वैराग्यप्रकरणम्-प्रथमः सर्गः
           (देवदूतद्वारा मोक्षोपायवर्णनम् )
यतः सर्वाणि भूतानि प्रतिभान्ति स्थितानि च
यत्रैवोपशमं यान्ति तस्मै सत्यात्मने नमः ॥१॥
ज्ञाता ज्ञानं तथा ज्ञेयं द्रष्टा दर्शनदृश्यभूः
कर्ता हेतुः क्रिया यस्मात्तस्मै ज्ञप्त्यात्मने नमः ॥२॥
स्फुरन्ति शीकरा यस्य आनन्दस्याऽम्बरेऽवनौ
सर्वेषां जीवनं तस्मै ब्रह्मानन्दात्मने नमः ॥३ ॥
Salutation to that Eternal Truth from which all these
living beings appear, in whom all these reside and in whom they finally find
quiescence. Salutations to that Brahman of the form of absolute pure Knowledge
who is the Knower, the Knowledge and the process of Knowing. Salutations to
that Brahman of the nature of Absolute Bliss
droplets from which pervade the sky and the earth and
infuse life into all beings
सुतीक्ष्णो ब्राह्मणः कश्चित् संशयाकृष्टमानसः
अगस्तेराश्रमं गत्वा मुनिं पप्रच्छ सादरम् ॥४॥
भगवन् धर्मतत्त्वज्ञ सर्वशास्त्रविनिश्चित
संशयोऽस्ति महानेकस्त्वमेतं कृपया वद ॥५।
मोक्षस्य कारणं कर्म ज्ञानं वा मोक्षसाधनं
उभयं वा विनिश्चित्य एकं कथय कारणम् ॥६॥
उभाभ्यामेव पक्षाभ्यां यथा खे पक्षिणां गतिः
तथैव ज्ञानकर्माभ्यां जायते परमं पदम् ॥७॥
केवलात् कर्मणा ज्ञानात् नहि मोक्षोऽभिजायते
किन्तूभाभ्यां भवेन्मोक्षः साधनं उभयं विदुः ॥८॥
A brahmin  by
name Sutikshna, assailed by doubts, went to the hermit of Agastya Rishi and reverentially
asked the saint ”O Revered One! you know the very essence of dharma and
you have rightly understood the all the sastras. I have a very great
doubt.  Kindly clear my doubt by your
words. Which is the cause of moksha (liberation) (1)- Karma(Action),
Knowledge or both (Karma and Knowledge)?” 
Saint Agastya says –“Knowledge coupled with Action leads to liberation
just as birds fly in the sky with the help of both of their two wings (not with
one wing alone)”.  Liberation cannot be
attained either by (selfless) Action alone or Knowledge alone.  But it can be attained by (selfless) Action
and Knowledge taken together.  Both these
are instruments for liberation.
अस्मिन्नर्थे पुरावृत्तमितिहासं वदामि ते
कारुण्याख्यः पुरा कश्चिद्ब्राह्मणोऽधीतवेदकः ॥९॥
अग्निवेश्यस्य पुत्रोऽभूत् वेदवेदांगपारगः
गुरोरधीतविद्यः सन्नाजगाम गृहं प्रति ॥१०॥
अनित्यकर्मकृत्तूष्णीं संशयानो गृहे सदा
अग्निवेश्यो विलोक्याऽथ पुत्रं कर्मविवर्जितं ॥११।
प्राह एतद्वचो निन्द्य गुरुः पुत्रं हिताय च
किमेतत् पुत्र कुरुषे पालनं न स्वकर्मणः ॥१२ ॥
अकर्मनिरतः सिद्धिं कथं प्राप्स्यसि तद्वद
कर्मणोऽस्मान्निवृत्तः किं कारणं तन्निवेद्यताम्॥१३॥
यावज्जीवमग्निहोत्रं नित्यं संध्यामुपासयेत्
प्रवृत्तिरूपो धर्मोऽयं श्रुत्या स्मृत्या च चोदितः॥१४॥
In this connection I shall relate to you an old story
about a brahmin named Karunya. He was the son of Agnivesha and after attaining
proficiency in the Vedas and Vedangas,  he returned home but continued to spend time
lazily not doing his prescribed daily karmas.. His father scolded him
and advised “ My son, why are you not performing those daily karmas
ordained in the Vedas for a brahmin.  How
will a person attain his goal if he does not perform the daily rites prescribed
for him? Please tell me why you have turned away from your prescribed karmas
like agnihotra, sandhyopasana  etc. prescribed by the Vedas and the dharma
न धनेन भवेन्मोक्षः कर्मणा प्रजया न वा
त्यागमात्रेण किन्त्वेके यतयोऽश्नन्तिचाऽमृतम् ॥१५॥
इति श्रुत्योर्द्वयोर्मध्ये किं कर्तव्यं मया गुरो
इति सन्दिग्धतां गत्वा तूष्णीं भूतोऽस्मि कर्मणा ॥१६॥
इत्युक्त्वा तात विप्रोऽसौ कारुण्यो मौनमागतः
तथा विप्र सुतं दृष्ट्वा पुनः प्राह गुरुः सुतं ॥१७॥
(Karunya says in reply) “ Sruti also says that
liberation cannot be attained  by
material possessions, by karma (actions) or by progeny. It is by tyaga
(sacrifice, giving up everything) alone that saints attain liberation and
become immortal.  Thus Sruti (Vedas)
prescribes both karma as well as tyaga.  I am assailed by doubts of which of the two I
should follow.  This is the reason for my
I am spending time quietly without doing anything.”  So saying Karunya became silent.  Then the Guru (father) told the son
again (as follows):
शृणु पुत्र कथामेकां तदर्थं हृदयेऽखिलं
मत्तोऽवधार्य पुत्र त्वं यथेच्छसि तथा कुरु ॥१८॥
सुरुचिर्नाम काचित् स्त्री अप्सरोगण उत्तमा
उपविष्टा हिमवतः शिखरे शिखिसंवृते ॥१९॥
स्वर्धुन्योघेन संस्पृष्टे महाघौघविनाशिना
रमन्ते कामसन्तप्ताः किन्नर्यो यत्र किन्नरैः  ॥२०॥
दूतमिन्द्रस्य गच्छन्तं अन्तरिक्षे ददर्श सा
तमुवाच महाभागा सुरुचिश्चाऽप्सरोवरा ॥२१॥
देवदूत महाभाग कुत आगम्यते त्वया
अधुना कुत्र गन्ताऽसि तत्सर्वं कृपया वद ॥२२॥
Agnivesha says “Son!, hear from me a story and
understand its import in your heart. Afterwards you can do whatever you
want.  Suruchi, the best among apsara
women, was seated on a peak of the Himavan surrounded by peacocks and washed by
the waves of the celestial Ganga which washes away all the sins and where
passionate kinnara damsels are engaged in love sport with kinnaras.  Suruchi, the best among apsaras,  saw a messenger of Indra flying overhead and
asked him  “ O Fortunate messenger of
Indra! Please tell me from where you are coming and to which place you are
साधु पृष्टं त्वया सुभ्रु यथावत् कथयामि ते
अरिष्टनेमी रजर्षिर्दत्वा राज्यं सुताय वै ॥२३॥
वीतरागः स धर्मात्मा निर्ययौ तपसे वनं
तपश्चरत्यसौ राजा पर्वते गन्धमादने ॥२४॥
कार्यं कृत्वा मया तत्र तत्त आगम्यतेऽधुना
गन्तास्मि पार्श्वे शक्रस्य तं वृत्तन्तं निवेदितुम् ॥२५॥
वृत्तान्तः कोऽभवत्तत्र कथयस्व मम प्रभो
प्रष्टुकामा विनीताऽस्मि नोद्वेगं कर्तुमर्हसि  ॥२६॥
(The messenger of Indra said) “One with pretty
eye-brows! It is good you have asked me; I will tell you what happened.  Rajarshi Arishtanemi entrusted the
kingdom to his son and, devoid of any desire for the pleasures of the senses,
went to the forest for doing penance. The king is doing penance in the
Gandhamadana mountain. Having finished my work there I am coming from there
now.  I am going to report what happened
there to Devendra.  Suruchi asks
the messenger “ Please tell me what happened there.  I want to ask you in all humility. Please do
not be disturbed.”  
शृणु भद्रे यथावृत्तं विस्तरेण वदामि ते
तस्मिन् राज्ञि वने तत्र तपश्चरति दुस्तरम् ॥२७॥
इत्यहं देवराजेन सुभ्रूराज्ञापितस्तदा 
दूतस्त्वं तत्र गच्छाशु गृहीत्वेदं विमानकं ॥२८॥
अप्सरोगणसंयुक्तं नानावादित्रशोभितं
गन्धर्वसिधयक्षैश्च किन्नराद्यैश्च शोभितम् ॥२९॥
तालवेणुमृदंगादि शोभिते गन्धमादने
नानावृक्षसमाकीर्णे गत्वा तस्मिन् गिरौ शुभे ॥३०॥
अरिष्टनेमिं राजानं दूताऽऽरोप्य विमानके
आनय स्वर्गं भोगाय नगरीममरावतीम् ॥३१॥
“O Auspicious One! hear what I say in detail about the
happenings there. When the king was engaged in penance in the forest,  I was ordered by Indra thus: “O messenger!
Take this airplane and go without delay to Gandhamadana  which is inhabited by hordes of apsaras,  gandharvas, siddhas, yakshas and
kinnaras,  where sweet music from different
types of musical instruments pervades and which is full of different types of
trees and plants.”
इत्याज्ञां प्राप्य शक्रस्य  गृहीत्वा
सर्वोपस्करसंयुक्तं तस्मिन्नद्रावहं ययौ ॥३२॥
आगत्य पर्वते तस्मिन् राज्ञो गत्वाऽऽश्रमं मया
निवेदिता महेन्द्रस्य सर्वाज्ञाऽरिष्टनेमये ॥३३॥
इति मद्वचनं श्रुत्वा संशयानोऽवदच्छुभे
प्रष्टुमिच्छामि दूत त्वां तन्मे त्वं वक्तुमर्हसि ॥३४॥
गुणा दोषाश्च के तत्र स्वर्गे वद ममाग्रतः
ज्ञात्वा स्थितिं तु तत्रत्यां करिष्येऽहं यथारुचि ॥३५॥
ordered by Indra, I took that well-furnished airplane and went to the
hermitage of the Rajarshi in the mountain and conveyed to him whatever
was ordered by Indra.  Having
heard my words he said,  with a hint of
doubt in his words “O messenger! I want to ask you something which you should
answer. Tell me what are the good things in heaven and what are bad.  After knowing the state of affairs there I
will act according to my liking.”
स्वर्गे पुण्यस्य सामग्र्या भुज्यते परमं सुखं
उत्तमेन तु पुण्येन प्राप्नोति स्वर्गमुत्तमं  ॥३६॥
मध्यमेन तथा मध्यः स्वर्गो भवति नाऽन्यथा
कनिष्ठेन तु पुण्येन स्वर्गो भवति तादृशः ॥३७॥
परोत्कर्षासहिष्णुत्वं स्पर्धा  चैव
समैश्च तैः
कनिष्ठेषु च सन्तोषो यावत् पुण्यक्षयो भवेत् ॥३८॥
क्षीणे पुण्ये विशन्त्येतं मर्त्यलोकं च मानवाः
इत्यादिगुणदोषाश्च स्वर्गे राजन्नवस्थिताः ॥३९॥
The messenger replies “ In Heaven one enjoys the
greatest of pleasures as reward for punya (meritorious deeds).  For the best punya one enjoys the best
of pleasures, medium punya begets medium joys and  the least of punya is rewarded with
only commensurate levels of pleasures.  The denizens of heaven are envious of those
who are above themselves in terms pleasures and comforts.  Similarly there is rivalry and competition
among equals. And there is satisfaction in some on seeing that they are better
off than those who are less fortunate than themselves.  This continues until the stock of punya is
exhausted when they take birth again in the world of humans.  This is what is good and bad in heaven”. 
इति श्रुत्वा वचो भद्रे स राजा प्रत्यभाषत
नेच्छामि देवदूताऽहं स्वर्गमीदृग्विधं फलं ॥४०॥
अतः परं महोग्रं च तपः कृत्वा कलेवरं
त्यक्ष्यामहमशुद्धं हि जीर्णां त्वचमिवोरगः ॥४१॥
देवदूत विमानेदं गृहीत्वा त्वं यथाऽऽगतः
तथा गच्छ महेन्द्रस्य सन्निधौ त्वं नमोऽस्तु ते ॥४२॥
इत्युक्तोऽहं गतो भद्रे शक्रस्याऽग्रे निवेदितुं
यथावृत्तं नेवेद्याऽथ महदाश्चर्यतां गतः ॥४३॥  
Having heard the words of the messenger the king
replied  “I do not want a heaven which
gives this kind of fruits (pleasures). I shall do more intense penance and
leave this body just as a snake discards its decayed outer skin. O messenger of
Indra! You take this airplane and go back to Indra the same way you came here;
salutations to you.”
पुनः प्राह महेन्द्रो मां श्लक्ष्णं मधुरया गिरा
दूत गच्छ पुनस्तत्र तं राजानं नयाऽऽश्रमं ॥ ४४॥
वाल्मीकेर्ज्ञातत्त्वस्य स्वबोधार्थं विरागिणं
सन्देशं मम वाल्मीकेर्महर्षेस्त्वं निवेदय  ॥४५॥
महर्षे त्वं विनीताय राज्ञेऽस्मै वीतरागिणे
न स्वर्गमिच्छते तत्त्वं प्रबोधय  महामुने
तेन संसारदु:खार्तो मोक्षमेष्यति च क्रमात्
इत्युक्त्वा देवराजेन प्रेषितोऽहं तदन्तिके ॥४७॥
Messenger of Indra says 
“Devendra then told me in soft and sweet words O messenger! You go back
and take this king to the hermitage of Valmiki who has known the Highest Truth
so that the former is enlightened about his own Self.  You convey my message “O Maharshi Valmiki ! impart
to this king,  who is full of humility
and devoid of desires, the knowledge of Tattwa,  the Ultimate Reality.”    
मयाऽऽगत्य पुनस्तत्र संज्ञा वल्मीकजन्मने
निवेदितो महेन्द्रस्य राज्ञा मोक्षस्य साधनम् ॥४८॥
ततो वल्मीकजन्माऽसौ राजानं समपृच्छत
अनामयमतिप्रीत्या कुशलप्रश्नवार्तया ॥४९॥
भगवन् धर्मतत्वज्ञ ज्ञातज्ञेय विदांवर
कृतार्थोऽहं भवद्दृष्ट्या तदेव कुशलं मम ॥५०॥
भगवन् प्रष्टुमिच्छामि तदविघ्नेन मे वद
संसारबन्धदु:खार्तिं कथं मुञ्चामि तद्वद  ॥५१॥
I then went to back and took the King to Maharshi
Valmiki and delivered the message of Indra. 
The king asked Valmiki about the means of attaining moksha or
liberation.  The Maharshi affectionately enquired
about the welfare of the King. In reply the king said “O Bhagavan ! you
know about all the dharmas.  You are
foremost among those who have known all that is to be known. My life has been
fulfilled by seeing you and that itself is my welfare. I want to ask you how I
can get rid of the sorrows and miseries arising out of bondage in this samsara.”
शृणु राजन् प्रवक्ष्यामि रामायणमखण्डितं
श्रुत्वाऽवधार्य यत्नेन जीवन्मुक्तो भविष्यसि ॥५२॥
वसिष्ठरामसंवादं  मोक्षोपायकथां
ज्ञातस्वभावो राजेन्द्र वदामि श्रूयतां बुध ॥५३॥
को रामः कीदृशः कस्य बद्धो वा मुक्त एव वा
एतन्मे निश्चितं ब्रूहि ज्ञानं तत्त्वविदां वर ॥५४॥
Maharshi “O King! hear from me the complete story of
Rama and ponder over its meaning with diligence.  You will become a jeevanmukta, a
liberated soul while still in the embodied state. Since I know your innate
tendencies and tastes which are auspicious and since you are wise I shall
relate to you Ramayana in the form of a discourse between Vasishtha and Rama
regarding the means of attaining moksha, liberation.  The Kings asks the Rishi “ Who is this Rama?  What kind of a person is he?  To whom we can relate him? Whether he is
bound to this samsara or is he a liberated soul? O the best among the
knowers of Brahman (Ultimate Reality)!Kindly enlighten me on these questions.”
शापव्याजवशादेव रजवेषधरो हरिः
आहृताज्ञानसंपन्नः किञ्चित्ज्ञोसावभूत्प्रभुः ॥५५॥
चिदानन्दस्वरूपे हि रामे चैतन्यविग्रहे
शापस्य कारणं ब्रूहि कः शप्ता चेति मे वद ॥५६॥
सनत्कुमारो निष्काम अवसद् ब्रह्मसद्मनि
वैकुण्ठादागतो विष्णुस्त्रैलोक्याधिपतिः प्रभुः ॥५७॥
ब्रह्मणा पूजितस्तत्र सत्यलोकनिवासिभिः
विना कुमारं तद्दृष्ट्वा ह्युवाच प्रभुरीशरः ॥५८॥
सनत्कुमार स्तब्धोऽसि निष्कामो गर्वचेष्टया
अतस्त्वं भव कामार्तः शरजन्मेति नामतः   ॥५९॥
तेनाऽपि शपितो विष्णुः सर्वज्ञत्वं तवास्ति यत्
किञ्चित्काल इदं त्यक्त्वा त्वमज्ञानी भविष्यसि ॥६०॥
Maharshi tells the king that Hari (Mahavishnu), on the
pretext of making true the curses (of his devotees), incarnated in human form
as Rama, and though omniscient, took on the role of one with diminished
knowledge.  The King asks the Maharshi
the reason for the curse on Rama who is of the nature of Absolute Pure
Knowledge (Consciousness). Maharshi replies “Once Vishnu visited Satyaloka, the
abode of Brahma. He was worshipped by Brahma and others of Satyaloka. But Sanatkumara,
who had conquered all his desires and lived in the house of Brahma did not
participate in honouring Vishnu. Mahavishnu cursed him for his supercilious
conduct saying that he would become passionately in love as sarajanma by name. Sanatkumara
also cursed Vishnu, though omniscient, would for some time become one with
limited Knowledge.   
भृगुर्भार्यां हतां दृष्ट्वा ह्युवाच क्रोधमूर्च्छितः
विष्णो युवाऽपि भार्याया वियोगो हि भविष्यति ॥६१॥
वृन्दया शपितो विष्णुः छलनं कृतवत्यया
अतस्त्वं स्त्रीवियोगं तु वचनान्मम यास्यसि ॥६२॥
भार्या हि देवदत्तस्य पयोष्णीतीरसंस्थिता
नृसिंहवेषधृग्विष्णुं दृष्ट्वा पंचत्वमागता ॥६३॥
तेन शप्तो हि नृहरिर्दुखार्तः स्त्रीवियोगतः
तवाऽपि भार्यया सार्धं वियोगो हि भविष्यति ॥६४॥
भृगुणैवं कुमारेण शापितो देवशर्मणा
वृन्दया शापितो विष्णुस्तेन मानुष्यतां गतः ॥६५॥
एतत्ते कथितं सर्वं शापव्याजस्यकारणं
इदानीं वच्मि तत्सर्वं सावधानमतिः शृणु॥ ६६॥

“Once the wife of maharshi Bhrigu was killed by
vishnu’s chakra. Bhrigu cursed Vishnu saying that the latter would also experience,
for some time,  the pain of separation
from his wife (Sita in his incarnation as Rama). Vrinda, duped by Vishnu, also
cursed the latter that he would suffer separation from his wife.  Wife of Devadatta, on the banks of Payoshni,
was frightened to death by the sight of Nrisimha incarnation of Vishnu.
Devadutta likewise cursed Vishnu to suffer separation from wife.  Because of all these curses of Bhrigu,
Sanatkumara, Devasharma, Vrinda etc Vishnu had to take birth in the world of
humans. I have explained to you the reasons why the pretext of curse(
शापव्याज) arose.  I will
now explain to you everything in detail. 
Hear me with full concentration of your mind. 

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