MAHABHARATA – SALYA PARVA

THE MAHABHARATA
                                 CODENSED IN
THE POET’S OWN WORDS
                                    By PANDIT
A. M. SRINIVASACHARIAR
                                                             
       ॥ शल्यपर्व ॥                       
                         SALYA PARVA         
               निहते सूतपुत्रे
च फल्गुनेन महात्मना।   
                 विमुखे तव पुत्रे च कृपाविष्टः कृपोऽब्रवीत्॥
When
Karna had been killed by the great Arjuna, and Duryodhana was downcast, Kripa
who was filled with pity said:
                 येषु भारं समासज्ज्य
राज्ये मतिमकुर्महि।
                 ते सन्त्यज्य तनूर्याताश्शूरा
ब्रह्मविदां गतिम्॥
“Those
warriors upon whom we placed the burden of the taskand set our hearts on the
kingdom, they have attained salvation, leaving their bodies.
                 ‘अत्र ते पाण्डवैस्सार्धं
सन्धिं मन्ये क्षमं प्रभो॥
“King,
I think, peace with the Pandavas at this juncture is proper for you.”
                  दुर्योधनः-
                  ’नायं क्लीबायितुं
कालः संयोद्धुं काल एव नः।
                   पातयित्वा वयस्यांश्च
भ्रातॄनथ पितामहान्।
                   जीवितं यदि रक्षेयं
लोको मां गर्हयेद् ध्रुवम्।
                   कीदृशं च भवेद्राज्यं
मम हीनस्य बन्धुभिः ॥’
Duryodhana-
“This
is not the time to act like impotent persons; it is the time for us only for
fighting. If, having caused my friends, brothers and grandfathers fall down, I
save my life, the world will surely reproach me.  And how will the kingdom be to me, devoid of
kinsmen?’
                  एवं दुर्योधनेनोक्ते
सर्वे संपूज्य तद्वचः।
                  साधु साध्विति राजानं
क्षत्रियास्संबभाषिरे॥
When
Duryodhana spoke thus, all the Kshatriyas (there) praised those words and said
to the king: “Bravo! Bravo!”
                  ततो दुर्योधनश्शल्यमभ्यषिञ्चत
[भारत]।
                  ततः प्रववृते युद्धं
घोररूपं भयानकम् ॥
Then,
Duryodhana installed Salya as the commander; then began a terrible and
formidable battle.
                 युधिष्ठिरस्तु मद्रेशमभ्यधावदमर्षितः।
                 तत्राश्चर्यं मृदुर्दान्तो यत्तदा
दारुणोऽभवत्॥
Infuriated,
Yudhishthira attacked Salya, the king of the Madras.  What a wonder there! the soft and subdued
Yudhishthira became fierce at that time!
                ततस्तु शक्तिं सुभृशं
ससर्ज
                      वधाय मद्राधिपतेस्तदानीम्॥
 At that time then Yudhishthira flung his pike
very forcibly for killing the king of Madras.
               ततो निपतितस्सोऽभूदिन्द्रध्वज
इवोच्छ्रितः॥
Then
Salya fell, like the lofty banner of Indra.
               समेत्य समरे
[राजन्] हतशेषास्सुतास्तव।
               भीमसेनमभिद्रुत्य रुरुधुस्सर्वतो
दिशम्॥
The
remaining sons of Dhritarashtra joined together in the battle and rushing
against bhima, besieged (him) from all sides.
               भीमसेनस्तु कौन्तेयो
हत्वा युद्धे सुतांस्तव।
               मेने कृतार्थमात्मानं
सफलं जन्म च [प्रभो]॥
Killing
the sons of Dhritarashtra, Bhima considered himself as having achieved his
purpose, and his birth and life fruitful.
              ततो हि शकुनी
[राजन्] सहदेवं समभ्ययात्।
              सहदेवोऽथ शकुनिमुवाच
स्मारयन्निव॥
Then
Sakuni attacked Sahadeva and Sahadeva said to Sakuni, as if reminding him:
            ’यत्तदा भाषसे मूढ गृह्णन्नक्षान्सभातले।
                फलमद्य प्रपद्यस्व
कर्मणस्तस्य दुर्मते॥
“Fool,
evil-minded Sakuni, what you spoke then on the floor of the gambling-hall,
taking the dice, of that action, reap the fruit now.”
             माद्रीसुतस्तस्य दृढायसेन
                     भल्लेन सर्वावरणातिगेन।
             शिरश्शरीरात्प्रममाथ भूयो
                     यत्तत्कुरूणामनयस्य
मूलम्॥
With
a strong iron arrow which could pierce through any armour, Sahadeva cut
completely from off the body that head of Sakuni which was at the root of the
evil conduct of the Kauravas.
             अक्षौहिण्यस्समेतास्तु
एकादश हताः [प्रभो]
             एको दुर्योधनो [राजन्] अदृश्यत
भृशं क्षतः॥
All
the eleven Akshauhinis that had collected (on Duryodhana’s side) were killed;
one solitary individual was seen (then), Duryodhana, who was severely wounded.
            अपयाने मनश्चक्रे विहीनबलवाहनः।
            गदामादाय तेजस्वी पदातिः
प्रस्थितो ह्रदम्॥
Bereft
of army and conveyances, he made up his mind to flee; taking his mace, the
powerful Duryodhana started on foot to the (Dvaipayana) lake.
           सस्मार वचनं क्षत्तुर्धर्मशीलस्य धीमतः।
           इदं नूनं महाप्राज्ञो विदुरो
दृष्टवान्पुरा।
           महद्व्यसनमस्माकं क्षत्रियाणां
च सर्वशः।
           एवं विचिन्तयानस्तु प्राविशत्तं
महाह्रदम्॥
He
thought of the words of the righteous and wise Vidura. “The great disaster to
us and to all the kshatriyas, surely the very wise Vidura foresaw long
ago.”  So thinking, he entered the big
lake.
            ततः प्राप्तो धर्मराजस्तं
ह्रदं सह सोदरैः।
            अभ्यभाषत कौन्तेयः प्रहसन्निव
[भारत]
Yudjishthira
then reached that lake, along with his brothers and spoke, as if laughing:
             ‘सर्वं क्षत्रं घातयित्वा
स्वकुलं च विशांपते।
             जलाशयं प्रविष्टोऽद्य
वाञ्छञ्जीवितमात्मनः॥
             स ते दर्पो नरश्रेष्ठ
स च मानः क्व ते गतः।
             उत्तिष्ठ राजन् युध्यस्व
क्षत्रियोऽसि कुलोद्भवः॥’
“King,
causing the death of the whole Kshtriya race and your own family, you have
entered the lake now, wishing to save your own life! Where have that pride and
that self-respect of yours gone, you best of men?  Rise up, king, and fight; you are a
Kshatriya, born of a great family.”
              दुर्योधनः-
              ’ न प्राणहेतोर्न भयात्
श्रमात्त्विदमनुष्ठितम्।
               न त्विदानीमहं मन्ये
कार्यं युद्धेन कर्हिचित्।
              
रतिर्हि नास्ति मे राज्ये हतपक्षस्य भारत।
               एषा ते पृथिवी राजन्
भुंक्ष्वैनां विगतज्वरः॥
Duryodhana-
“This
has been done by me on account of fatigue, not for saving my life, nor out of
fear.  And I do not think there is any
purpose in fighting now; to me whose adherents have been killed, there is no
love for the kingdom, Yudhishthira; this world is yours, king; enjoy it,
without any pang.”
                युधिष्ठिरः-
                ’धर्मतो याचमानानां
प्रशमार्थं कुलस्य नः।
                सूच्यग्रं नात्यजः
पूर्वं स कथं त्यजसि क्षितिम्॥
                दहने हि कृतो यत्नस्त्वयाऽस्मासु
विशेषतः।
                आशीविषैर्विषैश्चापि
जले चापि  प्रवेशनैः।
                त्वया विनिकृता राजन्
राज्यस्य हरणेन च॥
                अप्रियाणां च वचनैर्द्रौपद्याःकर्षणेन
च।
                एतस्मात्कारणात्पाप
जीवितं ते न विद्यते ॥’
Yudhishthira-
“You
did not part with even a needle-end’s space to us who, for the sake of the
peace of our house, begged but righteously. 
How do you(now) give up the kingdom? Great effort was made by you to
burn us; with snakes and poisons, by drowning, by seizing our kingdom, by
unkind words and by the dragging of Draupadi, we have been insulted by you,
king. Because of this, you sinner, you shall not live.”
             श्रुत्वा स कटुका वाचस्स्कन्धे कृत्वाऽऽयसीं
गदाम्।
             उत्थितश्च जलात्तस्मात्
पुत्रो दुर्योधनस्तव ॥
On
hearing those bitter words, Duryodhana, son of Dhritarashtra, with his iron
mace on this shoulder, rose up from the water.  
                      
            दुर्योधनः-
            ’एकैकेन च मां यूयमासीदत
युधिष्ठिर।
            न ह्येको बहुभिर्न्याय्यो
वीरो योधयितुं युधि॥
            न्यस्तवर्मा विशेषेण श्रान्तश्चाप्सु
परिप्लुतः।
            भृशं विक्षतगात्रश्च हतवाहनसैनिकः॥’
Duryodhana-
“Yudhishthira,
one by one, you encounter me; it is not proper in war to make one warrior fight
against many. I especially an armless, tired, submerged in water, severely
wounded in body and one whose conveyances and soldiers have been destroyed,”
             युधिष्ठिरः-
             ’यद्येकस्तु न हन्तव्यो
बहुभिर्धर्म एव तु।
              तदाऽभिमन्युं बहवो निजघ्नुस्त्वन्मते
कथम्।
              सर्वो विमृशते जन्तुः
कृच्छ्रस्थो धर्मदर्शनम्॥
             
               आमुञ्च कवचं वीर येन
त्वं योद्धुमिच्छसि।
               तं हत्वा वै भवान्राजा
हतो वा स्वर्गमाप्नुहि॥’
Yudhishthira-
If
it is Dharma that one should not be killed by many, how did many kill Abhimanyu
with your consent?  Everybody examines
the codes of Dharma when in difficulty. Put on the armour, warrior, and killing
whomsoever you want to fight with, become king; or being killed, attain to
heaven.”
                ततो भीमबलो भीमो युधिष्ठिरमथाब्रवीत्।
                ’अहमेतेन संगम्य संयुगे
योद्धुमुत्सहे।
                 राजा च धृतराष्ट्रोऽयं
श्रुत्वा पुत्रं मया हतम्।
                 स्मरिष्यत्यशुभं कर्म
यत्तच्छकुनिबुद्धिजम्॥’
Then,
Bhima of terrible strength told Yudhishthira: “ I can meet this Duryodhana in
combat and fight.  And king Dhritarashtra
shall now think of that evil act born of Sakuni’s intellect, on hearing his
son, Duryodhana, killed by me.”
                 अभवच्च तयोर्युद्धं
न्यघ्नतां वै परस्परम्॥
There
was a fight between the two, Bhima and Duryodhana; they struck each other.
                 मण्डलानि विचित्राणि
चरतोर्नृपभीमयोः
                 गदासंपातजास्तत्र
प्रजज्ञुः पावकार्चिषः॥
Flames
arose out of the collision of the maces of Duryodhana and Bhima who made varied
circular novements.               
                  अथास्य समभिद्रुत्य
समुत्पत्य च सिंहवत्।
                  ऊरुभ्यां प्राहिणोद्
(राजन्) गदां वेगेन पाण्डवः॥
Jumping
then like a lion and running up to Duryodhana, Bhima aimed his mace with force
at his thighs.
                    स पपात नरव्याघ्रः
पुत्रस्तव (महीपते)
Dhritarashtra’s
son, Duryodhana, the best of men, fell.
                    एवं दुर्योधनं
हत्वा भीमसेनः प्रतापवान्।
                    शिरश्च राजसिंहस्य
पादेन समलोडयत् ॥
Having
thus struck Duryodhana down, the valorous Bhima kicked the head of the great
king, turning it with his foot this side and that.
                     वृकोदरं नृत्यमानं
धर्मराजोऽब्रवीदिदम्।          
                     ’गतोऽसि वैरस्यानृण्यं
प्रतिज्ञा पूरिता त्वया।
                     मा शिरोऽस्य पदा
मार्दीः मा धर्मस्तेऽतिगो भवेत्।
                     राजा ज्ञातिर्हतश्चायं
नैतन्न्याय्यं तवानघ ॥’     
Yudhishthira
said this to the dancing Bhima: “ You have cleared the debt of enmity; you have
fulfilled your vow; do not kick his head with your foot; let not Dharma be
transgressed by you; this Duryodhana who has been killed is a king and a
kinsman; you sinless soul, this is not proper for you.”
                    इत्युक्त्वा भीमसेनं तु साश्रुकण्ठो
युधिष्ठिरः।
                    उपसृत्याब्रवीद्दीनो
दुर्योधनमरिन्दमम्॥
Having
spoken to Bhima in this manner, the dejected Yudhishthira, in a voice choked
with grief, addressed the valorous Duryodhana, approaching him:
                   ’आत्मनो ह्यपराधेन
महद्व्यसनमीदृशम्।
                    प्राप्तवानसि यल्लोभान्मदाद्बाल्याच्च
भारत॥
“By
your own fault, by your avarice, haughtiness and childishness, you scion of
Bharata, have come to such a great disaster.”
                   ‘आत्मा न शोचनीयस्ते
श्लाघ्यो मृत्युस्तवानघ।
                    वयमेवाधुना शोच्यास्तैर्हीना
बन्धुभिः प्रियैः॥’
’Sinless
Duryodhana, you must not feel sorry for yourself; laudable is your death.  It is ourselves, bereft of those dear
kisnmen,  who should be pitied’.
                कृष्णः-
                ’रथेष्वारोहत क्षिप्रं
गच्छामो वसुधाधिपाः।
                 दिष्ट्या हतोऽयं पापात्मा
सामात्यज्ञातिबान्धवः॥’
Krishna-
“Kings,
mount the chariots quickly, we shall go. Luckily this sinner is killed together
with his counsellors and kinsmen.”     
                  इति श्रुत्वा त्वधिक्षेपं
कृष्णाद्दुर्योधनो नृपः।
                  दृष्टिं भ्रूसंकटां
कृत्वा वासुदेवे न्यपातयत्॥
Hearing
this taunt from Krishna, king Duryodhana cast his eye on him, knitting his
brow.
                   दुर्योधनः-
                   घातयित्वा महीपालानृजुयुद्धान्सहस्रशः।
                   जिह्मैरुपायैर्बहुभिर्न
ते लज्जा न ते घृणा।
                   यदि मां चापि कर्णं
च भीष्मद्रोणौ च संयुगे।
                   ऋजुना प्रतियुध्येथा
न ते स्याद्विजयो ध्रुवम्॥          
 Duryodhana-
“(Krishna),
having killed thousands of kings who fought in a straightforward manner,
through many deceitful means, have you no feeling of shame or
self-contempt?  If you had fought me or
Karna or Bhishma and Drona in a straightforward manner in the battle, surely,
you would have had no victory.”
                   कृष्णः-
                   ’लोभेनातिबलेन त्वं
तृष्णया च वशीकृतः।
                    कृतवानस्यकार्याणि विपाकस्तस्य
भुज्यताम्॥’
Krishna-
“You
have committed sins, overpowered by your avarice and excess of strength. Let
the consequence thereof be enjoyed.”
                     दुर्योधनः-
                     ’यदिष्टं क्षत्रबन्धूनां
स्वधर्ममनुपश्यताम्।
                      तदिदं निधनं
प्राप्तं को नु स्वन्ततरो मया॥
Duryodhana-
“I
die the death which is dear to born Kshatriyas who follow their own Dharma; who
can have a more glorious end than myself?”
                     ’ससुहृत्सानुबन्धश्च
स्वर्गं गन्ताऽहमच्युत।
                      यूयं गर्हितसङ्कल्पाः
शोचन्तो वर्तयिष्यथ॥’
“Krishna,
I will go to haven with my friends and followers!.  With despised desires, you will live,
sorrowing.
                     ‘न मे विषादो
भीमेन पादेन शिर आहतम्।
                      काका वा कंकगृध्रा
वा निधास्यन्ति पदं क्षणात्’॥
“There
is no sorrow for me that my head was kicked by Bhima with his foot; in a
moment, crows, herons and vultures are going to place their feet
(on
my head).”
                    अस्य वाक्यस्य
निधने कुरुराजस्य धीमतः।
                    अपतत्सुमहद्वर्षं
पुष्पाणां पुण्यगन्धिनाम् ॥
At
the end of these words of the intelligent Kuru king Duryodhana, a very big
shower of fragrant flowers fell.
                    ततस्ते ततस्ते
प्रययुस्सर्वे निवासाय महीक्षितः।
                    शङ्खान्प्रध्मापयन्तो
वै हृष्टाः परिघबाहवः ॥
Then
all those kings of bolt-like arms, went to their camps , jubilant and blowing
their conches.
                    अथाब्रवीन्
[महाराज] वासुदेवो महायशाः।
                    ’अस्माभिर्मङ्गलार्थाय
वस्तव्यं शिबिराद्बहिः॥’
                     तथेत्युक्त्वा
ह्’अस्माभिर्मङ्गलार्थाय वस्तव्यं शिबिराद्बहिः॥’
                     तथेत्युक्त्वा
हि ते सर्वे ययुरोघवतीं [नृप]
Then
the renowned Krishna said: “ We must live outside our camp for thee sake of
auspiciousness.” Agreeing, all of them went to the river Oghavati.
                      गान्धार्याश्शोकदीप्तायाः
प्रशमार्थम् [अरिन्दम]।
                      ततः प्रायान्
[महाराज] माधवो नागसाह्वयम्॥
To
calm Gandhari w-souledho was burning with her sorrow, Krishna then went to
Hastinapura.
                     उवाच प्रश्रितं
वाक्यं धृतराष्ट्रमरिन्दमः।
                     ’याचितस्त्वं
शमं नित्यं न च तत्कृतवानसि ।
                      अल्पोऽप्यतिक्रमो
नास्ति पाण्डवानां महात्मनाम्।
                      कुलं पिण्डश्च तव वै पाण्डवेषुप्रतिष्ठितम्
                      शिवेन पाण्डवान्ध्याहि
नमस्ते भरतर्षभ ॥’
Krishna,
the subduer of his enemies said these words in modesty to Dhritarashtra:  “You were begged everyday for peace and you
did not make peace. There has not been even a slight transgression on the part
of the high-souled Pandavas.  The
continuation of your family and the offering of oblation to you rest with the
Pandavas.  Look upon the Pandavas with
friendliness; my obeisance to you, chief of the Bharatas!”
                  उवाच परमं वाक्यं
गान्धारीं शोककर्शिताम्।
                  धर्मार्थसहितं वाक्यमुभयोः
पक्षयोर्हितम्।
                  उक्तवत्यसि कल्याणि
न च ते तनयैः कृतम्॥
      
To
Gandhari who was emaciated with grief, Krishna said (these) best words:
“Auspicious
lady! Words of moral and material good, and beneficent to both parties, you
spoke; and they were not acted up to by your sons”
                  ‘दुर्योधनस्त्वया
चोक्तो जयार्थी परुषं वचः।
                  “शृणु मूढ वचो मह्यं
यतो धर्मस्ततो जयः।“
                   तदिदं समनुप्राप्तं
तव वाक्यं नृपात्मजे।
                   एवं विदित्वा कल्याणि
म स्म शोके मनः कृथाः॥
“And
you spoke harsh words to Duryodhana, who was seeking victory; ‘Hear these words
from me, you stupid fellow! Where Dharma is, there victory shall be. “ Queen,
those words of yours have come true now. 
Auspicious lady take it so and grieve not.”
                समाश्वास्य च गान्धारीं
धृतराष्ट्रं च माधवः।
                आगम्य शिबिरं रात्रौ
सोऽभ्यगच्छत पाण्डवान्॥
After
consoling Gandhari and Dhritarashtra, Krishna returned to the camp in the night
and met the Pandavas.
                अश्वत्थामा कृपश्चैव
कृतवर्मा च सात्त्वतः।
                तत्रापश्यन्महात्मानं
धार्तराष्ट्रं निपातितम्॥
Ashwathaman,
Kripa and Kritavarman the Satvata, saw the great Duryodhana thrown down.
                 द्रौणिः क्रोधेन जज्ज्वाल
राजानमिदमब्रवीत्।
                 “अद्य रात्रौ महाराज
निहनिष्यामि पाण्डवान्”॥
Aswathaman
blazed up with anger and told the king: “King, to-night, I will kill all the
Pandavas.”
                  तच्छ्रुत्वा वचनं
द्रौणेः कृपश्शारद्वतस्ततः ।
                  द्रौणिं राज्ञो नियोगेन
सैनापत्येऽभ्यषेचयत्॥
Hearing
those words of the son of Drona, Kripa by the order of king Duryodhana, then
installed the son of Drona in the office of the general.
                    ||इति शल्यपर्व
समाप्तम्॥
                    THUS
ENDS THE SALYA PARVA
   

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