MAHABHARATA – VIRATA PARVA

THE MAHABHARATA
CONDENSED IN THE POET’S OWN WORDS
By PANDIT A. M. SRINIVASACHARIAR
                                   
                       अथ विराट
पर्व
                        VIRATA
PARVA
                                 धर्मेण तेऽभ्यनुज्ञाताः
पाण्डवास्सत्यविक्रमाः।
               अज्ञातवासं वत्स्यन्तो
मन्त्राय समुपाविशत्॥
Given leave
by God Dharma, the truly valiant pandavas, who were to live the incognito life,
sat for deliberation.
               युधिष्ठिरः-
               सभास्तारो भविष्यामि
विराटस्येति मे मतिः।
               कङ्को नाम ब्रुवाणोऽहं
मताक्षस्साधुदेविता ॥
Yudhishthira-
“ I think I
shall become a member of the court of king Virata.  I will call myself Kanka, a knower of dice
and an expert gambler.               
              
             
भीमः-
              सूदोऽहं वललो नाम्ना
सूपकारो नराधिप ।
              उपस्थास्यामि राजानं
विराटमिति रोचये॥
Bhima-
“King, I
would like to attend upon king Virata making sauces (for him) as a cook, with
the name valala.”
     
              अर्जुनः-
              वेणीकृतशिरा भूत्वा भविष्यामि
बृहन्नला।
              नृत्तं गीतं च वादित्रं
दिव्यं च विविधं तथा
              शिक्षयिष्याम्यहं राजन्
विराटनगरे स्त्रियः ॥
Arjuna-
“ King,
plaiting my hair, I shall become a woman (eunuch) with the name Brihannala.  I will teach the women in Virata’s city
celestial and various other kinds of dance and music, vocal and instrumental.”
              नकुलः-
              ’अश्वाध्यक्षो भविष्यामि
विराटस्येति मे मतिः।
               दामग्रन्थीति नाम्नाऽहं
कर्मैतत् सुप्रियं मम ॥’
Nakula-
“My idea is
to become the groom of Virata, with the name Damagranthin; this work is very
much to my liking.”
              सहदेवः-
              ’गोसंख्याता भविष्यामि
विराटस्येति रोचये।
              तन्त्रीपालेति मे नाम
स्वयं प्रोक्तं भविष्यति॥’
Sahadeva-
“ I like to
become the cowherd of Virata.  Tantripala
shall be the name I give myself.”
              द्रौपदी-
              ’अहं ब्रुवाणा सैरन्ध्री
कुशला केशकर्मणि।
               सुदेष्णां प्रत्युपस्थास्ये
युष्माभिस्तत्र तस्थुषी॥’
Draupadi-
“Calling
myself Sairandhri, an adept in hair-dressing I shall, staying in Virata’s court
along with you, attend upon (Virata’s queen) Sudeshna.”
       एवं तेऽन्योन्यमामन्त्र्य सङ्क्रामन्तो
वनाद्वनम्।
       लुब्धान्ब्रुवाणा मात्स्यस्य
विषयं प्राविशंस्तदा॥
Having told
each other thus, and moving from forest to forest describing themselves as
hunters, the Pandavas entered the territory of the king of the Matsyas.
        अर्जुनः-
        ’इयं वने मनुष्येन्द्र महती
दृश्यते शमी।
         अस्यामायुधमासज्य गच्छाम नगरं
वयम् ॥
Arjuna-
“King,
(here) we see a big Sami tree in this forest. 
Leaving our weapons tied together in this tree, we shall go to this
city.”
         तानि सर्वाणि संनह्य शमीं
कृत्वा प्रदक्षिणम्।
         ततो यथासमाज्ञप्तं नगरं प्राविशंस्तदा॥
Tying
together all their weapons, (placing them in the Sami tree), and going round
the Sami tree, they then entered the city as previously settled.
          विराटनगरे चेरुः प्रच्छन्नाः
पुरुषर्षभाः।
          कर्माणि तस्य कुर्वाणा विराटनृपतेस्तदा॥
Doing
service to the king of Virata, those illustrious Pandavas lived concealed in
the capital of Virata.
           तस्मिन्वर्षे गतप्राये कीचको द्रुपदात्मजाम्।
           कामयामास सेनानीः प्रत्याख्यातः
पदाऽवधीत्।
           गृहीत्वा कीचकं भीमो मांसपिण्डमथाकरोत्॥
When
that year had almost passed, Kichaka, the Commander-in-Chief of Virata, made
love to Draupadi, and repudiated by her, kicked her with his foot.  Bhima seized Kichaka and made him a lump of
flesh.
           अथ वै धार्तराष्ट्रेण प्रयुक्ता
ये बहिश्चराः।
           आगत्य हास्तिनपुरं राजानमिदमब्रुवन्
Then, the
spies sent out by Duryodhana came to Hastinapura and informed the king
Duryodhana of this killing of Kichaka.
         
‘सर्वा च पृथिवी कृत्स्ना सशैलवनकानना।
          अन्वेषिता च सर्वत्र न च
पश्याम पाण्डवान्॥
           येन त्रिगर्ता निहताः कीचकेन
बलीयसा।
           स हतो निशि गन्धर्वैस्स्त्रीनिमित्तं
नराधिप॥’
“King,
the whole world, mountains and forests included, has been searched everywhere,
and we do not find the Pandavas.  That
mighty Kichaka who devastated the Trigarta country has been killed in the night
by some Gandharvas, on account of some woman.”
            दुर्योधनः-
            ’अज्ञातसमये ज्ञाताः प्रविशेयुः
पुनर्वनम्।
            शङ्के कृष्णानिमित्तं तु
भीमसेनेन कीचकः।
             गन्धर्वव्यपदेशेन हतो
निशि महाबलः॥
Duryodhana-
“If the
Pandavas are found in their incognito life, they shall enter the forest
again.  I suspect, it is on account of
Draupadi that the mighty Kichaka was killed at night by Bhimasena, under
pretext of being a Gandharva.”
           ‘विराटनगरे मन्ये पाण्डवाश्छन्नचारिणः।’
“I think,
it is in Virata’s capital that the Pandavas are living concealed.
       ‘मत्स्यराष्ट्रं गमिष्यामो ग्रहिष्यामश्च
गोधनम्।
        गृहीते गोधने नूनं तेऽपि योत्स्यन्तिपाण्डवाः
“we will go
to the Matsya country and lift the cattle. 
When the cattle are lifted, surely the Pandavas also will fight.”
        ते स्म गत्वा यथोद्दिष्टं देशं
मत्स्यमहीपतेः।
        बलोत्कटा न्यगृह्णन्त गोधनानि
सहस्रशः ॥
Proceeding
to the territory of the Matsya king as planned, Duryodhana’s men, elated with
their strength, seized the cattle by thousands.
          स राजा महतीं सेनां मत्स्यानां
समवाहयत्॥
The king of
the Matsyas gathered a huge army.
          युधिष्ठिरोऽपि धर्मात्मा
भ्रातृभिस्सहितस्तदा।
           व्यूहं कृत्वा विराटस्य
अन्वयुध्यत पाण्डवः॥
And the
righteous Yudhishthira also, along with his brothers, formed a squadron for
Virata and fought along with others.
            निवृत्य गास्ततस्सर्वाः
पाण्डवास्ते हतद्विषः।
           
सङ्ग्रामशिरसो मध्ये तां रात्रिं सुखिनोऽवसन्॥
After
defeating the enemies and recovering the cattle, the Pandavas spent that night
in happiness in the midst of the battle field.
           याते त्रिगर्तान्मात्स्ये
तु पशूंस्तान्वै परीप्सति।
           सर्वे मत्स्यानुपागम्य गोधनं जह्रुरोजसा।
           कुरवो रथवंशेन परिगृह्य समन्ततः ॥
When
the king of the Matsyas had (thus) gone to the Trigarta country, wishing to
regain the cattle, all the kauravas came upon the Matsya country and
surrounding with a number of chariots, carried away the cattle by force.
           गवाध्यक्षस्तु संत्रस्तो
नृपवेश्माभ्ययात्ततः।
           दृष्ट्वा भूमिञ्जयं सर्वमाचष्ट
पशुकर्षणम्।
           आरुह्य प्रययौ वीरः स बृहन्नलसारथिः
Alarmed,
the chief of the cowherds then went to the palace, and seeing Bhuminjaya (son
of the Virata King), told him all about the cattle raid.  That warrior, Bhuminjaya, mounted (his
chariot) and sallied forth, with Brihannala as the charioteer.
          तदनीकमथो वीक्ष्य गजाश्वरथसङ्कुलम्।
          कर्णदुर्योधनकृपैर्गुप्तं शान्तनवेन
च ।
          द्रोणेन सह पुत्रेण निमील्य
स्वदृशौ तदा।
         वैराटिः प्राद्रवद्भीतो विसृज्य
सशरं धनुः ॥
Seeing
that army then, full of elephants, horses and chariots and protected by Karna,
Duryodhana, Kripa, Bhishma and Drona with his son Asvathaman, Virata’s son
closed his eyes, and fled in fear, throwing down the bow and arrows.
         तमन्वधावद्धावन्तं राजपुत्रं
धनञ्जयः।
         विधूय वेणीं धावन्तं पाण्डवं
प्रेक्ष्य सैनिकाः।
         अर्जुनेति च नेत्येव व्यवस्यन्ति
न ते पुनः ॥
Arjuna
ran after the fleeing prince.  The
soldiers (on the side of the Kauravas), seeing him running, with the plaited
hair swinging about, were not able to decide whether he was Arjuna or not.
         समाश्वास्य भयार्तं तमुत्तरं
भरतर्षभः।
         उत्तरं सारथिं कृत्वा शमीं
कृत्वा प्रदक्षिणम्।
         आयुधं सर्वमादाय ततः प्रायाद्धनञ्जयः
Making
the fear-stricken Uttara (Bhuminjaya, the son of Virata) take heart, Arjuna,
the illustrious Bharata, made him his charioteer, went round the Sami tree,
took all his weapons and then went forth (for the fight)
         ततश्शङ्खमुपाध्मासीद् दारयन्निव
मेदिनीम्।
         ज्याघोषं तलघोषं च कृत्वा
भूतान्यमोहयत् ॥
Then,
Arjuna blew the conch, as if tearing the world. 
He stupefied all beings by the twang of his bow-string and by the slap
of his palm on his body.
         भीष्मः-
        ’सर्वं यथावच्चरितं यद्यदेभिः
प्रतिश्रुतम्।
         एवमेतत् ध्रुवं ज्ञाता ततो
बीभत्सुरागतः ॥
Bhishma-
“All
that the Pandavas undertook to do, they have done accordingly.  Knowing this for certain, Arjuna has come
out.
          ‘एको हि समरे पार्थः पृथिवीं
निर्दहेच्छरैः।
          भ्रातृभिस्सहितो भूत्वा किं
पुनः कौरवान् रणे ॥
“Even
singly, Arjuna will burn the world with his arrows in the battle; why add that,
with his brothers by his side, he will burn the Kauravas in battle?
          तस्मात्सन्धिं कुरुश्रेष्ठ
कुरुष्व यदि मन्यसे ॥
“Therefore,
Duryodhana, make peace (with him) if you care.”
          दुर्योधनः-
          ’नाहं राज्यं प्रदास्यामि
पाण्डवेभ्यः पितामह।
          ग्रामं सेनां च दासांश्च
स्वल्पं द्रव्यमपि प्रभो।
          युद्धौपचारिकं यत्तु तत्सर्वं
संविधीयताम् ॥
Duryodhana-
“Grandfather,
I will not give the Pandavas the kingdom, a village, army, or servants; or even
the smallest thing.  Let all that is
necessary for war be done.”
            भीष्मः प्रस्थाप्य राजानं
गोधनं तदनन्तरम्।
            सेनामुख्यान्व्यवस्थाप्य
व्यूहितुं संप्रचक्रमे ।।
Sending
away king Duryodhana and the cattle at the back, Bhishma arranged the chiefs in
the army and began to array the army. 
            उपायादर्जुनस्तूर्णं  रथघोषेन नादयन् ।
Raising
reverberations with the noise of his chariot, Arjuna advanced swiftly.
            द्वाभ्यां द्वाभ्यां तथाऽऽचार्यं
द्रोणं प्रथमतः क्रमात्।
            द्रोणं कृपं भीष्मं च पृषत्कैरभ्यवादयत्
Beginning
with his preceptor Drona, Arjuna made salutations, in order, to Drona, Kripa
and Bhishma, with two arrows each.
           क्षोभयामास तत्सैन्यं कर्णं
विव्याध चासकृत्।
Arjuna
threw the army pell-mell and struck Karna frequently.
          स पार्थमुक्तानविषह्य बाणान्
               विहाय संग्रामशिरोऽपयातः।
          ततोऽस्त्रमस्त्रेण निवार्य
तेषां
              गाण्डीवधन्वा कुरुपुङ्गवानाम्।
         संमोहनं शत्रुसहोऽन्यमस्त्रं
              प्रादुश्चकारैन्द्रमवारणीयम्॥
Unable
to stand the arrows shot by Arjuna, Karna fled, leaving the battle-front.  Warding off every missile of those Kuru
chiefs with a missile of his, the Gandiva-bowed Arjuna who could withstand his
enemies, brought forth another missile, the irresistible Sammohana (the
stupefying one), presided over by Indra.
             निस्सत्त्ववेगाः कुरुराजसैन्याः
                कुड्योपमास्तस्थुरनीहमानाः।
             रथादवप्लुत्य विराटपुत्रो
                वस्त्राण्युपादाय महारथानाम्।
             हारांश्च राज्ञां मणिभूषणानि
                तूर्णं पुनस्स्वं रथमारुरोह
Bereft
of strength and force and without any volition, the soldiers of Duryodhana
stood like walls.  Jumping down from his
chariot, the son of Virata gathered the garments, necklaces and jewelled
ornaments of the kings and warriors (in Duryodhana’s army) and quickly mounted
his chariot again.
              गाण्डीवधन्वा प्रहसन्कुरूणां
                शङ्खं प्रदध्मौ च धनं
निवर्त्य।
              गुरूंश्च सर्वानभिवाद्य
बाणैः
                न्यवर्ततोदग्रमना महात्मा॥
Laughing
at the Kauravas, the great Gandiva-bowed Arjuna blew his conch; and recovering
the cattle and saluting all his elder with arrows, he returned in high spirits.
               ततो निवृत्ताः कुरवो
जग्मुस्ते हृतवाससः॥
Stripped
of their clothes, the Kauravas then turned back and went away.
              स विजित्य धनं चापि विराटो
वाहिनीपतिः।
              प्राविशन्नगरं हृष्टश्चतुर्भिस्सह
पाण्डवैः ॥
The
Virata king who commanded the army (which went to the Trigarta country) also
entered the city in glee along with the four Pandavas, after winning back the
cattle.
             अथोत्तरेण प्रहिता दूतास्ते
शीघ्रगामिनः।
             विराटनगरं प्राप्य जयं
प्रावेदयंस्तदा ॥
Then,
the swift messengers sent by Uttara reached the Virata capital  and announced the victory.
            
       इतिकर्तव्यतां सर्वं
मन्त्रयित्वा तु पाण्डवाः ।
             न्यवसंश्चैव तां रात्रिं
धर्मज्ञा धर्मवत्सलाः ॥
Consulting
and settling the course of action, the Pandavas who knew and loved Dharma
passed that night.
            
ततो द्वितीये दिवसे भ्रातरः पञ्च पाण्डवाः।
             युधिष्ठिरं पुरस्कृत्य
भूमिपालासनेषु ते ।
             निषेदुः पावकप्रख्यास्सत्रे
धिष्ण्येष्विवाग्नयः ॥
On
the second day then, the five fire-like Pandava brothers, with Yudhishthira at
their head, sat on royal seats, like fires in the altars in a sacrifice.
             आजगाम सभां राजा उत्तरेण
सह [प्रभो]।
             स तान्दृष्ट्वा राजवेषान्
पार्थिवो विस्मितोऽभवत् ॥
The
king came to the court hall with Uttara and was wonder-struck when he saw them
in royal dress.
            स्मयमानोऽब्रवीद्वाक्यमर्जुनःपरविरहा।
Smiling,
Arjuna, the destroyer of enemy warriors, said:
           ‘अयं कुरूणामृषभः कुन्तीपुत्रो
युधिष्ठिरः।
           य एष वललो भीमो भीमवेगपराक्रमः।
           यश्चासीदश्वबन्धस्ते नकुलोऽयं
परंतप।
           गोसंख्यस्सहदेवश्च सैरन्ध्री
द्रौपदी प्रिया॥
  “You who inflict woes on your enemies! this
is the chief of the Kuru house, the son of Kunti, Yudhishthira; this Valala is
Bhima of terrible force and strength; this, who was your groom, is Nakula; the
cowherd is Sahadeva; and Sairandhri, our beloved wife, Draupadi.”
        
           ततोऽर्जुनस्य वैराटिः कथयामास
विक्रमम्।
           तस्य तद्वचनं श्रुत्वा मत्स्यराजः
प्रतापवान्।
           धनञ्जयं परिष्वज्य युधिष्ठिरमथाब्रवीत्॥
Then,
Virata’s son, Uttara, told Virata of Arjuna’s exploits.  Hearing those words of his son, the valorous
king of the Matsyas, embraced Arjuna and said to Yudhishthira:
              ‘दिष्ट्या भवन्तस्संप्राप्तास्सर्वे
कुशलिनो वनात्।
              उत्तरां प्रतिगृह्णातु
सव्यसाची धनञ्जयः।
              अयं ह्यौपयिको भर्ता
तस्याः पुरुषसत्तमः॥
It
is fortunate that you have all come from the forest hale and healthy.  Let Arjuna, (the archer), who shoots arrows
with both hands, accept as wife Uttara (my daughter); this best of men is the
proper husband for her.”
               एवमुक्तो धर्मराजः पार्थमैक्षद्धनञ्जयम्।
               ईक्षितं चार्जुनो ज्ञात्वा
मात्स्यं वचनमब्रवित्॥
So
told, YudhiShthira looked at Arjuna. Understanding the look, Arjuna said these words
to the Matsya king:
             ‘प्रतिगृह्णाम्यहं राजन्
स्नुषां दुहितरं तव।
             अन्तःपुरेऽहमुषितो विश्वस्ता
पितृवन्मयि।
             आचार्यवच्च मां नित्यं
मन्यते दुहिता तव।
             स्वस्रीयो वासुदेवस्य
साक्षाद्देवसुतो यथा।
             अभिमन्युर्महाबाहुः पुत्रो मम विशांपते।
             जामाता तव युक्तो वै भर्ता
च दुहितुस्तव॥
“King,
I shall accept your daughter as my daughter-in-law.  I have lived in the harem and she has moved
with me in confidence as with a father; also, your daughter regards me as her
teacher.  Nephew of Krishna and looking
verily like the son of god, my son, the mighty Abhimanyu is a fitting
son-in-;law for you and a fitting husband for your daughter.
          
              दूतान् सर्वेषु मित्रेषु वासुदेवे च [भारत]।
              प्रेषयामास कौन्तेयो
विराटश्च महीपतिः
Yudhishthira
and king Virata sent messengers to all their friends and to Krishna.
             युद्धात्प्रयाता कुरवो
हि मार्गे
                समादिशन्दूतमथो समग्राः।
             स चाब्रवीद्धर्मराजं
समेत्य   
                युधिष्ठिरं पाण्डवमुग्रवीर्यम्॥
Departing
from the battle, the Kauravas, all of them, commissioned then a messenger while
on the way.  The messenger reached
Yudhishthira and told that son of Pandu of formidable heroism;
             धनञ्जयेनासि पुनर्वनाय
               प्रव्राजितस्समये तिष्ठ
पार्थ।
             त्रयोदशे ह्येष किरीटमाली
               संवत्सरे पाण्डवेयोऽद्य
दृष्टः॥
“Yudhishthira,
you have again been banished to the forest through Arjuna; abide by the condition;
even in the (course of the) thirteenth year, Arjuna has been, just now, found
out.”
             ततोऽब्रवीद्धर्मसुतः प्रहस्य
                क्षिप्रं गत्वा ब्रूहि
सुयोधनं तम्।
             पितामहश्शान्तनवो ब्रवीतु
               पूर्णो न पूर्णोऽद्य
त्रयिदशो नः ॥
Yudhishthira  then said laughing: “ Go quick and tell that
Duryodhana: ‘Let our grandfather Bhishma say whether our thirteenth year is now
completed or not.”
              तेनैवमुक्तस्स निवृत्य दूतो
               दुर्योधनं प्राप्य शशंस
सत्त्वम्॥
So
directed by Yudhishthira, the messenger returned and reaching Duryodhana stated
the fact.
             संमन्त्र्य रात्रौ बहुभिस्सुहृद्भिः
                भीष्मोऽब्रवीद्धार्तराष्ट्रं
महात्मा।
             ’तीर्णप्रतिज्ञेन धनञ्जयेन
                विस्फारितं गाण्डिवमाजिमध्ये।
             नैच्छन्त्यसत्येन सुरेन्द्रलोकं
                पाण्डोस्सुता ब्रह्मणश्चापि
लोकम् ॥
Consulting
with the many friends in the night, the high-souled Bhishma told Duryodhana:
“The Gandiva was twanged in the midst of the battle by Arjuna who had observed
the condition (of twelve years of exile and a year of incognito life).  The sons of Pandu do not want to enjoy the
world of the king of gods or even the world of Brahma through untruth.”
              सञ्चिन्त्य सर्वे सहितास्सुहृद्भि-
               स्सपार्थिवास्स्वानि
गृहाणि जग्मुः ॥
After
thinking this over well, all of them, with their friends and king Duryodhana,
went to their homes.
             ततस्त्रयोदशे वर्षे निवृत्ते
पञ्च पाण्डवाः।
             उपप्लाव्ये विराटस्य वासं
चक्रुः पुरोत्तमे॥
Then,
when the thirteenth year had ended, the five Pandavas took their abode in the
excellent city of Upaplavya in Virata’s territory.
            तस्मिन्काले निशम्याथ दूतवाक्यं
जनार्दनः।
            अभिमन्युं समादाय रामेण
सहितस्तदा।
            सर्वयादवमुख्यैश्च विराटनगरं
ययौ ॥
At
that time, hearing the words of the messenger, Krishna, taking along Abhimanyu
and accompanied by Balarama and all the chief Yadavas, went to the city of the
Virata king.
            मात्स्येन सहितास्सर्वे
प्रत्युद्याता जनार्दनम्।
            ववन्दुः पादयोस्सर्वे आनन्दाश्रुपरिप्लुताः॥
Along
with the king of Matsyas, all the Pandavas went forth to receive Krishna and
overflowing with tears of joy, they bowed at his feet.
            पाण्डवाः-
            तव कृष्ण प्रसादाद्वै वर्षाण्येतानि
सर्वशः।
            उषितास्मो जगन्नाथ त्वं नाथो नो
जनार्दन।
            रक्षस्व देवदेवेश त्वामार्यं
शरणं गताः ॥
Pandavas-
“Krishna,
by your grace, we have lived through all these years; you are our lord; master
of the god of gods, protect us; noble Krishna, we have taken refuge under you.”
           तान्वन्दमानान्सहसा परिष्वज्य
जनार्दनः।
           यथार्हं पूजयामास मुदा परमया
युतः॥
Embracing
at once the Pandavas who were saluting him, Krishna honoured them as befitting
them, with greatest joy.
          कृष्णा च देवकीपुत्रं ववन्दे
पादयोस्तथा।
          तामुद्यम्य सुकेशान्तां नयने
परिमृज्य च।
          उवाच वाक्यं देवेशस्सर्वयादवसन्निधौ॥
Similarly,
Draupadi also bowed at the feet of Krishna. 
Lifting that Draupadi of fine tresses, and wiping the tears off her
eyes, Krishna said in the presence of all the Yadavas:
          “मा शोकं कुरु कल्याणि धार्तराष्ट्रान्समाहितान्।
          अचिरात् पातयित्वाऽहं पार्थेन
सहितः क्षितिम्।
          युधिष्ठिराय दास्यामि यातु
ते मानसो ज्वरः ॥
“Blesses
lady! Grieve not; I, along with Arjuna, will kill before long all the sons of
Dhritarashtra united together and give the kingdom to Yudhishthira; let your
mental anguish disappear.”
         ततश्शङ्खा मृदङ्गाश्च नेदुर्मात्स्यस्य
वेश्मनि।
Then,
conches and drums sounded in the palace of the Matsya King.
          विराटो नृपतिश्श्रीमान् सौभद्रायाभिमन्यवे
          तां सुतामुत्तरां दत्त्वा
मुमुदे परमं तदा ॥
The
king of Virata of vast riches rejoiced very much at that time, giving his
daughter Uttara in marriage to Abhimanyu, the son of Subhadra.
              ॥ इति विराटपर्व समाप्तम्॥
              THUS
ENDS VIRATA PARVA                        
  
                 
                            

         
          
  
     
        
        

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