MAHABHARATA – SANTI PARVA

THE MAHABHARATA
                                 CODENSED IN
THE POET’S OWN WORDS
                                    By PANDIT
A. M. SRINIVASACHARIAR
                                  Translated By Dr V,
Raghavan M.A., Ph.D.
                                                              
         ॥शान्तिपर्व॥
                        SANTI  PARVA
             
              स राजा पुत्रपौत्राणां
सम्बन्धिसुहृदां स्मरन्।
              निर्वेदमागमद्धीमान्
राज्ये सन्तापपीडितः॥
Thinking
of his sons and grandsons, his kinsmen and friends (who had been killed in the
battle) and afflicted with grief, the wise king Yudhishthira became disgusted
with the kingdom.
           सोऽनुनीतो [नरव्याघ्र] विष्टरश्रवसा स्वयम्।
           द्वैपायनेन चान्यैश्च स्वपुरं
प्रविवेश ह ॥
Persuaded
by Krishna himself, Vyasa and others also, Yudhishthira entered his city
Hastinapura.
            काञ्चने प्राङ्मुखो हृष्टो
न्यषीदत्परमासने।
            ततः प्रकृतयस्सर्वा पुरस्कृत्य
पुरोहितम्।
            ददृशुर्धर्मराजानमादाय
बहुमङ्गलम्॥
Joyously
he sat on an excellent golden seat, facing the East. Then all the subjects with
the chief priest at their head, met Yudhishthira, taking auspicious objects in
their hands.
         

             व्याघ्रचर्मोत्तरे
शुक्ले सर्वतोभद्र आसने।
             उपवेश्य महात्मानं कृष्णां
च द्रुपदात्मजाम्।
             तत उत्थाय दाशार्हः शङ्खमादाय
पूरितम्
             अभ्यषिञ्चत्पतिं पृथ्व्याः
कुन्तीपुत्रं युधिष्ठिरम्॥
Seating
the high-souled Yudhishthira and Draupadi on a white, square seat covered with
the tiger’s skin Krishna then arose, and taking the conch filled with
coronation-water, anointed Yudhishthira, son of Kunti, as king.
               पौरजानपदान्सर्वान्  विसृज्य कुरुनन्दनः।
               सोऽभिगम्य महात्मानं
विष्णुं पुरुषसत्तमम्।
               उवाच वचनं राजा स्मितपूर्वमिदं
तदा।
               ’वयं राज्यमनुप्राप्ताः
पृथिवी च वशे स्थिता।
               तव प्रसादात् भगवंस्त्रिलोकगतविक्रम॥’
After
sending away all the citizens and the men from the country, king Yudhishthira
approached Krishna, the best of men, and smiling, said sweetly on that
occasion: ”Lord, whose valour pervades all the three worlds! By  your grace, we have got the kingdom back and
the world is in our control.
                तं तथा भाषमाणं तु
धर्मराजमरिन्दमम्।
                नोवाच भगवान् किञ्चिद्
ध्यानमेवान्वपद्यत॥
The
Lord spoke not anything to Yudhishthira, the subduer of enemies, who was
talking in that manner; He was absorbed in contemplation.
                 युधिष्ठिरः-
                 ’किमिदं परमाश्चर्यं
ध्यायस्यमितविक्र्म’॥
                ’
Yudhishthira-
“Greatest
wonder! You of immense valour! What is it that you are meditating upon?”
                वासुदेवः-
                ’शरतल्पगतो भीष्मः  शाम्यन्निव हुताशनः।
                मां ध्याति पुरुषव्याघ्रस्ततो
मे तद्गतं मनः॥
Krishna-
“Lying
on the bed of arrows, looking like a fire that is dying out, that illustrious
man, Bhishma, is thinking of me; therefore my mind has gone to him.
                ‘स हि धर्मविदां श्रेष्ठस्तस्मिन्
शान्ते महात्मनि।
                 भविष्यति मही पार्थ
नष्टचन्द्रेव शर्वरी॥
“He
is the greatest of those who knows the Dharmas; and when    
he
is dead, Yudhishthira, the world would be like the night that has lost the
moon.”
                  ‘तद्भीष्ममुपसंगृह्य
पृच्छ यत्ते मनोगतम्’।
”Therefore,
taking hold of his feet in reverence ask of him what is in your mind.”
                 ‘तस्मिन्नस्तमिते
भीष्मे कौरवाणां धुरन्धरे।
                 ज्ञानान्यल्पीभविष्यन्ति
तस्मात्त्वां चोदयाम्यहम् ॥
“When
that Bhishma, the Kaurava chief, passes away, knowledge(of several things) will
dwindle; hence do I urge you.”
                  ततस्स च हृषीकेशः
स च राजा युधिष्ठिरः।
                  कृपादयश्च ते सर्वे
चत्वारः पाण्डवाश्च ते।         
                  ययुराशु कुरुक्षेत्रं वाजिभिश्शीघ्रगामिभिः॥
Then
that Krishna, that king Yudhishthira, Kripa and all those (others) and those
four Pandavas proceeded quickly to Kurukshetra by swift horses.
                  ततस्ते ददृशुर्भीष्मं
शरप्रस्तरशायिनम्।
                  उपास्यमानं मुनिभिर्नदीमोघवतीमनु॥
Then
they saw Bhishma lying on the bed of arrows, on the bank of the river Oghavati,
attended upon by sages.
                 किञ्चिद्दीनमना भीष्ममिति
होवाच  केशवः
With
a slightly dejected mind, Krishna said thus to Bhishma.
                 ‘त्वं पाण्डवेयस्य
मनस्समुत्थितं
                    नरेन्द्र शोकं
व्यपकर्ष मेधया।
                  भवद्विधाह्युत्तमबुद्धिविस्तरा
                    विमुह्यमानस्य
जनस्य शान्तये’ ॥
“King
of men, remove by your wisdom the sorrow that has risen in the mind of
Yudhishthira; those like you, with an abundance of excellent wisdom, are the
persons for calming the bewildered people.’
              भीष्मः-
              ’युवेवास्मि समावृत्तः
त्वदनुध्यानबृंहितः 
              वक्तुं श्रेयस्समर्थोऽस्मि
त्वत्प्रसादाज्जनार्दन॥’
Bhishma-
“Strengthened
by contemplation upon you, I seem to have turned into a youth;  Krishna, 
by your grace, I am competent to speak of what promotes welfare.
              ‘नमो धर्माय महते नमः
कृष्णाय वेधसे।
               ब्राह्मणेभ्यो नमस्कृत्य धर्मान् वक्ष्यामि
शाश्वतान्॥
“Obeisance
to the great Dharma, obeisance to the creator Krishna.  Making obeisance to the Brahmins, I will
speak of the eternal Dharmas.”
             ’आदावेव कुरुश्रेष्ठ राज्ञा
रञ्जनमिच्छता।
             देवतानां द्विजानां च
वर्तितव्यं यथाविधि॥
“First
of all, you best of the Kurus (Yudhishthira), the king who wants to please his
subjects, must conduct himself towards gods and Brahmins in the prescribed
manner.”
            ‘उत्थानेन सदा पुत्र प्रयतेथा
[युधिष्ठिर]
            न ह्युत्थानमृते राजन्
राज्ञामर्थं प्रसाधयेत्॥
            पौरुषं हि परं मन्ये दैवं
निश्चित्य मुह्यते ॥
“Son,
always strive with exertion; Without exertion, Fate will not achieve their
purpose for kings.  I consider human
endeavour as greater; by believing in Fate, one confounds oneself.”
          ‘न हि सत्यादृते किञ्चिद्
राज्ञां वै सिद्धिकारकम्।
          आर्जवं सर्वकार्येषु श्रयेथाः
[कुरुनन्दन]॥
“Nothing
except truthfulness brings success to kings. 
Adopt straightforwardness in all actions.
         ‘मृदुर्हि राजा सततं लङ्घ्यो
भवति सर्वशः।
         तीक्ष्णाच्चोद्विजते लोकस्तस्मादुभयमाचरेत्॥
“A
king who is always soft is violated on all sides; and the world dreads the
severe; so, one should adopt both (softness and severity).”
       ‘व्यसनानि च सर्वाणि त्यजेथा
भूरिदक्षिण’॥
“Giver
of ample sacrificial gifts! Avoid all vicious addictions”.
  
         ‘वर्तितव्यं [कुरुश्रेष्ठ] सदा धर्मानुवर्तिना।
         स्वं प्रियं तु परित्यज्य यद्यल्लोकहिते भवेत्॥
  
“A
king following Dharma must always stand for whatever is good for the world,
renouncing what is pleasant to himself.”
          ‘पुत्रा इव पितुर्गेहे विषये यस्य
मानवाः।
          निर्भया विचरिष्यन्ति स राजा राजसत्तमः’॥
“That
king is the best king in whose country, the people move about witout fear, like
sons in their father’s house.”
           आत्मा जेयस्सदा राज्ञा ततो जेयाश्च शत्रवः।
           धर्मार्थौ प्रतिगृह्णीयात् कामक्रोधौ च वर्जयेत्॥
“His
own self must be conquered by the king for all time; then only are his enemies
to be conquered.  Adopting virtue and
material good, he should avoid passion and anger.”
           अर्थमूलोऽपि हिंसां च कुरुते
स्वयमात्मनः।
           करैरशास्त्रदृष्टैर्हि मोहात्संपीडयन्प्रजाः॥

Harassing the subjects in his ignorance by taxes not found in the texts, and
motivated by Artha only, the king does harm to himself.”
           ’कृपणानाथवृद्धानां विधवानां
च योषिताम्।
          
योगक्षेमं च वृत्तिं च नित्यमेव प्रकल्पयेत्॥
“The
king should always make arrangements for the security and maintenance of the
poor, the helpless, the old and the widowed women.”
           ‘मा ते राष्ट्रे याचनका भवेयुर्मा
च दस्यवः’
“Let
there be no beggars and no thieves in your kingdom.’
           दुर्बलस्य च यच्चक्षुर्मुनेराशीविषस्य
च।
           अविषह्यतमं मन्ये मा स्म
दुर्बलमासदः॥

“I think that the eye of the weak, of the sage and of the serpent is most
unbearbale; do not assail the weak.”
            ’दुर्बलांस्तात मन्येथा
नित्यमेवाविमानितान्।
            मा त्वां दुर्बलचक्षूंषि प्रदहेयुस्सबान्धवम्॥
            विमानितो हतः क्लिष्टस्त्रातारं
चेन्न विन्दति।
            अमानुषकृतस्तत्र दण्डो
हन्ति नराधिपम्॥
            मा स्म तात बलस्थस्त्वं
भुञ्जीथा दुर्बलं जनम्॥     
            यानि मिथ्याभिशस्तानां
पतन्त्यश्रूणि रोदताम्।
            तानि पुत्रान्पशून्घ्नन्ति
तेषां मिथ्याभिशंसिनाम्॥
“Son,
consider that the powerless must never be insulted; let not the eyes of the
weak burn you and your kinsmen.  If one
insulted, beaten or harassed, does not get his saviour, in that kingdom, divine
punishment kills the king. (My) son, remaining in power, don’t you live upon
the powerless people.  The tears that
fall from those who weep, being falsely accused, kills the sons and cattle of
those who make the false accusation.”
              अयुद्धेनैव विजयं वर्धयेद्वसुधाधिपः।
              जघन्यमाहुर्विजयं युद्धेन
च नराधिप॥
A
king should build up his victory by means other than war;  victory through war is said to be the worst.
           धर्मेण निधनं श्रेयो न जयः
पापकर्मणा॥
Death
through Dharma is better than victory through a sinful act.
    
            ’पापस्य यदधिष्ठानं तच्छृणुष्व
नराधिप ।
            एको लोभो महाग्राहो लोभात्पापं
प्रवर्तते।
            अतः पापमधर्मश्च तथा दुःखमनुत्तमम्।
            निकृत्या मूलमेतद्धि सर्वं
लोभात्प्रवर्तते।
            स लोभस्सह मोहेन विजेतव्यो जितात्मना॥
“King,
hear that which forms the basis of sin. 
Avarice, that huge rapacious animal, (is the one basis of sin); it is
from avarice that sin proceeds; from it proceed sin, unrighteousness and worst
misery; this is the root-cause of fraud; everything proceeds from avarice.  By the self-possessed person, this avarice,
along with delusion, has to be conquered.”
            रागो द्वेषस्तथा मोहो हर्षश्शोकोऽभिमानिता।
            क्रोधो दर्पश्च तन्द्री
च परवृध्युपतापिता।
            अज्ञानमेतन्निर्दिष्टं
पापानां चैव याः क्रियाः॥
“Passion,
hate, delusion, exhilaration, dejection, conceit, anger, pride, laziness, being
pained at others’ prosperity and acts of sin – these are indicated as
constituting ignorance.
     
            ‘दमेन सदृशं धर्मं नान्यं लिकेषु
शुश्रुम।
            क्षमा धृतिरहिंसा च समता
सत्यमार्जवम्।
            इन्द्रियाभिजयो दाक्ष्यं
मार्दवं ह्रीरचापलम्।
            अकार्पण्यमसंरम्भस्सन्तोषः
प्रियवादिता।
            अविहिंसाऽनसूया चाप्येषां
समुदयो दमः॥

“We have not heard in the entire universe of another Dharma equal to
self-control. Forbearance, fortitude, non-injury, equanimity, truthfulness,
straightforwardness, conquest of the senses, adeptness in the discharge of
one’s duties, softness, a sense of shame at doing what ought not to be done,
absence of fickleness, non-wretchedness, absence of flurry, contentment,
sweet-speech, not hurting and freedom from envy – the sum total of all these is
Self-control.”
             ‘धर्मःसनातनस्सत्यं सत्यं
ब्रह्म सनातनम् ।
             सत्यं यज्ञः परः प्रोक्तः
सर्वं सत्ये प्रतिष्ठितम्॥
“Truthfulness
is the eternal Dharma; truthfulness is the eternal Brahman; truthfulness is the
greatest offering to God; everything is based on truthfulness.”
            ‘सत्यं त्रयोदशविधं  सर्वलोकेषु [भारत]।
            सत्यं च समता चैव दमश्चैव
न संशयः।
            अमात्सर्यं क्षमा चैव ह्रीस्तितिक्षाऽनसूयता।
            त्यागो ध्यानमथार्यत्वं
धृतिश्च सततं दया।
            अहिंसा चैव [राजेन्द्र] सत्याकारास्त्रयोदश॥
Truthfulness
is of thirteen kinds in the universe: Truth-speaking, equanimity, self-control
without doubt, absence of jealousy, forbearance, sense of shame, endurance,
freedom from spite, renunciation, meditation, nobility, freedom from the
effects of happiness and misery, constant mercifulness, non-injury – these are
the thirteen forms of Truthfulness [ Actually there are 14 in the list]       
       
            यच्च कामसुखं लोके यच्च
दिव्यं महत्सुखम्।
            तृष्णाक्षयसुखस्यैते नार्हतः
षोडशीं कलाम् ॥
“That
happiness which is the fulfilment of desires in this world and that great
happiness, which is in heaven, these are not equal to even one-sixteenth of the
happiness that is in the cessation of desire.
            यदा संहरते कामान् कूर्मोऽङ्गानीव
सर्वशः।
            तदाऽऽत्मज्योतिरात्मश्रीरात्मन्येव
प्रसीदति॥
“When
one withdraws all desires into himself, as a tortoise its limbs, then the light
and splendour of the soul become manifest within oneself.”
            ‘न बिभेति यदा चायं यदा
चास्मान्न बिभ्यति।
            यदा नेच्छति न द्वेष्टि ब्रह्म
सम्पद्यते तदा॥
            यदा न कुरुते धीरः सर्वभूतेषु
पापकम्।
            कर्मणा मनसा वाचा ब्रह्म
सम्पद्यते तदा॥
“When
he does not fear and when of him none is afraid, when he neither likes nor
dislikes, then does a man become the Brahman. 
When, being a man of wisdom, he does not sin against any being, in act,
mind or speech, then does a man become the Brahman.”
            ‘मृत्युनाऽभ्याहतो लोको
जरया परिवारितः।
            अहोरात्राः पतन्त्येते
ननु कस्मान्न बुध्यसे॥
            अद्यैव कुरु यच्छ्रेयो
मा त्वां कालोऽत्यगादयम्।
            अकृतेष्वेव कार्येषु मृत्युर्वै
संप्रकर्षति॥
               
“The
world is struck with death and surrounded by old age.  Days and nights speed by: why are you not
awake?  Even now, do what is to your
welfare; let not time pass you. Even as your acts are not finished, death drags
you.”                    
            अमृतं चैव मृत्युश्च द्वयं
देहे प्रतिष्ठितम्।      
            मृत्युरापद्यते मोहात्
सत्येनापद्यतेऽमृतम्॥

“Immortality and death- both are established in the body; death takes place out
of ignorance; immortality comes as a result of truth.”
        ‘नास्ति विद्यासमं चक्षुर्नास्ति
सत्यसमं तपः।
         नास्ति रागसमं दुःखं नास्ति
त्यागसमं सुखम्॥
‘There
is no eye equal to learning, no penance equal to truth, no misery like passion,
no happiness like sacrifice’.
         ‘न सुखं प्राप्य संहृष्येन्नासुखं
प्राप्य संज्वरेत्॥
“Attaining
happiness, one should not become excited; nor should one get into a fever, on getting
misery.”
         ‘आकिञ्चन्यं सुखं लोके पथ्यं
शिवमनामयम्।
         अनमित्रपथो ह्येष दुर्लभः
सुलभस्सताम्॥
         अकिञ्चनस्य शुद्धस्य न तुल्यमिह
लक्षये।
         आकिञ्चन्यं च राज्यं च तुलया
समतोलयम्।
         अत्यरिच्यत दारिद्र्यं राज्यादपि
गुणाधिकम्॥
         नित्योद्विग्नो हि धनवान्
मृत्योरास्यगतो यथा।
“(Voluntary)
poverty is happiness in this world, is wholesome, good and free from any
trouble; it is the path in which one has no enemies, a difficult path, but easy
for the good.  To the pure person who
owns nothing, I find here none equal. 
I  weighed on the scales poverty
and kingdom; superior in its virtues, poverty weighed more. Eternally alarmed
is the rich man, like one in the jaws of death.”
 
            ’श्रिया ह्यभीक्ष्णं संवासो
मोहयत्यविचक्षणम्।
            अथैनं रूपमानश्च धनमानश्च
विन्दति’ ॥
“Too
much association with riches confounds the undiscerning person. Pride of his
own beauty and wealth come to him then”
            ‘नात्यक्त्वा सुखमाप्नोति
नात्यक्त्वा विन्दते परम्।
            नात्यक्त्वा चाभयश्शेते त्यक्त्वा
सर्वं सुखी भवेत् ॥
“Not
without giving up does one attain happiness; not without giving up does one
attain the Supreme; not without giving up 
does one rest without fear; giving up everything, one becomes happy.”
              सर्वसाम्यमनायासस्सत्यवाक्यं
च [भारत]
              निर्वेदश्चाविधित्सा
च यस्य स्यात्स सुखी नरः॥
’That
man is happy who has universal equanimity, who does not worry himself, who
speaks the truth, who has disgust (for mundane things) and no desire to do this
and that.’
               प्रापणात्सर्वकामानां
परित्यागो विशिष्यते।
               नान्तं सर्वविधित्सानाम् गतपूर्वोऽस्ति कश्चन।
               निवर्तस्व विधित्साभ्यः
शाम्य निर्विद्य कामुक॥
      
 
’Giving
up all desires is better than realising them. Nobody has, till now, finished
with all his desires to do things.  Turn
away from desires to do things and you, creature of desire! with disgust (for
things), quiet yourself.’   
               ‘प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठा
भूतानां प्रज्ञा लाभः परो मतः।
               प्रज्ञा निःश्रेयसी
लोके प्रज्ञा स्वर्गो मतस्सताम्॥’
“Knowledge
is the support of beings; knowledge is considered the greatest acquisition;
knowledge is the greatest happiness in the world; knowledge is considered by
the good as heaven.”
                ‘न तृप्तिः प्रियलाभेऽस्ति
तृष्णा नाद्भिः प्रशाम्यति।
                संप्रज्वलति सा भूयः
समिद्भिरिव पावकः॥
“There
is no contentment when the dear object is attained; (the fire of) greed is not
extinguished by the waters (of objects realised); as fire by fuel, it only
blazes forth more.”
                ‘पुलाका इव धान्येषु
पुत्तिका इव पक्षिषु।
                तद्विधास्ते मनुष्येषु
येषां धर्मो न कारणम्॥
’Like
chaff among the grains and gnats among the birds are those among men, with whom
Dharma is not the motive force.’
              ‘सत्यं ब्रह्म तपस्स्त्यं
स्वर्गं सत्येन गच्छति।
              अनृतं तमसो रूपं तमसा नीयते ह्यधः।
              स्वर्गः प्रकाश इत्याहुर्नरकं
तम एव च ॥
“Truth
is the Godhead, truth is penance; one goes to heaven by truth.  Falsehood is of the form of darkness; by
darkness, one is taken down.  Heaven,
they say, is light, and hell, darkness.
            ‘वत्सलात्सर्वभूतानां वाच्याः
श्रोत्रसुखा गिरः।
            परिवादापवादौ च पारुष्यं
चात्र गर्हितम्।
            अवज्ञानमहङ्कारो दम्भश्चैव
विगर्हितः॥
’Affectionate
words pleasing to the ears of all beings must be spoken; reviling, scandal and
violence in language are forbidden; insulting others, egotism and hypocrisy are
condemned.’
            ‘सन्तापाद् भ्रश्यते रूपं
सन्तापाद् भ्रश्यते श्रियः ।
            सन्तापाद् भ्रश्यते चायुर्धर्मश्चैव
न संशयः ॥
            विशोकता सुखं धत्ते धत्ते
चारोग्यमुत्तमम्॥
“One’s
beauty is lost by (the effects of) annoying oneself; such a one falls from
prosperity; his life dwindles and surely his Dharma also declines.  Being without sorrow bestows happiness and
excellent health.
             ‘नारुन्तुदस्यान्न नृशंसवादी
                 न हीनतः परमभ्याददीत  ।
             ययाऽस्य वाचा पर उद्विजेत
                  न तां वदेदुशतीं
पापलोक्याम् ॥
‘One
should not hit a man at his weak points; should not speak wickedly; should not
receive big things from inferior persons; should not speak that cutting word
which leads one to the world of sin, the word at which another would shudder.          
                  

            वेदस्योपनिषत्सत्यं
सत्यस्योपनिषद्दमः।
            दमस्योपनिषन्मोक्ष एतत्सर्वानुशासनम्॥
The
secret meaning of the Vedas is truth; of truth, self-control; of self-control,
release from bondage; this is the all-comprehensive gospel.
           शिश्नोदरे ये निरतास्सदैव
              स्तेना नरा वाक्परुषाश्च
नित्यम्।
           अपेतधर्मानिति तान्विदित्वा
               दूराद्देवास्संपरिवर्जयन्ति॥
‘Those
who are always taking pleasure in sex and eating, those who steal others’
possessions, and those men who are always violent in tongue – considering them
as bereft of Dharma, the gods avoid them from a distance.’
                ||इति शान्तिपर्व समाप्तम्॥
                 THUS ENDS THE SANTI
PARVA  

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