियश्च कौन्तेयो न च
जानाति देवितुम्॥
“I
am an expert with the dice and know the intricacies of gambling.  Yudhishthira is fond of gambling and does not
know how to play.”
        “नियतं तु विजेष्यामि कृत्वा
तु कपटं विभो।
        आनयामि समृद्धिं तां दिव्यां
चोपाह्वयस्व तम्॥

King, I will surely win adopting deceit and bring you that celestial prosperity
(of his); invite him.”
        दुर्योधनः-
        “अयमुत्सहते राजन् श्रियमाहर्तुमक्षवित्।
         द्यूतेन पाण्डुपुत्रस्य तदनुज्ञातुमर्हसि
Duryodhana-
“King,
this Sakuni, expert with the dice, ventures to capture the riches of
Yudhishthira through gambling; you must permit that.”
         आर्तवाक्यं तु तत्तस्य प्रणयोक्तं
निशम्य सः ।
         धृतराष्ट्रो [महाराज] प्राहिणोद्विदुराय वै ॥
Hearing
those plaintive words of Duryodhana said with affection, Dhritarashtra sent for
Vidura.
          द्यूते दोषांश्च जानन्स पुत्रस्नेहादकृष्यत
Knowing,
as he did, the evils of gambling, he was being dragged by his affection for his
son.
       तच्छ्रुत्वा विदुरो धीमानिदं
वचनमब्रवीत्।
       ’नाभिनन्दामि ते राजन् व्यवसायमिमं [प्रभो]।
       पुत्रैर्भेदो यथा न स्यात् द्यूतहेतोस्तथा
कुरु”
Hearing
that, the wise Vidura said these words: “King, I do not approve of this resolve
of yours.  Act in such a manner that
there will be no split amongst your sons because of this game of dice”  
       धृतराष्ट्रः-
       अशुभं वा शुभं वाऽपि हितं वा
यदि वाऽहितम्।
       प्रवर्ततां सुहृद्द्यूतं दिष्टमेतन्न
संशयः।
       गच्छ त्वं खाण्डवप्रस्थं समानय
युधिष्ठिरम्॥
Dhritarashtra-
“Bad
or good, beneficial or detrimental, let friendly gambling go      
on;
this is surely destined.  Go to
Khandavaprastha and bring Yudhishthira.”
      ततः प्रायाद्विदुरोऽश्वैरुदारैः
      बलान्नियुक्तः पाण्डवानां सकाशे।
      तं वै राजा प्रतिगृह्याजमीढ-
      स्ततोऽपृच्छद् धृतराष्ट्रं सपुत्रम्॥
Forcibly
compelled, Vidura then went to the Pandavas with fine horses.  After receiving him, king Yudhishthira
enquired of Dhritarashtra and his sons.
      विदुरः-
       “ राजा महात्मा कुशली सपुत्र
        आस्ते वृतो ज्ञातिभिरिन्द्रकल्पः।
        इदं तु त्वां कुरुराजोऽभ्युवाच
        सुहृद्द्यूतं क्रियतां रम्यतां
च ॥
Vidura
“The
great king, along with his sons, is well and, surrounded by his kinsmen, is
like Indra himself.  That Kuru king
(Dhritarashtra) said this for you; “Let friendly dice be played and enjoyed.”
        जानाम्यहं द्यूतमनर्थमूलं
      कृतश्च यत्नोऽस्य मया निवारणे।
      राजा च मां प्राहिणोत्त्वत्सकाशं
      श्रुत्वा विद्वन् श्रेय इहाचरस्व
“I
know  that gambling is the root cause of
calamity; and effort to prevent it was made by me.  But the king sent me to you.  Having heard this, wise Yudhishthira, do what
is good in the circumstances.” 
       ’आहूतोऽहं न निवर्ते कदाचिद्’
       एवमुक्त्वा विदुरं धर्मराजः
       प्रायाच्छ्वोभूते सगणस्सानुयात्रः
       सह स्त्रीभिर्द्रौपदीमादिकृत्वा

Once called, I will never turn back.” Having told Vidura so, Yudhishthira went
(to Hastinapura) the next day, with his party and retinue and with the women
headed by Draupadi.
      स हास्तिनपुरं गत्वा धृतराष्ट्रेण
पाण्डवः।
      समियाय यथान्यायं कुरुभिश्चापि
सर्वशः ॥
Reaching
Hastinapura, Yudhishthira met in the proper manner Dhritarashtra and all the
(other) members of the Kuru house.
      सुखोषितास्ते रजनीं प्रातस्सर्वे
कृताह्निकाः।
      सभां रम्यां प्रविविशुः कितवैरभिनन्दिताः॥
Having
spent the night happily, they did their daily religious duty in the morning and
entered the beautiful gambling hall, cheered by gamblers.
  शकुनिस्सौबलस्तत्र युधिष्ठिरमभाषत।
  ’उपस्तीर्णा सभा राजन् सर्वे त्वयि
कृतक्षणाः।
  अक्षानुप्त्वा देवनस्य समयोऽस्तु
युधिष्ठिर’ ॥
There,
Sakuni addressed Yudhishthara: “King, the dice-cloth has been spread in the
hall (here); everybody is expecting you; Yudhishthira, let there be an
understanding for casting the dice and playing.”
        युधिष्ठिरः-
        ’निकृतिर्देवनं पापं न क्षात्रोऽत्र
पराक्रमः ।
        आहूतो न निवर्तेयमिति मे व्रतमाहितम्
        विधिश्च बलवान् केन देवनं मे
भविष्यति ॥
Yudhishthira- 
“Gambling
is deceitful and sinful;  there is no
martial valour in it. I do not turn back when called; so have I taken a vow.
Fate is powerful.  With whom shall I have
to gamble?”
        दुर्योधनः-
        अहं दातास्मि रत्नानां धनानां
च विशांपते।
        मदर्थे देविता चायं शकुनिर्मातुलो
मम ॥
Duryodhana-
“I
shall give, O King, jewels and money, and on my behalf, this uncle of mine,
Sakuni, shall play”
         युधिष्ठिरः-
        
         अन्येनान्यस्य वै द्यूतं विषमं
प्रतिभाति मे।
       एतद्विद्वन्नुपादत्स्व काममेवं
प्रवर्तताम् ॥
“One
gambling for another seems to me to be irregular; learned man, know this; but
if you so desire, let me proceed.”
       “सन्ति निष्कसहस्रस्य भाण्डिन्यो
भरिताश्शुभाः।
       कोशो हिरण्यमक्षय्यं सदश्वा
राष्ट्रसंमताः ।
       शतं दासीसहस्राणि कुशला नृत्तसामसु।
       सहस्रसंख्या नागा मे सर्वशब्दक्षमा
युधि।
       गवाश्वं बहुधेनूकमसंख्येयमजाविकम्।
       एतद्राजन्मम धनं तेन दीव्याम्यहं
त्वया॥“
“There
are beautiful chests each filled with a thousand pieces of gold; (my) treasury
of inexhaustible gold; excellent horses celebrated in (all) countries; hundred
thousand attendant women, experts in dancing and songs; my elephants numbering
a thousand and capable of standing every noise in battle; bulls and horses with
numerous cows, numberless goats and sheep; – this, king, is my wealth.  With this, I will play with you.”
        एतच्छ्रुत्वा व्यवसितो निकृतिं
समुपाश्रितः।
        जितमित्येव शकुनिर्युधिष्ठिरमभाषत॥
Hearing
this and determining, Sakuni resorted to deceit and simply told Yudhishthira “I
have won”
        युधिष्ठिरः-
        ’राजपुत्रा इमे राजन् शोभन्ते
वैर्विभूषिताः।
        कुण्डलानि च निष्काश्च सर्वं
राजविभूषणम्।
       एतन्मम धनं राजंस्तेन दीव्याम्यहं
त्वया॥
Yudhishthira-
“King,
these ear-rings, necklaces and all the royal ornaments, adorned with which
these princes (my brothers) shine, – these are my property; with them I play
with you”
       जितमित्येव शकुनिर्युधिष्ठिरमभाषत
“Won”,
Saskuni simply said to Yudhishthira.
        युधिष्ठिरः-
        ’श्यामो युवा लोहिताक्षस्सिंहस्कन्धो
महाभुजः।
        नकुलो ग्लह एवैको विद्ध्येतन्मम
तद्धनम् ॥
Yudhishthira-
“Swarthy,
youthful, of red eyes, lion-like shoulders and mighty arm, this Nakula is my
single wager; know this as my wealth to be staked.” 
       जितमित्येव शकुनिर्युधिष्ठिरमभाषत
Sakuni
simply said to Yudhishthira “Won.”
       युधिष्ठिरः-
          ’अयं धर्मान्सहदेवोऽनुशास्ति   
            लोके ह्यस्मिन् पण्डिताख्यां
गतश्च।
           अनर्हता राजपुत्रेण तेन
            दीव्याम्यहं चाप्रियवत्
प्रियेण ॥
 Yudhishthira-
“This
Sahadeva who preaches the Dharmas and has attained  in this world the name of a scholar, – with
that dear prince who does not deserve this, I gamble as if he were not dear to
me.”
       जितमित्येव शकुनिर्युधिष्ठिरमभाषत
Sakuni
simply said to Yudhishthira “Won.”
       युधिष्ठिरः-
         “यो नस्संख्ये नौरिव पारनेता
            जेता रिपूणां राजपुत्रस्तरस्वी।
          अनर्हता लोकवीरेण तेन
            दीव्यामहं शकुने फाल्गुनेन”॥
Yudhishthira-
“He
who takes us to the other shore like a ship in (our) battles;
conqueror
of his foes and a mighty prince, with that Arjuna, the one warrior in the
world, who does not deserve this, I gamble, O Sakuni.”
          जितमित्येव शकुनिर्युधिष्ठिरमभाषत
Sakuni
simply said to Yudhishthira “Won.”
        युधिष्ठिरः-
        “बलेन तुल्यो यस्य पुमान्न
विद्यते
           गदाभृतामग्र्य इहारिमर्दनः।
        अनर्हता राजपुत्रेण तेन
           दीव्याम्यहं भीमसेनेन राजन्
॥“
Yudhishthira-
“King!
Equal to whom in strength there is no man, this foremost of those who bear the
mace, this annihilator of his foes, – with that prince Bhimasena who does not
deserve this, I gamble.”
       जितमित्येव शकुनिर्युधिष्ठिरमभाषत
Sakuni
simply said to Yudhishthira “Won.”
        
    

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