QUOTABLE QUOTES FROM VIDURA NEETI

QUOTABLE QUOTES FROM VIDURA NEETI (MAHABHARATA)
Vidura was a half-brother of Dhritaraashtra and Pandu.   Ambika and Ambalika were wives of King Vichitraveerya who died childless.  Vichitravirya’s mother Satyavati was anxious to ensure that the royal line was carried on.  Ambika gave birth to Dhritaraashtra and Ambalika to Pandu fathered by Vyasa at the behest  of his mother Satyvati.   Vidura was born of a handmaiden of Ambika by Sage Vyasa.  He was therefore half-brother to both Dhritaraashtra and Pandu.
Vidura is supposed to be the incarnation of Yama, the very embodiment of dharma.  He had to take birth as a human being because of a curse on him by sage Mandavya.  Yama had imposed punishment far in excess of the sin committed by the sage unwittingly as a boy. Hence the curse on Yama.
Vidura was raised and educated by Bhishma along with his half-brothers. He was known for speaking the truth and for his intelligence and depth of knowledge. He served his brothers as a minister. He was a friend of the Pandavas and a great devotee of Krishna.  In spite of being a royal minister he led a simple life. 
Vidura Neeti, mainly on the science of politics,  is narrated in the form of a conversation between Vidura and King Dhritraashtra in the great epic Mahabharata.  It is often cited as the precursor of the more famous Chanakya Neeti. 
The following is a selection of verses from Vidura Neeti with a free translation in English. 
Mark of a Pandita (wise man)

त्मज्ञानं समारम्भः तितिक्षा धर्मनित्यता 

यमर्थान्नापकर्षन्ति वै पण्डित उच्यते
Aatmajnaanam samaarambha stitikshaa dharmanityataa
Yamarthaannaapakarshanti sa vai pandita uchyate
1.20
That one is wise who does not deviate from the higher  goals of life  rooted as he is in  Self-knowledge,  Endeavour, forbearance and adherence to dharma.
 
यस्य कृत्यं विघ्नन्ति शीतमुष्णं भयं रतिः
समृद्धिरसमृद्धिर्वा वै पण्डित उच्यते
Yasya krityam na vighnanti sheetamushnam bhayam ratih
Samriddhirasamriddhir vaa sa vai pandita uchyate
1.24
That one is wise  whose actions  or endeavours are  not obstructed by cold, heat, fear, love, affluence or poverty. 
नाप्राप्यमभिवाञ्छन्ति नष्टं नेच्छन्ति शोचितुम् ।
आपत्सु च न मुह्यन्ति स वै पण्डित उच्यते ॥
Naapraapyamabhivaanjhanti nashtam nechchhanti shochitum
Aapatsu ch na muhyanti sa vai pandita uchyate
1.28
That one is wise who does not hanker after the unattainable,  who does not worry over what is lost and who faces calamities without losing his senses.
निश्चित्वा यः प्रक्रमते नान्तर्वसति कर्मणः
अवन्ध्यकालो वश्यात्मा वै पण्डित उच्यते
Nishchitwaa yah prakramate naantarvasati karmanah
Avandhyakaalo vashyaatmaa sa vai pandita uchyate
1.29
That one is wise whose endeavours are preceded by a firm commitment, who does not take long rests before the task is accomplished,  who does not waste his time and who has control over his mind.  
हृष्यत्यात्मसम्माने  नावमानेन तप्यते
गांगो ह्रद इवाक्षोभ्यो यः पण्डित उच्यते
Na hrishyatyaatmasammaane naavamaanena tapyate
Gaango hrada ivaakshobhyo yah sah pandita uchyate
1.31
That one is wise who does not rejoice when honoured,  does not become dejected when dishonoured  and is not swayed by  emotions under the most trying circumstances.
अर्थं महान्तमासाद्य विद्यामैश्वर्यमेव वा   ।
विचरत्यसमुन्नद्धो यः स पण्डित उच्यते  ॥
Artham mahaantamaasaadya vidyaamaishwaryameva vaa
Vicharatyasamunnaddho yah sah pandita uchyate
1.45
That one is wise who, even after acquiring great wealth, learning or control over others  goes about his job wihout being conceited in the least.
Mark of a fool
अमित्रं कुरुते मित्रं मित्रं द्वेष्टि हिनस्ति च
कर्मचारभते दुष्टं तमाहुर्मूढचेतसं ॥।
Amitram kurute mitram mitram dweshti hinasti cha
Karma chaarabhate dushtam tamaahurmooddha chetasam
1.38
That one is a fool who makes the enemy his friend,  hurts and kills his friend and always engages himself in wrongful activity.
सम्सारयति कृत्यानि सर्वत्र विचिकित्सते।
चिरम् करोति क्षिप्रार्थे स मूढो भरतर्षभ
Samsaarayati krityaani sarvatra vichikitsate
Chiram karoti kshipraathe sa mooddho bharatarshabha
1.39
That one is a fool who spreads out his actions,  entertains doubts about everything and takes a long time for actions which  should  be done with the utmost  urgency.
क्षिपत्यन्यान् हि दोषेण वर्तमान स्वयम् तथा।
यश्च क्रुद्धत्यनीशानः स च मूढतमो नरः॥
Kshipatyanyam hi doshena vartamaanah swayam tathaa
Yashcha krudhatyaneeshaanah sa cha mooddhatamo narah
2.43
That one is the greatest  fool who finds fault with others when he himself has such faults and who gets angry when he himself has no control over the one at whom the anger is directed.
न वैरमुद्दीपयति प्रशान्तं
न दर्पमारोहति नास्तमेति ।
न दुर्गतोऽस्मीति करोत्यकार्यं
तमार्यशीलं परमाहुरार्याः  ॥
Na vairamuddeepayati prashaantam
Na darpamaarohati naastameti
Na durgatosmeeti karotyakaaryam
Tamaaryasheelam paramaahuraaryaah
1.117
That one is of sterling conduct and character who does not inflame the enmity which has cooled down, is not conceited  and at the same time is not self-deprecating, does not engage in wrongful actions on the ground that he is passing through a difficult period.
एकश्चार्थान् न चिन्तयेत्
Ekashchaarthaan na chintayet
1.51
Alone one should not apply thought to a matter of substance.
क्षमागुणोह्यशक्तानां  शक्तानां भूषणं क्षमा ।
Kshamaa gunohyashaktaanaam shaktaanaam bhooshanam kshamaa
1.54
For the weak patience (forgiveness) is a quality; for the strong patience (forgiveness)  is an adornment.
द्वे कर्मणी नरः कुर्वन्नस्मिंल्लोके विरोचते।
अब्रुवं परुषं कश्चित् असतोऽनर्चयंस्तथा ॥
Dwe karmanee narah kurvannasminloke virochate
Abruvan parusham kashchit asatonarchayamstathaa
1.59
By doing two things, namely,  not speaking harsh words and not flattering or giving respect to  bad characters,  one would shine in this world.
अष्टा गुणा: पुरुषं दीपयन्ति
प्रज्ञा च कौल्यं च दमः श्रुतश्च ।
पराक्रमश्चाबहुभाषिता च
दानं यथाशक्ति कृतज्ञता च ॥
Ashtaa gunaah purusham deepayanti
Prajnaa cha kaulyam cha damah shrutam cha
Paraakramashchaabahubhaashitaa cha
Daanam yathaashakti kritajnataa cah
Intelligence, noble birth, control of the senses, learning, valour, control on speech (not being talkative), giving to others according to one’s capacity and gratefulness    –  these eight qualities adorn a person. 
वाक्संयमो हि नृपते सुदुष्करतमो मतः ।
अर्थवच्च विचित्रं च न शक्यो बहुभाषितुम् ॥
Vaaksamyamo hi nripate sudushkaratamo maatah
Arthavachcha vichitram cha na shakyam bahu bhaashitum
2.76
O King! Control on speech is considered to be one of the most difficult things to achieve.  In fact, one will not able to speak much that is pregnant with meaning and  is expressed in picturesque language.
Control of the senses
वश्येन्द्रियं जितात्मानं धृतदण्डं विकारिषु।
परीक्ष्यकारिणं  धीरं अत्यन्तं श्रीर्निषेवते ॥
Vashyendriyam Jitaatmaanam dhrutadandam vikaarishu
Pareekshyakaarinam dheeram atyantam shreernishevate
Goddess Lakshmi is always with people who keep their senses  and mind under control, who punish wrong-doers, whose actions are preceded by a thorough examination of its pros and cons and who is of great determination.
रथः शरीरं पुरुषस्य राजन् आत्मा नियन्तेन्द्रियाण्यस्य चाश्वाः
तैरप्रमत्तः कुशली सदश्वैर्दान्तैः सुखं याति रथीव धीरः
Rathah shareeram purushasya rajan aatmaa niyantendriyaanyasya chaashwaah
Tairapramattah kushaee sadashwairdaantaih sukham yaati ratheeva dheerah
This body is the chariot, buddhi (intellect)  is the charioteer and the senses are the horses. One who controls all these travels happily in this world like the charioteer who has controlled the horses of the chariot.
एतान्यनिगृहीतानि व्यापादयितुमप्यलं।
अविधेया इवादान्ताः हयाः पथि कुसारथिम् ॥
Etaanyanigriheetaani vyaapaadayitumapyalam
Avidheyaa ivaadaantaah hayaah pathi kusaarathim
Just like the uncontrolled horses will throw the unskilled charioteer to the ground, the seses which are not subdued and are not under contorl are capable of destroying a person.
धर्मार्थौ यः परितज्य स्यादिन्द्रिय वशानुगः।
श्रीप्राणधनदारेभ्यः क्षिप्रं स परिहीयते॥
Dahrmaarthau yah parityajya syaadindriya vashaanugah
Shreepraanadhanadaarebhyah kshipram sa pariheeyate
One who forsakes dharma  (virtue)  and artha (matrial things) and is always under the control of his senses will soon lose his charm,  his energy, his weath and  his wife. 
आत्मनात्मानमन्विच्छेत्  मनोबुद्धीन्द्रियैर्यतैः।
आत्माह्येवात्मनो बंधुः आत्मैव रिपुरात्मनः ॥
Aatmanaatmaanamanvichchhet mano buddheendriyairyataih
Aatmaa hyevaatmano bandhuraatmaiva ripuraatmanah
One should try to understand his real self by controlling his mind, intellect and the senses.  The controlled mind is the friend of the self and the uncontrolled mind in the enemy of the self.
पंचैव पूजयन् लोके यश: प्राप्नोति केवलं           ।
देवान्  पितॄन् मनुष्यांश्च भिक्षून् अतिथि पंचमान्    ॥      
Panchaiva poojayan loke yashah praapnoti kevalam
Devaan pitreen manushyaamshcha bhikshoon atithi panchamaan
By worshipping (serving) the five , namely, devas, departed souls of parents and ancestors, human beings, sanyaasis and guests one will achieve fame and recognition. 
पंच त्वाऽनुगमिष्यन्ति यत्र यत्र गमिष्यसि ।
मित्राण्यमित्रा मध्यस्था उपजीव्योपजीविनः ॥
Pancha twaanugamishyanti yatr yatra gamishyasi
Mitraanyamitraa madhyasthaa upajeevyopjeevinah
These five will follow you wherever you go meaning you will find them wherever you go – friends, enemies, those who are neutral, those on whom you depend and those who depend on you.
षट् दोषा: पुरुषेणेह  हातव्याः भूतिमिच्छता ।
निद्रा तन्द्रा भयं क्रोधः आलस्यं दीर्घसूत्रिता  ॥
Shat doshaah purusheneha haatavyaah bhootimichchhataa
Nidraa tandraa bhayam krodhah aalasyam deerghasootritaa
One who desires to be prosperous and happy should give up these six faults , namely, excessive sleep,  sluggishness, fear, anger, laziness and  procrastination in decision-making.
षडिमान् पुरुषो जह्यात् भिन्नं नावमिवार्णवे
अप्रवक्तारं आचार्यं अनध्यायिनम् ऋत्विजम् ।
आरक्षितारं राजानं भार्यां चाऽप्रियवादिनीं
ग्रामकामं च गोपालं वनकामं च नापितम्॥
Shadimaan purusho jahyaat bhinnam naavamivaarnave
Apravaktaaram aachaaryam  anadhyaayinam rithwijam
Arakshitaaram raajaanam bhaaryaam chaapriyavaadineem
Graama kaamam cha gopaalam vanakaamam cha naapitam
These six are to abandoned  by  a man like a broken vessel (boat or ship) in the sea – the achaarya who does not teach, the ritwik who does not repeat the vedas, the king who does not protect his subjects,  the wife who always says unpleasant things, the cowherd who does not want to go out of the village ( grama) (for grazing the cattle)  and the barber who wants to go out into the forest.
षडैव तु गुणाः पुंसा न हातव्या कदाचन ।
सत्यं दानं अनालस्यं अनसूया क्षमा धृतिः॥
Shadaiva tu gunaah pumsaa na haatavyaa kadaachana
Satyam daanam anaalasyam anasooyaa kshamaa dhritih
These six qualities should never be abandoned  – truthfulness, giving,  not being lazy, not finding fault even in something good, forgiveness and determination or courage.
अर्थागमो नित्यमरोगिता च
प्रिया च भार्य प्रियवादिनी च ।
वश्यश्च पुत्रोऽर्थकरी च विद्या
षट् जीवलोकस्य सुखानि राजन् ॥
Arthaagamo nityamarogitaa cha
Priyaa cha bhaaryaa priyavadinee cha
Vashyascha putro arthakaree cha vidyaa
Shat jeevalokasya sukhaani raajan
Having a steady inflow of money (income), an ever healthy body, a loving wife who always speaks what will cheer up the husband, an obedient son, skill or learning which enables one to earn a living –  these will make a man’s life happy and joyful.
षण्णामात्मनि नित्यानामैश्वर्यं योऽधिगच्छति।
न स पापैः कुतोऽनर्थः युज्यते विजितेन्द्रियः ॥
Shannaam aatmani nityaanaam aishwaryam yo adhigachchhati
Na sa paapaih kuto anarthaih yujyate vijitendriyah 
He who gains control on the six enemies who are ever present in a person,( namely kama (lust), krodha (anger), lobha (greed), moha (attachment), mada (arrogance), maatsyarya (jealousy)) and   who has conquered his senses –  sin will not touch that person, what to talk of misfortunes.
ईर्ष्यी घृणी असंतुष्टः क्रोधनो नित्यशंकितः ।
परभाग्योपजीवी च षडैते नित्य दु:खिताः   ॥
Eershyee  ghrinee asantushtah krodhano nityashankitah
Parabhaagyopajeevee cha shadaithe nitya dukhitaah
One who envies , one who hates, one who is not content, one who is always angry, one who is always suspicious  and one who lives on the fortunes of others – these six are always sad.
षडैते ह्यवमन्यन्ते नित्यं पूर्वोपकारिणां
आचार्यं शिक्षिताः शिष्याः कृतदाराश्च मातरं ।
नारीं विगतकामस्तु कृतार्थश्च प्रयोजकं
नावं निस्तीर्णकान्तारा अनातुराश्च चिकित्सितम् ॥
Shadete hyavamanyante nityam poorvopakaarinaam
Aachaaryam shikshitaah shishyaah kritadaaraashcha maataram
Naareem vigatakaamaastu krithaarthaashcha prayojakam
Navam nisteernakaantaaraa anaaturaashcha chikitsakam
The following six people show no respect to their benefactors once their need is fulfilled.  Students who have completed their studies to their teacher, the married man to his mother, one whose sex urge has been satisfied to the woman, one whose work has been satisfactorily accomplished to the person who did the job,  one who has crossed the river to the boatman and one who has recovered from his illness to the doctor. 
आरोग्यमानृण्यमविप्रवासः
सद्भिर्मनुष्यैस्सह संप्रयोगः।
स्वप्रत्यया वृत्तिरभीतवासः
षट् जीवलोकस्य सुखानि राजन् ॥
Aarogyamaanrinyamavipravaasah
Sadbhirmanushyaissaha samprayogah
Swapratyayaa vrittirabheetavaasah
Shat jeevalokasya sukhaani raajan
Good health, not to be in debt, not being forced to live  in an alien land, company of good people,  earning a livelihood by one’s own skill or knowledge and living without fear – these six things make one’s like happy and joyful.
The seven bad habits
सप्त दोषा सदा राजन् हातव्या व्यसनोदयाः
प्रायशो यैर्विनश्यन्ति कृतमूला अपीश्वराः।
स्त्रियोऽक्षाः मृगया पानं वाक्पारुष्यं च पंचमं
महच्च दण्डपारुष्यं अर्थदूषणमेव च ॥
Saptadoshaah sadaa raajnaa  haatavyaa vyasanodayaah
Praayasho yairvinashyanti kritamoola apeeshwaraah
Striyokshaah mrigayaa paanam vaakpaarushyam cha panchamam
Mahachcha dandapaarushyam arthadooshanameva cha
The following seven bad habits will lead to the downfall of even a well-established king.   Women, gambling, hunting, intoxicating drinks, use of harsh words, inflicting very harsh punishment for minor offences and misuse of the treasury.
नवद्वारमिदं वेश्म त्रिस्थूणं पंचशाखिकं
क्षेत्रज्ञाधिष्ठितं विद्वान् यो वेद स परः कविः॥
Navadwaaramidam veshma trishthoonam panchasaakshikam
Kshetrajnaadhishthhitam vidwaan yo veda sa parah kavih
He who knows that this body with its nine openings ( mouth, years, eyes, nose etc) three pillars ( vata, pitta and kapha) five witnesses (sensory organs) is the home of the Atman is the real Jnaani (knower)    
दश धर्मं न जानन्ति धृतराष्ट्र निबोध तान्।
मत्तः प्रमत्तः उन्मत्तः श्रान्तः क्रुद्धो बुभुक्षितः॥
त्वरमाणश्च लुब्धश्च भीतः कामी च ते दश।
तस्मादेतेषु सर्वेषु न प्रसज्जेत पण्डितः  ॥
Dasha dharmam na jaananti dhritaraashtra nibodha taan
Mattah pramattah unmattah shraantah kruddho bubhukshitah
Tvaramaanashcha lubdhashcha bheetah kaamee cha te dasha
Tasmaad etheshu sarveshu na prasajjeta panditah
One who is intoxicated, one who is not cautious or careful,  one who is insane, one who is overcome by fatigue,  one who is hungry, one who is in a hurry, one who is greedy, one who is full of fear  and one who is lustful  – these ten  do not know what is dharma   ( Their state of mind do not give them the capacity to distinguish between dharma and adharma.)  Therefore the wise should avoid the company of such people.
चिकीर्षितं विप्रकृतं च यस्य
नान्ये जनाः कर्म जानन्ति किञ्चित्।
मन्त्रे गुप्ते सम्यगनुष्ठिते च
नाल्पोऽप्यस्य च्यवते कश्चिदर्थः॥

Chikeershitam viprakritam cha yasya
Naanye janaah karma jaananti kinchit
Mantre gupte samyaganushthhite cha
Naalpopyasya chyavate kashchidarthaah
One should maintain secrecy abount what one wants to accomplish and what one wants to avoid so that no one else knows about them. The  plan of action arrived at after consultation should also be kept a secret and executed properly and efficiently. Then all  one’s efforts will bear fruit without any difficulty. 
प्राप्यापदं व्यथते न कदाचित्
उद्योगमन्विच्छति च अप्रमत्तः
दु:खं च काले सहते महात्मा
धुरंधरस्तस्य जिताः सपत्नाः
Praapyaapadam vyathate na kadaachid-
Udyogamanvichchhati cha apramattah
Dukham cha kaale sahate mahaatmaa
Dhuramdharastasya jitaah sapatnaah
One who does not lose heart even when facing difficulties but puts in efforts to overcome them, has the capacity to endure pain and suffering  and can shoulder responsibilities – for  such a person victory over his enemies is guaranteed.
न स्वे सुखे वै कुरुते प्रहर्षं
नान्यस्य दु:खे भवति प्रहृष्टः।
दत्वा न पश्चात् कुरुतेऽनुतापं
स कथ्यते सत्पुरुषार्यशील:॥
Na swe sukhe vai kurute praharsham
Naanyasya dukhe bhavati prahrishtah
Datwaa na pashchaat kurute anutaapam
Sa kathyate satpurushaarysheelah
One who is not overjoyed on his good fortune, does not enjoy the misfortune of others and having gifted a thing to someone later does not regrets his giving  – such a person is said to be of very exemplary conduct and character.
यदतप्तं प्रणमति न तत् सन्तापयन्त्यपि
यच्च स्वयं नतं दारु न तत् सन्नमयन्त्यपि॥
Yadataptam pranamati na tat santaapayantyapi
Yachcha swayam natam daaru  na tat sannamayantyapi
Metal which can bend without heating is not heated.  The branches of  a tree which are alreay bent and almost touching the ground  are not bent again.
सत्येन रक्ष्यते धर्मो विद्या योगेन रक्ष्यते ।
मृजया रक्ष्यते रूपं कुलं वृत्तेन रक्ष्यते ॥
Satyena rakshyate dharmo vidyaa yogena rakshyate
Mrijayaa rakshyate roopam kulam vrittena rakshyate
Dharma is protected by Truth,  Learning is protected by Yoga , beauty is protected by cleanliness and the clan or family is protected by good conduct.
यः ईर्षुः परवित्तेषु रूपे वापि कुलान्वये।
सुख सौभाग्य सत्कारे तस्य व्याधिरनन्तकः ॥
Yah eershuh  paravitteshu roope vaapi kulaanwaye
Sukha soubhaagya satkaare tasya vyaadhiranantakah

One who envies others’ wealth, beauty, family reputation, noble birth, happiness, fortune or respect in society  is really a sick person.  For him there is no cure.
सन्नियच्छति यो वेगं उत्थितं क्रोधहर्षयोः ।
स श्रियो भाजनं राजन् यश्चापत्सु न मुह्यति ॥
Sanniyachchhati yo vegam utthitam krodhaharshayoh
Sa shriyo bhaajanam raajan  yashchaapatsu na muhyati
O King! One who controls  anger and joy which arise in the mind with great force and does not lose his cool in calamities is a fit repository of wealth and fortune. (He deserves wealth and fortune).  
            
 

QUOTABLE QUOTES FROM MANUSMRITI

                                        

                                                            QUOTABLE QUOTES
                                                           
                                                                          FROM
                                                                      MANU SMRITI
  On attitude towards food
                                      
                                    
                      पूजयेदशनं नित्यं अद्याच्चैनमकुत्सयन् 
           दृष्ट्वा हृष्येत् प्रसीदेच्च प्रतिनन्देच्च सर्वश:
           पूजितं ह्यशनं नियं बलमूर्जं च यच्छति ।
           अपूजितं तु तद्भुक्तं उभयं नाशयेदिदं ॥   
                        अनारोग्यमनायुष्यं अस्वर्ग्यं चातिभोजनं ।
           अपुण्यं लोकविद्विष्टं तस्मात् तत्परिवर्जयेत् ॥
                       Poojaye-dashanam nityam
                       adyaachchaina-makutsayan  
                       drushtwaa  hrushyet praseedechcha
                       pratinandechcha   sarvashah  
                                 
                       Poojitam hyashanam nityam
                       balamoorjam cha yachchati
                       Apoojitam tu tadbhuktam
                       ubhayam naashayed idam
                
                       Anaarogyam anaayushyam
                       aswargyam cha atibhojanam
                       Apunyam lokavidvishtam
                       tasmaat tat parivarjayet                   
Food should always be worshipped and taken with the utmost reverence. The sight of food should delight one’s heart and fill it with joy.  It should always be  cherished  whatever the situation. Food thus honoured  gives one strength and energy.  Food taken irreverently destroys both strength and energy.  
Over-eating is unhealthy, shortens one’s life and  is an impediment to swarga  meaning it prevents you from ahieving higher levels of happiness and joy.  It is a sin and looked down upon by people. It is therefore good to abstain from over-eating.   
[Note: It is  scientifically accepted that a conducive frame of mind is essential for the proper digestion and assimilation of food.  The state of mind certainly influences hormonal secretions and the metabolism. There is also the vedic injunction ‘annam na nindyaat’ meaning food is not be despised]
On control of the senses
 इन्द्रियाणां विचरतां विषयेष्वपहारिषु ।
संयमे यत्नमातिष्ठेत्    विद्वान् यन्तेव वाजिनां॥ 
               
इन्द्रियाणां प्रसंगेन दोषमृच्छत्यसंशयं।
संनियम्य तु तानेव ततः सिद्धिं नियच्छति ॥
 न जातु कामाः कामानामुपभोगेन शाम्यति ।
 हविषा कृष्णवर्त्मेव भूय एवाभिवर्धते ॥
  वेदास्त्यागश्च यज्ञाश्च नियमाश्च तपांसि च ।

 न विप्रदुष्टभावस्य सिद्धिं यच्छन्ति कर्हिचित् ॥

                                       

       
                 Indriyaanaam vicharataam vishayeshwapahaarishu
                 samyame yatnamaatishthet vidwaan yanteva vaajinaam
                 Indriyaanaam prasamgena dosha-mruchchaty-asamshayam
                 Samniyamya tu taaneva tatah siddhim niyachchati
                 Na jaatu kaamah kaamaanaam-upabhogena shaamyati   
                 Havishaa krishnavartmeva bhooya eva abhivardhate
                 Vedaastyaagashcha yagnaashcha  niyamaamshcha tapaamsi cha
                  Na vipradushta bhaavasya siddhim yachchanti karhichit
The five senses chase the objects of their desire which powerfully attract them.  Wise men should endeavour to keep them under control like a horseman controls his horses.
There is no doubt that, ultimately, only something bad comes out of the attachment of the senses to their objects. By controlling the very same senses one is able to achieve the ultimate goal of one’s life.
Desire itself never subsides by enjoyment of the objects of desire.  It only flares up again like a fire into which ghee is poured while performing havan.   
Study of vedas, sacrifices, performance of yagnas, niyamas (ahimsa, truth in thought word and deed, non-stealing, non-acceptance of gifts etc) and penances cannot lead one to the ultimate goal of one’s life if the mind is polluted by uncontrolled desires.  
                                   
                                                                                                                                                  ]
On Vidya  (learning, more specifically vedic or  sacred knowledge)
  विद्या ब्रह्मणमेत्याह शेवधिस्तेऽस्मि रक्ष मां ।
 असूयकाय मां मा दास्तथा स्यां वीर्यवत्तमा॥
 यमेव तु शुचिं विद्या नियतब्रह्मचारिणं
 तस्मै मां ब्रूहि विप्राय निधिपाय अप्रमादिने  ॥ 
  Vidyaa brahmanametyaaha shevadhistesmi raksha maa
  Asooyakaaya maam maa daastathaa syaam veeryavattamaa
   Yameva tu shuchim vidyaa niyata brahmachaarinam
   Tasmai maam broohi vipraaya nidhipaaya apramaadine        
                   
Vidya (Learning personified) came to the Brahamana (Teacher) and said, “I am your treasure. Protect me. Do not give me to some one whose tendency is to find fault even in good things. (asooyaa  = doshaaropo guneshwapi – Amarakosam) . This way I will become more potent.
 Give me to one who, you know, is pure in body and mind,  has control over his senses,  is of a sattwic temperament, who will guard me as a treasure and who is always alert and careful
                                      
अभिवादनशीलस्य नित्यं वृद्धोपसेविनः ।
चत्वारि तस्य वर्द्धन्ते आयुर्विद्यायशोबलम् ॥
न हायनैर्न पलितैर्न वित्तेन न बन्धुभिः।
ऋषयश्चक्रिरे धर्मं योऽनूचानः स नो महान्॥
न तेन वृद्धो भवति येनास्य पलितं शिरः
यो वै युवाऽप्यधीयानः तं देवास्थविरं विदुः                            
  
   Abhivaadanasheelasya nityam vruddhopasevinah
   Chatwaari tasya vardhante ayurvidyaa yashobalam
   Na haayanair na palitair na vittena na bandhubhih
   Rushayah chakrire dharmam yo anoochanah sa no mahaan
   Na tena vruddho bhavati yenaasya palitam shirah
   Yo vai yuvaapyadheeyanah tam devaah sthaviram viduH
One who is respectful towards elders and wise men and who always serves the old will have longer life and increase in learning, fame and physical and mental strength.
It is not the number of years or the number of grey hairs on one’s head or one’s wealth and relations that make one great.
The rishis have laid down the dictum that only that one is great who is well-read and learned in the sacred texts.
One does not become a venerable  vruddha  simply because his hairs have turned white.  But one who is young and is well-read and still learning is really a sthavira  meaning a venerable person not by his age but by his knowledge. 
श्रद्दधान: शुभां विद्यां आददीताऽवरादपि
अन्त्यजादपि परं धर्मं स्त्रीरत्नं दुष्कुलादपि॥ 
स्त्रियो रत्नान्यथोविद्या धर्मः शौचं सुभाषितं।
विविधानि च शिल्पानि समादेयानि सर्वतः॥
Shraddadhaanah shubhaam vidyaam aadadeeta avaraadapi
 Antyajaadapi param dharmam stree ratnam dushkulaadapi
 Striyo ratnaanyatho vidyaa dharmah shaucham subhaashitam
 Vividhaani cha shilpaani samaadeyaani sarvatah
Auspicious knowledge shall be received with humble respect even from one who is inferior in age or status.  Virtues shall be imbibed even from one who is of an inferior social status.  A gem of a woman who is virtuous  shall be accepted even if she comes from an infamous clan.
Women, diamonds, knowledge, virtue, physical and mental purity, wise sayings and different arts and skills shall be gathered and accepted whatever their source.  
On treatment of women
   
 यत्र नार्यस्तु पूज्यन्ते रमन्ते तत्र देवताः ।
 यत्रैतास्तु न पूज्यन्ते सर्वास्तत्राफला क्रियाः ॥
 शोचन्ति जामयो यत्र विनश्यत्याशु तत्कुलं ।
 न शोचन्ति तु यत्रैता वर्धते तद्धि सर्वदा॥
  तस्मादेताः सदा पूज्या भूषणाच्छादनाशनैः ।
 भूतिकामैर्नरैर्नित्यं सत्कार्येषूत्सवेषु च ॥
  संतुष्टो भार्यया भर्ता भार्या भर्त्रा तथैव च ।
 यस्मिन्नेव कुले नित्यं कल्याणं तत्र वै ध्रुवं ॥
 Yatra naaryastu poojyante ramante tatra devataah
 Yatraitaastu na poojyante sarvaastatraaphalaa kriyaah
 Shochanti jaamayo yatra vinashyatyaashu tatkulam
 Na shochanti tu yatraitaa vardhate taddhi sarvadaa
Tasmaadetaah sadaa poojyaah bhooshana achchaadana ashanaih
Bhootikaamair narair nityam satkaaryeshu utsaveshu cha
Santushto bhaaryayaa bhartaa bhaaryaa bhartraa tathaiva cha
Yasminneva kule nityam kalyaanam tatra vai dhruvam
Where women are propitiated and respected there the devatas (celestials) abide happily. Where they are not honoured no sacrifices or rituals (kiriyaah) will bear fruit.
Those clans will perish whose women grieve and where they do not grieve such clans will prosper always.
Therefore one who wishes to prosper and accumulate wealth should please women of the household  by means of  ornaments, fine clothes and good food on auspicious occasions and during festivals.
Those clans will  definitely prosper and be full of joy where the husbands are content with their wives and the wives are content with their husbands.

                                       

                                     
                                  
                                                     

QUOTABLE QUOTES FROM SANSKRIT CLASSICS

Quotes from Sanskrit Classics

The classical period of Sanskrit literature dates back from the 3rd century BC right upto to the 8th century AD. One of the earliest known Sanskrit plays is the mrichakatika thought to have been composed by shudraka in the 2nd century BC. Bhasa and Kalidasa are major early poets and dramatists. Kālidāsa qualifies easily as the greatest poet and playwright in Sanskrit. His three famous plays are Vikarmorvashiyam, Malavikaagnimitram and Abhijnaanashaakuntalam. The last mentioned play is acknowledged as one the most beautiful plays not only in classical Sanskrit but also in world literature.
A few of the greatest works of poetry in this period are the following Mahākāvyas:

  • Kumarasambhavam by Kalidasa
  • Kiratarjuniyam by Bharavi
  • Sishupalavadham by Sri Magha
  • Naishadheeya Charitam by Sri Harsha

There is a sloka which says about these mahakavis:

उपमा कालिदासस्य भारवेरर्थगौरवम् ।
दण्डिनः पदलालित्यं माघे सन्ति त्रयो गुणाः ॥
Upamaa kaalidaasasya bharaverarthagauravam
Dandinah padalaalityam maaghe santi trayo gunaah

Kalidasa excels in the use of similes and metaphors in his poetry, Bharavi’s works are pregnant with meaning, Dandi’s language is simple and lilting and poet Magha combines in him all the three qualities mentioned above.

Sanskrit fairy tales and fables are chiefly characterized by ethical reflections and proverbial philosophy. The two most important collections are Panchatantra by Vishnu Sharma and Hitopadesha by Narayana Pandita. These were originally intended as manuals for the instruction of kings in domestic and foreign policy.

Somadeva’s Kathasaritsagara is a work of special importance. Composed in verse it is of very considerable length, containing more than 22,000 slokas.

Fable collections, serving as the handbooks of practical moral philosophy, provided an abundant reservoir of ethical maxims. They became so popular that works consisting exclusively of poetical aphorisms started to appear. The most important are the two collections by the highly-gifted Bhartruhari entitled respectively Nīti-śataka and Vairāgya-śataka.

Given below is selection of sayings from the Sanskrit classics. The selections are in the nature of what is called subhashitani , literally meaning ‘well said’, picturesque in expression and import, embedded as diamonds strewn . They throw light on human nature, on virtues like truthfulness, compassion, love, humility, charity, perseverance, human effort etc, code of conduct according to one’s role in the family or society and practical advice when faced with obstacles or difficulties. They also warn us against negative emotions like anger, jealousy, greed, conceit, fault-finding etc. It has to be pointed out here that the selections are not intended to bring out the poetic excellences or provide a critical appreciation of the works concerned

1. Raghuvamsam (Mahakavi Kalidasa)

हेम्नः संलक्ष्यते ह्यग्नौ विशुद्धि: श्यामिकाऽपि वा ।
Hemnah samlakshyate hyagnau vishuddhih shyaamikaapi va.

The purity or otherwise of gold can be tested only when it is put through the fire.

क्रिया हि वस्तूपहिता प्रसीदति ।
Kriyaa hi vastoopahutaa praseedati.

Knowledge imparted only to a fit recipient will yield the desired result.

पदं हि सर्वत्र गुणैर्निधीयते ।
Padam hi sarvatra gunairnidheeyat.

Good qualities put their footprints everywhere.

भिन्नरुचिर्हि लोकः ।
Bhinnaruchirhi lokah.

People have varied tastes, likes and dislikes.

मरणं प्रकृतिः शरीरिणां विकृतिर्जीवितमुच्यते बुधैः ।
क्षणमप्यवतिष्ठते श्वसन् यदि जन्तुर्ननु लाभवानसौ ॥
Maranam prakritih shareerinaam vikritirjeevitamuchyate budhaih.
Kshanamapyavatishthate shwasanyadi janturnanu laabhavaanasau..

Wise men say that death is a natural thing for the embodied soul whereas life is accidental. Even if one is able to breathe and be alive for a second, it should be considered as a gain.

स्वशरीरशरीरिणावपि श्रुत संयोग विपर्ययौ यदा ।
विरह्ः किमिवानुतापयेत् वद बाह्यैर्विषयैर्विपश्चिताम् ॥
Swashareerashareerinaavapi shruta samyoga viparyayau yadaa.
Virahah kimivaanutaapayedvada baahyairvishayaih vipashchitaam..

When the union and separation of the body (shareera ) and the indweller of the body (shareeree, Jiva) is common knowledge, how could the separation (viraha) from external entities cause grief to a wise person?

2. Kumarasambhavam (Mahakavi Kalidasa)

विकारहेतौ सति विक्रियन्ते येषां न चेतांसि त एव धीराः ।
Vikaarahetau sati vikriyante Yeshaam na chetaamsi ta eva dheeraah.

Only he can be considered a dheera ( a person of courage) whose mind is not disturbed or overcome by emotions even in the presence of objects of temptation.

प्रायेण सामग्र्यविधौ गुणानां
पराङ्‌मुखी विश्वसृजः प्रवृत्तिः॥
Praayena saamagryavidhau gunaanaam
Paraangmukhee vishwasrijah pravrittih

In most of the cases, the Creator Brahma is reluctant to assemble all the good qualities in one place (person). (The idea is even the best of men will have a few failings).

क ईप्सितार्थस्थिरनिश्चयं मनः
पयश्च निम्नाभिमुखं प्रतीपयेत्॥
Ka eepsitaartha sthiranishchayam manah
Payashcha nimnaabhimukham prateepayet

Who can reverse the course of two things, namely, the mind which is steadfastly clinging to the desired object and water which always flows from higher level to lower level?

शरीरमाद्यं खलु धर्मसाधनम्
Shareeramaadyam khalu dharmasaadhanam

The human body is the first instrument for treading the path of dharma

न रत्नमन्विष्यति मृग्यते हि तत्
Na ratnamanwishyati mrigyate hi tat

A valuable diamond does not seek, it is only sought after.

अलोकसामान्यमचिन्त्यहेतुकं
द्विषन्ति मन्दाश्चरितं महात्मनाम्
Alokasaamaanyam achintyahetukam
Dwishanti mandaashcharitam mahaatmanaam

Fools deride the character of great souls whose conduct and behaviour are different from those of ordinary mortals who cannot think of possible reasons for such difference.

प्रायः प्रत्ययमादत्ते स्वगुणेषूत्तमादरः
Praayah pratyayamaadatte swaguneshoottamaadaarh

Respect or recognition by men of noble character instills into one a belief in one’s own good qualities.

याच्ञा मोघा वरमधिगुणे नाधमे लब्धकामा
Yaachjnaa moghaa varamadhigune naadhame labdhakaamaa

Begging of a noble person and not getting what one wants is much better than begging of a mean person and getting what one wants.

रिक्तः सर्वे भवति हि लघुः पूर्णता गौरवाय
Riktah sarve bhavati hi laghuh poornata gauravaaya

Empty ( of wealth, knowledge, good qualities etc) one loses dignity and respect in society. Fullness ( of wealth, knowledge, good qualities etc.) , on the other hand, gives one dignity and respect in society.

आपन्नार्तिप्रशमनफलाः सम्पदो ह्युत्तमानाम्
Aapannaartiprashamanaphalaah sampado hyuttamaanaam

Noble souls use their wealth for the purpose of wiping out the misery and suffering of those overcome by misfortune.
 

कस्यात्यन्तं सुखमुपनतं दु:खमेकान्ततो वा
नीचैर्गच्छत्युपरि च दशा चक्रनेमिक्रमेण
Kasyaatyantam sukhamupanatam dukhamekaantato vaa
Neechairgachchhatyupari cha dashaa chakranemikramena

There is none who is always happy and comfortable and none who is always unhappy and miserable. Happiness and sorrow alternate like the rim of a wheel which goes up and down.

3. Abhijnaanashaakuntalam Natakam (Mahakavi Kalidasa)

किमिव हि मधुराणां मण्डनं नाकृतीनाम्
Kimivahi madhuraanaam mandanam naakriteenaam?

Which is not an adornment for a beautiful form? (Anything can add to the beauty if one has a beautiful form)

सतां हि सन्देहपदेषु वस्तुषु
प्रमाणमन्तकरण प्रवृत्तयः
Sataam hi sandehapadeshu vastushu
Pramaanam antahkarana pravruttayah

For people of character, when in a dilemma whether a particular conduct or deed is good or bad, their own inner voice or conscience is the final arbiter.

अर्थो हि कन्या परकीय एव
Artho hi kanyaa parakeeya eva

A girl child is another man’s property and she is held in trust by the parents.

औत्सुक्यमात्रमवसाययति प्रतिष्ठा
Autsukyamaatramavasaayayati pratishthaa

When one gets recognition, the enthusiasm which was there while endeavouring to get that recognition, cools down.

अनुभवति हि मूर्ध्ना पादपस्तीव्रमुष्णं ।
शमयति परितापं छायया संश्रितानाम् ॥
Anubhavati hi moordhnaa paadapasteevramushnam
Shamayati paritaapam chchhaayayaa samshritaanaam

The tree bears the intense heat on its head while it lessens the heat for those who take shelter under it.

भवन्ति नम्रास्तरव फलोद्गमैः
नवांबुभिर्भूमिविलंबिनो घनाः
अनुद्धताः सत्पुरुषा समृद्धिभिः
स्वभाव एवैष परोपकारिणाम्
Bhavanti namraastarava phalodgamaih
Navaambubhirbhoomivilambino ghanaah
Anuddhataah satpurushaah samriddhibhih
Swabhaava evaisha paropakaarinaam

Trees laden with fruits bend down so that people may pluck and enjoy the fruits. Clouds laden with water come down in the form of rain cooling the earth and watering plants and trees. In the same way noble men do not become conceited when fortune embraces them but use their wealth to help others. This is the nature of persons who are always eager to be of help to fellow humans.

स्रजमपि शिरस्यन्धः क्षिप्तं धुनोत्यहिशंकया
Srajamapi shirasyandhah kshiptaam dhunotyahishankayaa

One who is blind throws away even a garland of flower placed on his head, thinking it is a snake.

4. Vikramorvasheeyam Natakam (Mahakavi Kalidasa)

यदेवोपनतं दु:खात् सुखं तद्रसवत्तरं।
निर्वाणाय तरुच्छाया तप्तस्य हि विशेषतः ॥
Yadevopanatam dukhaat sukham tadrasavattaram
Nirvaanaaya taruchchhaayaa taptasya hi visheshatah

The happiness one gets after a period of grief is all the more enjoyable. One who is afflicted by the intense heat of the Sun better enjoys the shade given by a tree than one who is not exposed to the Sun’s rays.

परस्परविरोधिन्योरेकसंश्रयदुर्लभं ।
संगमं श्रीसरस्वत्योर्भूयादुद्भूतये सताम् ॥
Parasparavirodhinyorekasamshrayadurlabham
Sangamam shreesaraswatyorbhooyaadudbhootaye sataam

The conflicting attributes of wealth and learning rarely co-exist in one person. Let there be such a rare union of Goddess Lakshmi and Goddess Saraswati for the benefit of the good people.

सर्वस्तरतु दुर्गाणि सर्वे भद्राणि पश्यतु।
सर्वः कामानवाप्नोतु सर्वः सर्वत्र नन्दतु ॥
Sarvastaratu durgaani sarve bhadraani pashyatu
Sarvah kaamaanavaapnotu sarvah sarvatra nandatu

May all cross their difficulties. May all see good and auspicious things. May all get their wishes fulfilled. May everyone everywhere be happy.

छिन्नबन्धे मत्स्ये पलायिते निर्विण्णो।
धीवरो भणति धर्मो मे भवति ॥
Chchhinnabandhe matsye palaayite nirvinno
Dheevaro bhanati dharmo me bhavati

When the fishing net was torn and fish leaped into the water the fisherman becomes dejected and consoles himself saying that he will get merit (punya) (for allowing the fish to escape).

सर्वत्र खल्वात्मानुमानेन वर्तितुं युक्तम्
Sarvatra khalwaatmaanumaanena vartitum yuktam

It is best for every one to act in accordance with one’s status everywhere.

5. Malavikaagnimitram Natakam(Mahakavi Kalidasa)

पुराणमित्येव न साधु सर्वं
न चाऽपि काव्यं नवमित्यवद्यम्।
सन्तः परीक्ष्यान्यतरत् भजन्ते
मूढ्ः परप्रत्ययनेयबुद्धिः ॥
Puraanamityeva na saadhu sarvam
Na chaapi kaavyam navamityavadyam
Santah pareekshyaanyatarat bhajante
Moodhah parapratyayaneya buddhih

All kavyaas are not good only because they are old. All kaavyas are not bad because they are new. Good and wise people examine both and decide whether a kaavya is good or bad. Only a fool will be blindly led by what others say.

अर्थं सप्रतिबन्धं प्रभुरधिगन्तुं सहायवानेव ।
दृश्यं तमसि न पश्यन्ति दीपेन विना सचक्षुरपि ॥
Artham sapratibandham prabhuradhigantum sahaayavaaneva
Drishyam tamasi na pashyanti deepena vinaa sachakshurapi

Only one who has some one to help will be able to get hold of an object or achieve a goal when there are impediments or obstructions in the process. Even a person with eyes will be able to see an object in darkness only with the help of a lamp.

मन्दोऽप्यमन्दतामेति संसर्गेण विपश्चितः
पङ्कछिदः फलस्येव निकर्षेणाविलं पयः
Mando’pyamandataameti samsargena vipashchitah
Pankachchhidah phalasyeva nikashenaavilam payah

Even a fool becomes clever by association with the wise just as even muddy water becomes clear when it comes into contact with the fruits of the nirmalee tree (i.e. when the fruits are put in the water).

6. Kiraataarjuneeyam (Mahakavi Bharavi)

नहि प्रियं वक्तुमिच्छन्ति मृषा हितैषिणः
Nahi priyam vaktumichchhanti mrishaa hitaishinah

Those who mean well for others do not want to please them by false praise.

ननु वक्तृविशेष नि:स्पृहा गुणगृह्या वचने विपश्चितः
Nanu vaktrivishesha ni:sprihaa gunagrihyaa vachane vipashchitah

The wise are indifferent as to who uttered the words, they judge the words by their inherent quality.

निवसन्ति पराक्रमाश्रया न विषादेन समं समृद्धयः
Nivasanti paraakramaashrayaa na vishaadena samam samriddhayah

Abundance (affluence) co-exists with valour not with melancholy or absence of enthusiasm.

सहसा विदधीत न क्रियामविवेक: परमापदां पदम्।
वृणुते हि विमृश्यकारिणं गुणलुब्धाः स्वयमेव सम्पदः ॥

Sahasaa vidadheeta na kriyaamavivekah paramaapadaam padam
Vrinute hi vimrishyakaarinam gunalubdhaah swayameva sampadah

Do not embark on an endeavour on the spur of the moment without analysing its pros and cons. The absence of discrimination is the cause of great misfortune. Fortune, ever greedy for good qualities in men, embraces those who engage themselves in an endeavour after consultations and discussions with men of knowledge.

स्पृहणीयगुणैर्महात्मभिश्चरिते वर्त्मनि यच्छतां मनः
विधिहेतुर्हेतुरागसां विनिपातोऽपि समुन्नतेस्समः
Sprihaneeya gunairmahaatmabhih charite vartmani yachchhataam manah
Vidhiheturaheturaagasaam vinipaato’pi samunnateh samah

For those who follow in the footsteps of great men possessing highly desirable qualities, even a downfall on account of fate and not involving wrong doings is equal to rising higher in status.

यशोऽधिगन्तुं सुखलिप्सया वा मनुष्यसंख्यामतिवर्तितुं वा
निरुत्सुकानामभियोगभाजां समुत्सुकेवाङ्कमुपैति सिद्धिः
Yasho’dhigantum sukhalipsayaa vaa manushyasamkhyaamativartitum vaa
Nirutsukaanaamabhiyogabhaajaam samutsukevaankamupaiti siddhih

Achievement, it seems, is enthusiastic to sit on the lap of those who engage themselves diligently in an endeavour without caring for fame, happiness or rise in popularity.

किं वावसादकर आत्मवताम्
Kimivaavasaadakara aatmavataam

There is nothing which will tire out or disturb the mind of high-minded persons.

प्रेम पश्यति भयानपदेऽपि
Prema pashyati bhayaanapade’pi.

Love sees cause for fear even in the most unlikely places.

उपनतमवधीरयन्त्यभव्याः
Upanatamavadheerayantyabhavyaah

Unlucky persons disregard ( do not care about) what is already at hand.

शरदम्बुधरच्छाया जत्वर्यो यौवनश्रियः
आपातरम्याः विषयाः पर्यन्तपरितापिनः
Sharadambudharachchhaayaa jatwaryo yauvanashriyah
Aapaataramyaah vishayaah paryanta paritaapinah

Youth is fleeting like the clouds of autumn. The pleasures of the senses are sweet in the beginning but yield bitter results in the end.

तदा रम्याण्यरम्याणि प्रियः शल्यं तदासवः ।
तदेकाकी सबंधुस्सन् इष्टेन रहितो यदा ॥
Tadaa ramyaanyaramyaani priyah shalyam tadaasavah
Tadekaakee sabandhuh sannishtena rahito yadaa

when one’s loved one is absent, beautiful things seem ugly, what one likes including one’s own life becomes a pain, one feels lonely even in the midst of one’s relatives.

जीयन्तां दुर्जया देहे रिपवश्च्क्षुरादयः ।
जितेषु ननु लोकोऽयं तेषु कृत्स्नस्त्वया जितः॥
Jeeyantaam durjayaa dehe ripavashchakshuraadayah
Jiteshu nanu loko’yam teshu kritsnastwayaa jitah

The enemies resident in the body, namely the sense organs like the eyes, which are difficult to control, should be conquered. Once they are conquered, it is as good as the whole world has been conquered by you.

तावदाश्रयते लक्ष्म्या तावदस्य स्थिरं यशः ।
पुरुषस्तावदेवासौ यावन्मानान्न हीयते ॥
Taavadaashreeyate lakshmyaa taavadasya sthiram yashah
Purushastaavadevaasau yaavanmaanaanna heeyate

One can accumulate wealth, one’s fame remains stable and one is considered a man of substance only so long as one commands the respect of society.

प्रकृत्यमित्रा हि सतामसाधवः
Prakrityamitraa hi sataamasaadhavah

Evil men are natural enemies of the good ones.

7. Shishupaalavadham (Maagha kavi)

महीयांसः प्रकृत्या मितभषिणः
Maheeyamsah prakrityaa mitabhaashinah

Great men, by nature, do not talk much (they limit their speech to the essentials only)

संपदा सुस्थिरंमन्यो भवति स्वल्पयाऽपि यः ।
कृतकृत्यो विधिर्मन्ये न वर्धयति तस्य ताम् ॥
Sampadaa susthirammanyo bhavati swalpayaa’pi yah
Kritakrityo vidhirmanye na vardhayati tasya taam

In the case of one who is satisfied with a little wealth, even Fate (vidhih) thinks it has done its job and does not increase his wealth. (One should have enough ambition if he wants to accumulate lot of wealth and should not be content with what he has)

मा जीवन् यः परावज्ञादु:खदग्धोऽपि जीवति
Maa jeevan yah paraavajnaadukhadagdho’pi jeevati

One who lives, even after one has been scorched by the humiliation showered on him by others, is as good as dead.

सामान्याधिकरणं हि तेजस्तिमिरयोः कुतः
Saamaanyaadhikaranam hi tejastimirayo kutah?

Where is comparison between light and darkness ? There is no comparison at all.

आरभ्यन्तेऽल्पमेवाऽज्ञाः कामं व्यग्रा भवन्ति च
महारंभाः कृतधियः तिष्ठन्ति च निराकुला:
Aarabhante’lpamevaa’jjnaah kaamam vyagraa bhavanti cha
Mahaarambhaah kritadhiyastishthanti cha niraakulaah

Fools start an undertaking in a small way and they struggle to complete it. Great men start in a big way and accomplish the task remaining unruffled in spite of its magnitude.

उपायमास्थितस्यापि नश्यन्त्यर्थाः प्रमादतः
Upaayamaasthitasyaapi nashyantyarthaah pramaadatah

The undertakings of those who are careless and negligent never bear fruit though they have used proper means.

अयथाबलमारंभो निदानं क्षयसम्पदः
Ayathaabalamaarambho nidaanam kshayasampadah

Embarking on something which is beyond one’s capacity or strength is one of the causes for diminution in one’s wealth

बृहत्सहायाः कार्यान्तं क्षोदीयानपि गच्छति
Brihatsahaayah kaaryaantam kshodeeyanapi gachchhati

Even small people can get their work done with the help of the big people

क्षणे क्षणे यन्नवतामुपैति तदेव रूपं रमणीयतायाः
Kshane Kshane yannavataamupaiti tadeva roopam ramaneeyataayaah

Beauty is that which takes on a new form every minute (so that the one who looks at it is never tired or bored)

8. Naishadheeya Charitam (Sri Harsha)

अपां हि तृप्तस्य न वारिधारा स्वादुः सुगंधिः स्वदते तुषारा
Apaam hi triptaaya na vaaridhaara swaaduh sugandhih swadate tushaaraa

One who is satiated with water will not appreciate a pouring of cool water sweet in taste and smell.

पित्तेन दूने रसने सितापि तिक्तायते
Pittena doone rasane sitaapi tiktaayate

When the tongue is corrupted by pitta, even sugar tastes bitter.

आर्जवं हि कुटिलेषु न नीतिः
Aarjavam hi kutileshu na neetih

Straightforwardness is not the right policy when people of crooked mind are concerned.

मितं च सारं च वचो हि वाग्मिता
Mitam cha saaram cha vacho hi vaagmitaa

Oratory is speech which is measured (not verbose) and at the same time pregnant with meaning.

9. Mrichchhakatikam (Raja Sudraka)

शून्यमपुत्रस्य गृहं चिरशून्यं नास्ति यस्य सन्मित्रं।
मूर्खस्य दिशाः शून्याः सर्वं शून्यं दरिद्रस्य ॥
Shoonyamaputrasya griham chirashoonyam naasti yasya sanmitram
Moorkhasya dishaah shoonyaah sarvam shoonyam daridrasya

The house of a childless person is shoonya (void), for a person without a good friend it is forever void, the four quarters are void for the fool and for the poor everything is shoonya (void).

सुखं हि दु:खाननुभूय शोभते घनांधकारेष्विव दीपदर्शनम्
Sukham hi dukhaananubhooya shobhate ghanaandhakaareshwiwa deepadarshnam

Happiness is more appreciated after one experiences grief over a period in the same way as light is more appreciated by a person in pitch darkness.

सुखात्तु यो याति नरो दरिद्रतां धृतः शरीरेण मृतः स जीवति
Sukhaattu yo yaati naro daridrataam Dhritah shareerena mritah sa jeevati

One who has enjoyed prosperity is suddenly reduced to penury is as good as dead even while living.

दारिद्र्यान्मरणाद्वा मरणं मम रोचते न दारिद्र्यं ।
अल्पक्लेशं मरणं दारिद्र्यमनन्तकं दु:खम् ॥
Daaridryaanmaranaadwaa maranam mama rochate na daaridryam
Alpaklesham maranam daaridryamanantakam dukham

If I have to choose between death and penury I will choose death not penury. Death involves only a little distress but penury brings unending physical and mental agony.

दारिद्र्यात्पुरुषस्य बांधवजनो वाक्ये न संतिष्ठते
सुस्निग्धाः विमुखीभवन्ति सुहृदः स्फारीभवन्त्यापदः
सत्त्वं ह्रस्वमुपैति शीलशशिनः कान्ति परिम्लायते
पापम् कर्म च यत्परैरपि कृतं तत्तस्य सम्भाव्यते
Daaridryaatpurushasya baandhavajano vaakye na santishthate
Susnigdhaah vimukheebhavanti suhridah sphaareebhavantyaapadah
Sattwam hraasamupaiti sheelashashinah kaantih parimlaayate
Paapam karma cha yatparairapi kritam tattasya sambhaavyate

If one is poor, his relatives don’t heed his words, even loving friends neglect him, his misfortunes spread out, his physical and mental strength shrinks, the moon of his good conduct becomes pale and even the wrongs committed by others are foisted on to him.

गुणाः खलु अनुरागस्य कारणं न बलात्कारः
Gunaah khalu anuraagasya kaaranam na balaatkarah

It is because of one’s qualities one is loved not because of force.

साहसे श्रीः प्रतिवसति
Saahase shree prativasati

In adventure resides Goddess Lakshmi (Only those who are adventurous can amass wealth)

10. Uttararaamacharitam (Bhavabhuti) 

सतां सद्भिस्संगः क्थमपि हि पुण्येन भवति
Sataam sadbhih sangah kathamapi hi punyena bhavati

The meeting of good people with good people somehow happens only by punya (fruit of meritorious deeds done in the past)

प्रियप्राया वृत्तिः विनयमधुरो वाचि नियमः
प्रकृत्या कल्याणी मतिरनवगीतः परिचयः।
पुरो वा पश्चाद्वा तदिदमविपर्यासित रसं
रहस्यं साधूनामनुपदि विशुद्धं विजयते॥
Priyapraayaa vrittih vinayamadhuro vaachi niyamah
Prakrityaa kalyaanee matiranavageetah parichayah
Puro vaa pashchaadwaa tadidamaviparyaasita rasam
Rahasyam saadhoonaamanupadhi vishuddham vijayate

Loving, polite and pleasing interaction with others, controlled speech, a heart which only thinks of the good of others, introduction which is not boastful, Uniform behaviour before and after (when face to face or behand the back)– These are the secrets, pure and simple, of saintly souls.

वज्रादपि कठोराणि मृदूनि कुसुमादपि ।
लोकोत्तराणां चेतांसि को नो विज्ञातुमर्हति॥
Vajraadapi kathhoraani mridooni kusumaadapi
Lokottaraanaam chetaamsi ko nu vijnaatumarhati.

The hearts of the best of men who are a cut above the ordinary people are harder than diamond (when facing obstacles or enemies ) and softer than flowers (towards the less privileged and the miserable). Who can understand the hearts of such men?

न किञ्चिदपि कुर्वाणः सौख्यैर्दु:खान्यपोहति।
तत्तस्य किमपि द्रव्यं यो हि यस्य प्रियो जनः
Na kinchidapi kurvaanah saukhyairdukhaanyapohati
Tattasya kimapi dravyam yo hi yasya priyo janah

Without doing anything, if one converts the sorrows of another person into joy and happiness, then the first one, who is the object of love for the second one, is a valuable thing for the latter.

अन्तःकरणतत्त्वस्य दम्पत्योः स्नेह्संश्रयात्।
आनन्दग्रन्थिरेकोऽयं अपत्यमिति बध्यते ॥
Antahkaranatattwasya dampatyoh snehasamshrayaat
Aanandagranthireko’yam apatyamiti badhyate

The concrete manifestation of the joy arising out of the union of the minds of the husband and the wife is called apatyam (progeny) on which converges the love of both of them.

एको रसः करुण एव निमित्तभेदात्
भिन्नः पृथक्पृथगिवाश्रयते विवर्तान् ।
आवर्त बुद्बुद तरंगमयान् विकारान्
अंभो यथा सलिलमेव तु तत्समस्तम् ॥।
Eko rasah karuna eva nimittabhedaa-
dbhinnah pruthakprithagivaashrayate vivartaan
Aavarta budbuda taranga mayaan vikaaraan
Ambho yathaa salilameva tu tatsamastam

Karuna(pathetic) rasa (emotion) is the only one which manifests in the form of other emotions like sringara (love) etc. depending on the underlying circumstances which give rise to the emotion in the same way as bubbles, waves, swell etc are only different forms that water takes. The basic substance is water only.

गुणाः पूजास्थानं
गुणिषु न च लिङ्गं न च वयः
Gunaah poojaasthaanam
Gunishu n cha lingam na cha vayah

Good qualities are appreciated in whomsoever they are found. The sex or the age of the person is not taken into consideration.

ऋषयो राक्षसीमाहुः वाचमुन्मत्तदृप्तयोः
सा योनिः सर्चवैराणां स हि लोकस्य निऋतिः
Rishayo raakshaseemaahurvaachamunmattadriptayoh
Saa yonih sarva vairaanaam saa hi lokasya nirritih

The speech of intoxicated and conceited persons is termed as raakshasee (demoniac) by the rishis. Such speech is the root cause of all enmities and that is hell in this world.

कामं दुग्धे विप्रकृष्यत्यलक्ष्मीं
कीर्तिं सूते दुष्कृतं या हिनस्ति ।
तां चाप्येतां मातरं मंगलानां
धेनुं धीराः सूनृतां वाचमाहुः ॥
Kaamam dugdhe viprakarshatyalakshmeem
Keertim soote dushkritam yaa hinasti
Taam chaapyetaam maataram mangalaanaam
Dhenum dheeraah soonritaam vaachamaahuh

Speech that is embellished by truth and love yields all one’s wishes, drives away poverty, builds a reputation, prevents wrong doings in the same way as the Cow Mother which yields all auspicious things.

व्यतिषजति पदार्थानान्तर: कोऽपि हेतु-
र्न खलु बहिरुपाधीन् प्रीतयः संश्रयन्ते ।
विकसति हि पतंगस्योदये पुण्डरीकं
द्रवति च हिमरश्मावुद्गते चन्द्रकान्तः ॥
Vyatishajati padaarthaanaantarah ko’pi hetu-
rna khalu bahirupaadheeen preetayah samshrayante
Vikasati hi patangasyodaye pundareekam’
Dravati cha himarashmavudgate chandrakaantah

It is some internal cause which brings together people. Love does not depend upon external attributes. The lotus blossoms when the sun rises (though the lotus is delicate and the sun’s rays are hot), the moon stone starts melting when exposed to moonlight (though moonlight is soft and the moon stone is hard).

प्रियानाशे कृत्स्नं किल जगदरण्यं हि भवति
Priyaanaashe kritsnam kila jagadaranyam hi bhavati

When the woman one loves is lost the whole world turns into a dense jungle for the one who loves.

स्नेहच्च निमित्तसव्यपेक्षश्चेति विप्रतिषिद्धमेतत्
Snehachcha nimittasavyapekshashcheti vipratishiddhametat

Love and existence of a cause for such love, these two are mutually contradictory

11. Mudraaraakshasam Nataka (Vishakhadatta)

न युक्तं प्राकृतमपि रिपुं अवज्ञातुम्
Na yuktam praakritamapi ripumavajnaatum

It is not proper to disregard or neglect even an ordinary enemy.

कीदृशस्तृणानां अग्निना सह विरोध: ?
Keedrishastrinaanaam agninaa saha virodhah?

What kind of enmity the grass has towards fire ? (there is no enmity, it is the nature of fire to burn anything whatsoever)

हिमवति दिव्यौषधयः शीर्षे सर्पः समाविष्ट:
Himavati divyaushadhayah sheershe sarpah samaavishtah

There are divine medicinal plants in the Himalayas. But on top of it are serpents

परायत्तः प्रीतेः कथमिव रसं वेत्ति पुरुष:?
Paraayattah preeteh kathamiva rasam vetti purushah?

How does a man who is under the control of another know the joy of love.

इह विरचयन् साध्वीं शिष्यः क्रियां न निवार्यते
त्यजति तु यदा मार्गं मोहात्तदा गुरुरङ्कुशः
Iha virachayan saadhweem shishyah kriyaam na nivaaryate
Tyajati tu yadaa maargam mohaattadaa gururankushah

Here the disciple is not prevented from doing anything good. But when he deviates from the right path guru will act as ankusha (weapon used to control an elephant), meaning he will be controlled and brought back to the correct path.

12. Dashakumaaracharitam (Dandi)

जलबुद्बुदसमाना विराजमाना सम्पत् तडिल्लेखेव सहसोदेति नश्यति च
Jalabudbudasamaanaa viraajamaanaa sampat tadillekheva sahasodeti nashyati cha

The glittering wealth is like the bubbles on water. Like lightning it rises suddenly and perishes with the same speed.

इह जगति हि न निरीहदेहिनं श्रियः संश्रयन्ते
Iha jagati hi na nireehadehinam shriyah samshrayante

In this world one who does not put in effort (i.e. one who is inactive) does not acquire wealth

श्रेयांसि च सकलान्यनलसानां हस्ते नित्यसान्निद्ध्यानि
Shreyaamsi cha sakalaanyanalasaanaam haste nityasaannidhyaani

All prosperity and welfare is always in the hands of those who are always active, who do not know laziness

13. Harshacharitam (Baana)

अतिरोषणश्चक्षुष्मानप्यन्ध एव
Atiroshanashchakshushmaanapyandha eva janah

The angry person, though possessing eyes, is blind.

न सन्त्येव ते येषां सतामपि न विद्यन्ते मित्रोदासीनशत्रवः
Na santyeva te yeshaam sataamapi sataam na vidyante mitrodaaseenashatravah

There are no such persons who do not have friends, enemies or neutrals even though such persons possess good qualities.

उपयोगं तु न प्रीतिर्विचारयति
Upayogam tu na preetirvichaarayati

Love does not consider use or benefit.

14. Kaadambari (Baana)

सर्वथा न कञ्चन न स्पृशति शरीरधर्माणमुपतापाः
Sarvathaa na kanchana na sprishati shareeradharmaanamupataapaah

It is not possible that one, who is subject to the vagaries of a body, will not ever suffer any disease or discomfort

सुखमुपदिश्यते परस्य
Sukhamupadishyate parasya

It is easy to preach to others

बहुभाषिणो न श्रद्दधति लोकः
Bahubhashino na shraddadhaati lokah

People do not listen to one who talks too much.

मिथ्यापि तत्तथा यथा गृहीतं लोकेन
Mithyaapi tattathaa yathaa griheeetam lokena

Untruth takes the same form as the one given to it by people.

15. Kaavyameemaamsaa (Kaviraja Rajashekharah)

प्रायः प्राणभृतां प्रेमाणमन्तरेण नान्यद्बन्धनमस्ति
Praayah praanabhritaam premaanamantarena naanyadbandhanamasti

Generally, for the living, there is no bondage except love.

पक्षपातो हि गुणदोषौ विपर्यासयति
Pakshapaato hi gunadoshau viparyaasayati

It is only partiality that interchanges good and bad (i.e. good is considered as bad and bad is considered as good)

परैश्च परीक्षयेत् यदुदासीनः पश्यति न तदनुष्ठातेति प्रायो वादः
Paraishcha pareekshayet. Yadudaaseenah pashyati na tadanushthaateti praayo vaadah

The plan should be got examined by outsiders. The argument is, what the neutral person sees, the one who executes may not see most of the time.

अनियतकालाः प्रवृत्तयो विप्लवन्ते
Aniyatakaalaah pravrittayo viplavante

Actions not done at the appropriate time do not yield the desired result

सम्यक्स्वापो वपुषः परमारोग्याय
Samyakswaapo vapushah paramaarogyaaya

The right kind of sleep is good for a very healthy body.

मतिदर्पणे कवीनां विश्वं प्रतिफलति
Matidarpane kaveenaam vishwam pratiphalati

In the mirror of the poet’s mind there is the reflection of the world.

16. Kathaasaritsaagaram (Somadeva)

अप्राप्यं नाम नेहास्ति धीरस्य व्यवसायिनः
Apraapyam naama nehaasti dheerasya vyavasaayinah

There is nothing unattainable to the one who has courage and who works hard.

अश्नुते स हि कल्याणं व्यसने यो न मुह्यति
Ashnute sa hi kalyaanam vyasane yo na muhyati

Only one who does not lose his cool in adversity will enjoy prosperity

एकचित्ते द्वयोरेव किमसाध्यं भवेदिति
Ekachitte dwayoreva kimasaadhyam bhavediti

When two people think alike then what is it that is impossible?

करुणार्द्रा हि सर्वस्य सन्तोऽकारणबान्धवाः
Karunaardraa hi sarvasya santo’kaaranabaandhavaah

Good people whose heart is full of sympathy and kindness become, without selfish motives, the friends or relatives of all.

कामं व्यसनवृक्षस्य मूलं दुर्जनसंगतिः
Kaamam vyasana vrikshasya moolam durjana sangatih

The root cause of sorrow is the company of bad people.

त्यजन्त्युत्तमसत्वा हि प्राणानपि न सत्पथं
Tyajantyuttamasatwaa hi praanaanapi na satpatham

Those of good nature may give up their life but not the righteous path.

पङ्को हि नभसि क्षिप्तः क्षेप्तुः पतति मूर्धनि
Panko hi nabhasi kshiptah ksheptuh patati moordhani

Mud, thrown at the sky, falls on the head of the person who throws it (If one does something bad it recoils on him)

17. Panchatantra (Vishnu Sharma)

न स्वल्पस्य कृते भूरि नाशयेन्मतिमान्नरः
Na swalpasya krite bhoori naashayenmatimaannarah

The wise man should not incur a big loss for the sake of a little gain.

प्राकाश्यं स्वगुणोदयेन गुणिनो गच्छन्ति किं जन्मना
Praakaashyam swagunodayena gunino gachchhanti kim janmanaa

Good people are noticed by their good qualities, not by birth.

पैशुन्याद्भिद्यते स्नेहः
Paishunyaadbhidyate snehah

Love and friendship are broken by backbiting.

यस्य बुद्धिर्बलं तस्य निर्बुद्धेस्तु कुतो बलम्
Yasya buddhirbalam tasya nirbuddhestu kuto balam?

He who has brains has strength (power), where is power in a fool?

सेवाधर्मः परम गहनो योगिनामप्यगम्यः
Sevaadharmah parama gahano yoginaamapyagamyah

To be in the service of another is a difficult job which even a yogi may not be able to fulfill.

मृदुना सलिलेन खन्यमानान्यवघर्षन्ति गिरेरपि स्थलानि
Mridunaa salilena khanyamaanaanyavaghrishyanti girerapi sthalani

Eroded by the soft water incessantly, even the hard stones of the mountain wear away over time.

दीर्घो बुद्धिमतो बाहू
Deergho buddhimato baahoo

The hands of the one with brains are long indeed. ( Using his brains he can do many things with hands which less brainy fellows cannot do)

यद्भविष्यो विनश्यति
Yadbhavishyo vinashyati

One will face adversity if one does not take precautions to counteract anticipated difficulties or problems

बहूनामप्यसाराणां समवायो हि दुर्जयः
Bahoonaamapyasaaraanaam samavayoo hi durjayah.

If a large number of people unite for a purpose they become invincible, though each one, by himself is weak.

अत्यादरः शङ्कनीयः
Atyaadarah shankaneeyah

One should be circumspect with regard to those who show more than the usual respect or regard.

संपत्तौ च विपत्तौ च महतामेकरूपता
Sampattau cha vipattau cha mahataamekaroopataa

In prosperity and adversity the great do not lose their equilibrium.

कः परः प्रियवादिनाम्
Kah parah priyavaadinaam?

Who is not one’s own for people of soft and soothing speech.

नक्रः स्वस्थानमासाद्य गजेन्द्रमपि कर्षति
Nakrah swasthaanamaasaadya gajendramapi karshati

The crocodile, in his own habitat, can drag even an elephant into the water.

कृशे कस्यास्ति सौहृदम्?
Krishe kasyaasti sauhridam?

Who will make friends with a lean (down and out) person?

आत्मनः प्रतिकूलानि परेषां न समाचरेत्
Aaatmanah pratikoolaani pareshaam na samaacharet

That which is hurting oneself should not be done to others.

अनागतं यः कुरुते स शोभते
स शोच्यते यो न करोत्यनागतम्
Anaagatam yah kurute sa shobhate,
Sa shochyate yo na karotyanaagatam.

One who takes precautions before misfortune strikes will prosper. One who does not take action when misfortune is anticipated, will come to grief.

संतापयन्ति कथमपथ्यभुजं न रोगाः
Santapayanti kamapathyabhujam na rogaah

How can one be unaffected by diseases if one eats food not conducive to one’s health ?

सर्वनाशे समुत्पन्ने अर्धं त्यजति पण्डितः
Sarvanaashe samutpanne ardham tyajati panditah

When everything is at stake the wise give up half of it to save the other half.

उदारचरितानां तु वसुधैव कुटुंबकम्
Udaaracharitaanaam tu vasudhaiva kutumbakam

To those of generous character( disposition) the whole world is one family.

यादृशी भावना यस्य सिद्धिर्भवति तादृशी
Yadrishee bhaavanaa yasya siddhirbhavati taadrishee

Whatever one dreams or imagines the outcome will be similar.

18. Hitopadesha (Narayana Panditah)

उद्यमेन हि सिद्ध्यन्ति कार्याणि न मनोरथैः
Udyamena hi siddhyanti kaaryaani na manorathaih

One’s goal is achieved by industry (hard work) and not by building castles in the air.

ज्ञानं भारः क्रियां विना
Jnaanam bhaarah kriyaam vinaa

Without action knowledge is a burden (knowledge, not put into practice, is sheer waste)

QUOTES FROM YOGA VAASISHTAM

QUOTABLE QUOTES FROM YOGAVAASISHTHA
Yogavaasishtha is a philosophical treatise written by the great Sanskrit poet and scholar Vaalmiki. The original treatise comprises of 30,000 slokas. It is written in the form of a dialogue between sixteen year old Raama and the great sage Vasishtha. The book is one of the best discourses on monism, propounding that everything in the universe is a projection or manifestation of a singular consciousness. It is also a beautiful book even only in terms of its poetic charm.
Given below is a small selection of quotes from this great work.
उभाभ्यामेव पक्षाभ्यां यथा खे पक्षिणां गतिः।
तथैव ज्ञानकर्माभ्यां जायते परमं पदम्
Ubhaabhyaameva pakshaabhyaam yathaa khe pakshinaam gatih
Tathaiva jnaanakarmaabhyaam jaayate paramam padam
1.1.7
Just as birds require both their wings to fly in the sky, similarly man needs both Jnaana (knowledge) and Karma (action without attachment to the fruits thereof ) to attain the highest goal of his life 
क्षणमानन्दितामेति क्षणमेति विषादितां ।
क्षणं सौम्यत्वमायाति सर्वस्मिन्नटवन्मनः॥
Kshanamaananditaameti kshanameti vishaaditaam
Kshanam saumyatwamaayaati sarvasmin natavanmanah
1.28.38
The mind of a person is full of joy one moment, sad the next moment, and calm after another moment like the person acting out a character in a play manifesting different emotions in quick succession.
द्वे हुडाविव युध्येते पुरुषार्थौ समासमौ ।
प्राक्तनश्चैहिकश्चैव शाम्यत्यत्राऽल्पवीर्यवान्॥
Dwe hudaaviva yudhyete purushaarthau samaasamau
Praaktanashchaihikashchaiva shaamyatyatraalpaveeryavaan
2.5.5
There is a conflict going on between two unequal entities, namely, the result of actions in a previous birth and the result of actions during this birth.  The fight between these two is like the fight between two fierce birds or animals.  In this fight, the one which is weak will surrender to the one which is strong.
परं पौरुषमाश्रित्य दन्तैर्दन्तान् विचूर्णयन् ।
शुभेनाशुभमुद्युक्तं प्राक्तनं पौरुषं जयेत्॥
Param paurushamaashritya dantairdantaan vichoornayan
Shubhenaashubhamudyuktam praaktanam paurusham jayet
2.5.9
One should, by Herculean effort and gnashing one’s teeth, gain victory over the bad effects of the past karma by the good karma done during this birth.

मूढैः प्रकल्पितं दैवं तत्परास्ते क्षयं गताः।
प्राज्ञास्तु पौरषार्थेन पदमुत्तमतां गताः॥
Moodhaih prakalpitam daivam tatparaaste kshayam gataah
Praajnaastu paurushaarthena padamuttamataam gataah
2.8.16
Daivam or destiny is a figment of the imagination of the fool.  Putting their faith in destiny they go from bad to worse.  The wise men, by Herculean effort, attain the highest position or state.
अपि पौरुषमादेयं शास्त्रं चेद्युक्तिबोधकं।
अन्यत्वार्षमपि त्याज्यं भाव्यं न्यायैकसेविना॥
Api paurushamaadeyam shaastram chedyuktibodhakam
Anyatwaarshamapi tyaajyam bhaavyam nyaayaikasevina
2.18.2
Knowledge, even if it comes from an ordinary person, is to be accepted if it stands  the test of reason.  Any thing which cannot stand the test of reason is to be rejected.  One should always go by logical reasoning.
युक्तियुक्तमुपादेयं वचनं बालकादपि ।
अन्यत्तृणवत्त्याज्यं अप्युक्तं पद्मजन्मना॥
Yuktiyuktamupaadeyam vachanam baalakaadapti
Anyattrinamiva tyaajyam apyuktam padmajanmanaa
2.18.3
On should accept the words of even a child if what he says is logical and stands to reason.  Anything other than this should be rejected as a bundle of grass even if it is said by Brahma himself
तपसैव महोग्रेण यद्दुरापं तदाप्यते
Tapasaiva mahogrena yadduraapam tadaapyate
3.68.14
Only by the most severe tapasya (penance) one can attain what is normally unattainable.
सर्वः संकल्पवशात् लघु भवति वा गुरु।
Sarvah samkalpavashaat laghu bhavati vaa guruh
3.70.30
Whether one is respected(guru) or not respected (laghu) depends entirely on what one determines or decides in his mind.
यथाऽवध्यवधात् पापं वध्यत्यागात् तथैव हि ।
Yathaavadhyavadhaat paapam vadhyatyaagat tathaiva hi
3.90.3
The sin of letting off a person who deserves death is the same as the sin of putting to death one who does not deserve death.
न किञ्चित् दीर्घसूत्राणां सिध्यत्यात्मक्षयादृते ।
Na kinchit deerghasootraanaam siddhyatyaatmakshayaadrite
3.78.8
The one who plans interminably and never comes to a conclusion will achieve nothing except one’s own downfall.
अनुद्वेग श्रियो मूलम्
Anudwega shriyo moolam
3.111.22
Not getting easily agitated is the root cause of wealth.
न तदस्ति प्रिथिव्यां वा दिवि देवेषु वा क्वचित्।
पौरेषेण प्रयत्नेन यन्नाप्नोति गुणान्वितः॥
Na tadasti prithivyaam va divi deveshu vaa kwachit
Paurushena prayatnena yannaapnoti gunaanwitah
4.62.19
There is nothing in this world or in heaven that a person of character cannot achieve by sheer human effort
अपूर्वाह्लाददायिन्य उच्चैस्तरपदाश्रयाः     ।
अतिमोहापहारिण्यः सूक्तयो हि महीयसाम्  ॥
Apoorvaahlaadadaayinya uchchaistarapadaashrayaah
Atimohaapahaarinyah sooktayo hi maheeyasaam
5.4.5
The sayings of great men delight our hearts as never before, contain words of great import and effect and dispel all our delusions and misconceptions.
न कालमतिवर्तन्ते महान्तः स्वेषु कर्मसु
Na kaalamativartante mahaantah sweshu karmasu
5.10.9
Great men do not procrastinate in carrying out their actions.
भविष्यं नानुसन्धत्ते नातीतं चिन्तयत्यसौ ।
वर्तमाननिमेषं तु हसन्नेवानुवर्तते  ॥
Bhavishyam naanusandhatte naateetam chintayatyasau
Vartamaana nimesham tu hasannevaanuvartate
5.12.14
Great men do not ponder over the future or think of what is buried in the past but focus on the present moment, accepting it cheerfully. 
चिन्तनेनैधते चिन्ता त्विन्धनेनेव पावकः।
नश्यत्यचिन्तनेनैव विनेन्धनमिवानलः॥
Chintanenaidhate chintaa twindhaneneva paavakah
Nashyatyachintanenaiva vinendhanamivaanalah
5.21.6
One’s worry becomes magnified the more one’s thoughts dwell on the cause of the worry just like fire burns brightly with fuel. Once you leave thinking of the cause of worries, the worry automatically dies down as fire devoid of fuel.
न स्वधैर्यादृते कश्चिदभ्युद्धरति संकटात् ।
Na swadhairyaadrite kashchidabhyuddharati sangkataat
5.29.10
One cannot extricate oneself from difficulties without courage in oneself
अन्तस्तृष्णोपतप्तानां दावादाहमयं जगत् ।
भवत्यखिलजन्तूनां यदन्तस्तद्बहिःस्थितम्॥
Antastrishnopataptaanaam daavadaahamayam jagat
Bhavatyakhila jantoonaam yadantastadbahih sthhitam
5.56.34
For those whose insides are burning with trishna (greed or intense desire)  the whole world is like a wild fire.  For all beings what is inside is reflected in the outside also, meaning the external world is perceived according to the state of the internal world.
अर्धं सज्जनसंपर्कात् अविद्याया विनश्यति ।
चतुर्भागस्तु शास्त्रार्थे चतुर्भाग स्वयत्नतः ॥
Ardham sajjanasamparkaat avidyaayaa vinashyati
Chaturbhaagastu shaastraarthhe chaturbhaaga swayatnatah
Half of one’s ignorance is destroyed by the company of wise men, one-fourth by reading and discussing the shastras with others and the remaining one-fourth by own effort.
व्याचष्टे यः पठति च शास्त्रं भोगाय शिल्पिवत्।
यतते नत्वनुष्ठाने ज्ञानबन्धुः स उच्यते ॥
Vyaachashte yah pathhati cha shaastram bhogaaya shilpivat
Yatate natwanushtthaane jnaanabandhuh sa uchyate
One who reads the Sastras and expounds them to others only for material gain like a sculptor but does not practice what he preaches is the worst kind of jnaani (knower)
 अज्ञोऽपि तज्ञतामेति  शनैः शैलोऽपि चूर्ण्यते ।
बाणॊऽप्येति महालक्ष्यं पश्याभ्यास विजृंभितम् ॥
Ajnopi tatjnataameti shanaih shailopi choornyate
Baanopyeti mahaalakshyam pashyaabhyaasa vijrimbhitam
The power of practice is such that even an ignorant person becomes a knowledgeable one slowly and steadily, even a hill becomes completely powdered and an archer’s arrow strikes the bull’s eye (reaches its ultimate destination)
अबन्धुर्बन्धुतामेति नैकट्याभ्यासयोगतः।
यात्यनभ्यासतो दूरात् स्नेहो बन्धुषु तानवम्॥
Abandhuhrbandhutaameti naikatyaabhyaasayogatah
Yaatyanabhyaasato dooraat sneho bandhushu taanavam
One who is not a friend becomes one’s friend when there is existence (practice) of proximity between the two.  The affection between friends diminishes when there is no practice of affection because of the distance separating them. 
यो यादृक् क्लेशमाधातुं समर्थस्तादृगेव सः।
अवश्यं फलमाप्नोति प्रबुद्धोस्त्वज्ञ एव वा ॥
Yo yaadrik kleshamaadhaatum samarthastaadrigeva sah
Avashyam phalamaapnoti prabuddhostwajna eva vaa
The more effort one can put in, the more will be one’s achievement which  will also be commensurate to the effort.  One will certainly achieve his goal whether he is ignorant or knowledgeable.
 ना यथा यतते नित्यं यद्भावयति यन्मयः ।
यादृगिच्छेच्च भवितुं तादृग्भवति नान्यथा ॥
Naa yatthaa yatate nityam yadbhaavayati yanmayah
Yaadrigichchhechcha bhavitum taadrigbhavati naanyathhaa
(naa=narah)  What one puts in  one’s efforts for ,  what one thinks, what one identifies oneself  with and what one  wants to become – these will determine what one will become ultimately. 
अद्यैव कुरु यच्छ्रेयो वृद्धः सन् किं करिष्यति।
स्वगात्राण्यपि भाराय भवन्ति हि विपर्यये॥
Adyaiva kuru yachchhreyo vriddhah san kim karishyati
Swagaatraanyapi bhaaraaya bhavanti hi viparyaye
Do good things today itself; If otherwise what will one do after one becomes old when even one’s own physical body becomes a load on oneself
तातस्यकूपमिति ब्रुवाणाः क्षारं जलं कापुरुषाः पिबन्ति ।
Tatasya koopoyamiti bruvaanaah
Kshaaram jalam kaapurushaah pibanti
Inferior men drink salty water from the well saying the well was dug by their father. (They are too lazy to dig a new well for getting sweet water but cover up their laziness by showing false respect to their father) 
आयुषः क्षण एकोऽपि सर्वरत्नैर्न लभ्यते।
नीयते तत् वृथा येन प्रमादः सुमहानहो ॥
Aayushah kshana ekopi sarvaratnairna labhyate
Neeyate tat vrithhaa yena pramaadah sumahaanaho
Even a minute of your life you cannot get by giving all the diamonds in the world.  If one wastes that precious minute he is committing a big blunder.

VAIRAGYA SHATAKAM – BHARTHRUHARI

QUOTES FROM SUBHAASHITA TRISHATEE OF RAJA BHARTRIHARI
Vairagya Shakatam    
The great philosopher-poet, Bharthruhari, was the King of Ujjain.  He was the elder step brother of the renowned Vikramaaditya. His life presents to us a living account of a person’s transformation from a pleasure-loving king to an ascetic. It was he who gave us the immortal Subhashita Trishati  consisting the trilogy of Neeti Sataka, Sringara Sataka and Vairagya Sataka which truly reflect his life expeiences as a king, as a lover and as an ascetic.
    
Given below is selection of verses from the Vairaagya Shatakam, one of the shatakams of the trilogy mentioned above.
चूडोत्तंसितचन्द्रचारुकलिका चञ्चच्छिखाभास्वरो
लीलादग्धविलोलकामशलभः श्रेयो दिशाग्रे स्फुरन् ।
अन्तस्फूर्जदपारमोहतिमिरप्राग्भारमुच्चाटयन्
चेतस्सद्मनि योगिनां विजयते ज्ञानप्रदीपो हरः ॥।
Choodothamsita-chandrachaarukalikaa-chanchachchhikhaabhaaswaro
Leelaadagdha-vilola-kaamashalabhah shreyo dishaagre sphuran
Antahsphoorjad-apaara-mohatimira-praagbhaaram-uchchaatayan
Chetah sadmani yoginaam vijayate jnaanapradeepo harah     [1]
With the crescent moon adorning his locks,  (the fire from his third eye) burning Cupid playfully like a butterfly ( in the fire of a lamp), His fame  spreading in all directions, Lord Shiva abides in the hearts of Yogis as the light of knowledge dispelling the dense darkness of ignorance.
उत्खातं निधिशङ्कया क्षितितलं ध्माता गिरेर्धातवो
निस्तीर्णस्सरितांपतिर्नृपतयो यत्नेन संभाविताः ।
मन्त्राराधनतत्परेण मनसा नीताः श्मशाने निशाः
प्राप्तः काणवराटकोऽपि न मया तृष्णेऽधुना मुञ्च माम् ॥
Utkhaatam nidhishankayaa kshititalam dhmaataa girerdhaatavo
Nisteernah saritampatirnripatayo yatnena santoshitaah
Mantraaraadhanatatparena manasaa neetaah shmashaane nishaah
Praaptah kaanavaraatako’pi na mayaa trishne ‘dhunaa muncha maam [4]
In search of treasures the earth was  dug up, the minerals in the mountains were smelted,  the vast oceans were crossed,   kings were propitiated with great effort, nights were spent in the cemetery chanting mantras – all these I did for the sake of satisfying the greed for wealth.  But not even a penny came out of these efforts. O Greed! Please leave me now. 
भ्रान्तं देशमनेकदुर्गविषमं प्राप्तं न किञ्चित्फलं
त्यक्त्वा जातिकुलाभिमानमखिलं सेवा कृता निष्फला ।
भुक्तं मानविवर्जितं परगृहेष्वाशंकया काकवत्
तृष्णे जृंभसि पापकर्मनिरते नाद्यापि संतुष्यसि
Bhraantam desamanekadurgavishamam praaptam na kinchitphalam
Tyaktwaa jaatikulaabhimaanamakhilam seva kritaa nishphalaa
Bhuktam maanavivarjitam paragriheshwaashankaya kaakavat
Trishne jrimbhasi paapakarmanirate naadyaapi santushyasi          [5]  
 I wandered through many countries, often inaccessible and difficult to traverse, without gaining anything.  Service to kings and rich persons, setting aside caste and family dignity, also proved futile.   Food was taken in the houses of others without shame like a crow looking askance for fear of being caught. O Greed! You have made me do all these wrong things; still you are far from being satisfied.
आदित्यस्य गतागतैरहरहस्संक्षीयते जीवितं
व्यापारैर्बहुकार्यभारगुरुभि: कालोऽपि न ज्ञायते।
दृष्ट्वा जन्मजराविपत्तिमरणं त्रासश्च नोत्पद्यते
पीत्वा मोहमयीं प्रमादमदिरां उन्मत्तभूतं जगत् ॥
Aadityasya gataagatairaharahah samksheeyate jeevitam
Vyaapaarairbahukaaryabhaaragurubhih kaalo’pi na jnaayate
Drishtwaa janma jaraavipattimaranam traasashcha notpadyate
Peetwaa mohamayeem pramaadamadiraam unmattabhootam jagat [7]
Every day, as the Sun rises and sets, there is erosion in life, each day bringing one nearer to death.  Because of the burden of worldly activities in which human beings are immersed, they are unaware of the inexorable efflux of time. In spite of seeing, before one’s eyes, birth, old age, disease and death, there is no sense of fear.  The whole world, because of its indifference and carelessness about these facts of life, has lost its senses intoxicated by the delusion  (that every thing would be fine). 
हिंसाशून्यमयत्नलभ्यमशनं धात्रा मरुत्कल्पितं
व्यालानां पशवः तृणांकुरभुजः सृष्टा स्थलीशायिनः।
संसारार्णवलंघनक्षमधियां वृत्तिः कृता सा नृणाम्
यामन्वेषयतां प्रयान्ति सततं सर्वे समाप्तिं गुणाः॥
Himsaashoonyamayatnalabhyamashanam  dhaatraa marutkalpitam
Vyaalaanaam pashavah trinaankurabhujah srishtaah sthaleeshaayinah
Samsaaraarnavalamghanakshamadhiyaam vrittih kritaa saa nrinaam
Yaamanweshayataam prayaanti satatam sarve samaaptim gunaah  [10]
The Creator Brahmaa has made such an arrangement that snakes get air, which is their food, without hurting any other being and without making any special effort to get it.  Similarly, cattle live on green grass and sleep on the bare earth (and they don’t have to do anything to get these things).  For humans, who have the capacity and intelligence enough to cross this ocean of samsara, the means of living created are such that, in seeking them out, all of their good qualities come to an end (meaning they have to compromise on their innate good qualities or they have to use up all their good qualities for the sake of making a living). 
भोगा न भुक्ताः वयमेव भुक्ता: तपो न तप्तं व्यमेव तप्ताः
कालो न यातो वयमेव यातास्तृष्णा न जीर्णा व्यमेव जीर्णाः 
Bhogaa na bhuktaa vayameva bhuktaastapo na taptam vayameva taptaah
Kalo na yaato vayameva yaataastrishnaa na jeernaa vayameva jeernaah  [12]
We never did consume (enjoyed) the objects of enjoyment; on the contrary we ourselves were consumed (eaten, weakened).  We never did any tapas (penance, literally heat); on the contrary we ourselves were heated (subjected to physical suffering).  For us Time never passed; we ourselves passed into Time (our life span was reduced day by day).  Our greed did not become old (weak); on the contrary we only became old (aged).    
[Note: Here the poet has made of use words which can be applied in two different meanings]
क्षान्तं न क्षमया गृहोचितसुखं त्यक्तं न सन्तोषतः
सॊढाः दुस्सहशीतवाततपनक्लेशा: न तप्तं तपः।
ध्यातं वित्तमहर्निशं नियमितप्राणैर्न शंभो: पदं
तत्तत्कर्म कृतं यदेव मुनिभिस्तैस्तैः फलैर्वञ्चिताः॥।
Kshaantam na kshamayaa grihochitasukham tyaktam na santoshatah
Soddhaah dussahasheetavaatatapanakleshaah  na taptam tapah
Dhyaatam vittamaharnisham niyamitapraanairna shambhoh padam
Tattatkarma kritam yadeva munibhistaistaih phalairvanchitaah     [13]
We forgave others not out of an attitude of forgiveness (but because we were powerless to do anything else).  We renounced worldly things not willingly (but because we could not afford it or could not enjoy it).  We endured extremes of cold, heat and wind but we did not do any tapas (penance). We thought of wealth day and night but we never meditated, controlling our breath, on the lotus-feet of Lord Shiva.  We practiced all those things which the saints practice (kshama, renunciation, tapas and dhyaana) but we could not achieve the result (liberation) which the saints achieve by these means.  
अवश्यं यातारश्चिरतरमुषित्वापि विषयाः
वियोगे कोभेदस्त्यजति न मनो यत्स्वयममून् ।
व्रजन्तः स्वातन्त्र्यादतुलपरितापाय मनसः
स्वयं त्यक्त्वाह्येते शमसुखमनन्तं विदधति॥
Avashyam yaataarah chirataramushitwaapi vishayaah
Viyoge ko bhedastyajati na mano yatswayamamoon
Vrajantah swaatantryaadatulaparitaapaaya manasah
Swayam tyaktwaa hyete shamasukhamanantam vidadhati [16]
Pleasures of the senses will certainly go away, though after staying with us for a long time.  What difference does it make if this separation is voluntary?  But our mind does not want to leave these pleasures voluntarily.   When these pleasures leave us themselves, our mind becomes stricken with grief.  On the other hand, if they are voluntarily forsaken, it produces infinite peace and tranquility of mind.
भिक्षाशनं तदपि नीरसमेकवारं
शय्या च भू: परिजनो निजदेहमात्रं ।
वस्त्रं विशीर्णशतखण्डमयी च कन्था
हा हा तथापि विषया न परित्यजन्ति ॥
Bhikshaashanam tadapi neerasamekavaaram
Shayyaa cha bhooh parijano nijadehamaatram
Vastram visheernashatakhandamayee cha kanthaa
Ha ha tathaapi vishayaa na parityajanti  [18]
A person eats food, dry and devoid of any taste, once a day by begging.  He sleeps on the bare earth.  His only servant is his own body. His clothing is very old and tattered.  In spite of all this, the desire for the pleasures of the senses does not leave him. It is a pity indeed!
अजानन्दाहात्म्यं पततु शलभो दीपदहने
स मीनोऽप्यज्ञानात् बडिशयुतमश्नातु पिशितं ।
विजानन्तोऽप्येते वयमिह विपज्जालजटिलान्
न मुञ्चामः कामानहह गहनो मोहमहिमा ॥
Ajaanan daahaatmyam patatu shalabho deepadahane
Sa meeno’pyajnaanaat badishayutamashnaatu pishitam
Vijaananto’pyete vayamiha vipajjaalajatilaan
Na munchaamah kaamaanahaha gahano mohamahimaa [20]
The butterfly, without knowing that fire will burn, leaps into the flame of the lamp and gets burnt. Fish, because of their ignorance, bite into the meat tied to the angle of the fishing rod and get pierced.  But we, knowing well that these pleasures will ultimately lead to sorrow and suffering, cling to these  pleasures and do not leave them.  Great indeed is the power of illusion. 
मृत्पिण्डो जलरेखया वलयितः सर्वोप्ययं नन्वणु
भागीकृत्य एव संयुगशतैः राज्ञां गणैर्भुज्यते
ते दद्युः ददतोऽथवा किमपरं क्षुद्रा दरिद्रा भृशं
धिक् धिक् तान् पुरुषाधमान् धनकणान् वाञ्छन्ति तेभ्योऽपि ये
Mritpindo jalarekhayaa valayitah sarvopyayam nanvanu
Bhaageekritya sa eva samyugashataih raajnaam ganairbhujyate
Te dadyuh dadato’thavaa kimaparam kshudraa daridraa bhrisham
Dhikdhik taanpurushaadhamaan dhanakanaan vaanchchhanti tebhyo’pi ye [25]
The kings have divided a ball of earth, surrounded by water and composed of atoms, into small portions and have taken possession of these portions after fighting with each other.  Such being the case, what these kings, mean and poor (stingy), can give to others?  Fie on those worst of men who want to get from these very kings little bits of money.
पुरा विद्वत्तासीदुपशमवतां क्लेशहतये
गता कालेनासौ विषयसुखसिद्ध्यै विषयिणां ।
इदानीम् संप्रेक्ष्य क्षितितलभुजः शास्त्रविमुखा
नहो कष्टं साऽपि प्रतिदिनमधोधः प्रविशति ॥
Puraa vidwattaaseedupashamavataam kleshahataye
Gataa kaalenaasau vishayasukhasiddhyai vishayinaam
Idaaneem samprekshya kshititalabhujah shaastravimukhaa-
naho kashtam saa’pi pratidinamadhodhah pravishati  [27]
In the olden days learning and scholarship was used by people, who had withdrawn themselves from the pleasures of the senses, to gladden the mind and drive away sorrow.  By the passage of time learning was used by pleasure-loving people as an instrument to acquire objects of pleasure.  Now, seeing that the kings have turned their faces away from the shaastraas, it is sad to see that learning and scholarship is sliding down more and more.
माने म्लायिनि खण्डिते वसुनि व्यर्थं प्रयातेऽर्थिनि
क्षीणे बन्धुजने गते परिजने नष्टे शनैर्यौवने
युक्तं केवलमेतदेव सुधियां यज्जह्नुकन्यापयः पूतग्रावगिरीन्द्रकन्दरदरीकुञ्जे निवासः क्वचित्॥
Maane mlaayini khandite cha vasuni vyartham prayaate’rthini
Ksheene bandhujane gate parijane nashte shanairyauvane
Yuktam kevalametadeva sudhiyaam yajjanhukanyaapayah
Poota-graava-gireendra-kandara-daree-kunje nivaasah kwachit  [30]
There comes in the life a person a time when his reputation fades, wealth diminishes or is lost, supplicants for alms or money   go away disappointed,  relatives become rare, servants leave and old age starts creeping in.  When that time comes, the only proper thing to do is to retire into one of the caves of a mountain washed by the holy waters of the river Gaga.   
भोगे रोगभयं कुले च्युतिभयं वित्ते नृपालाद्भयं
मौने दैन्यभयं बले रिपुभयं रूपे जराया भयं
शास्त्रे वादिभयं गुणे खलभयं काये कृतान्तात् भयं
सर्वं वस्तु भयान्वितं भुवितले वैराग्यमेवाभयम्
Bhoge rogabhayam kule chyutibhayam vitte cripaalaadbhayam
Moune dainyabhayam bale ripubhayam rupe jaraayaa bhayam
Shaastre vaadibhayam gune khalabhayam kaaye kritaantaat bhayam
Sarvam vastu bhayaanwitam bhuvitale vairaagyamevaabhayam [32]
There is fear of disease in the enjoyment of pleasures.  There is fear of fall in status for a reputed dynasty. There is fear from the king for the wealthy.  In silence there is fear of weakness.  In strength there is fear of enemies. In beauty there is fear from old age.  For those proficient in shaastraas there is fear from debaters.  For good qualities there is fear from evil men. There is fear from death for the body.   Everything in this world has fear from some or other source. Only Vairagyaa (non-attachment to pleasures) has no fears.
सा रम्या नगरी महान् स नृपतिः सामन्तचक्रं च तत्
पार्श्वे तस्य स विदग्ध परिषत् ताश्चन्द्रबिम्बाननाः ।
उद्रिक्तः स च राजपुत्रनिवहः ते बन्दिनस्ताः कथाः
सर्वं यस्य वशादगात् स्मृतिपथं कालाय तस्मै नमः
Saa ramyaa nagaree mahaan sa nripatih saamantachakram cha tat
Paarshwe tasya sa vidagdhaparishat taashchandrabimbaananaah
Udriktah sa cha raajaputranivahah  te bandinastaah kathaah
Sarvam yasya vashaadagaat smritipatham kaalaaya tasmai namah [34]
That beautiful city, that great king, that circle of subordinate kings, that assembly of intelligent ministers and those moon-faced (beautiful) women by his side, those enthusiastic princes, those minstrels who sang his praises and  those stories they narrated  – all these became mere memories by the power of kaala ( Time). I offer my humble obeisance to Kaala
गंगातीरे हिमगिरिशिलाबद्धपद्मासनस्य
ब्रह्मध्यानाभ्यसन विधिना योगनिद्रां गतस्य।
किं तैर्भाव्यं मम सुदिवसैर्यत्र ते निर्विशंका:
संप्राप्स्यन्ते जरठहरिणा: शृंगकण्डूविनोदम्॥
Gangaateere himigirishilaabaddhapadmaasanasya
Brahmadhyaanaabhyasana vidhinaa  yoganidraam gatasya
Kim tairbhaavyam mamasudivasairyatra te nirvishankaah
Sampraapsyante jarathaharinaah shringakandoovinodam [38]
The poet visualizes himself as seated in the lotus pose on the rock of a mountain washed by the holy waters of the Ganga and, meditating on the Brahman, slips into yogic sleep.   While he is in this yoganidraa the old deer in the forest, without any apprehension, come near him and derive the pleasure of scratching their horns on his body.  The poet wonders whether this vision of his will ever be realized and such good days will actually come in his life.  
स्फुरत्स्फारज्योत्स्नाधवलिततले क्वापि पुलिने
सुखासीन:: शान्तध्वनिषु रजनीषु द्युसरितः।
भवभोगोद्विग्नः शिव शिव शिवेत्यादिवचसा
कदा स्यामानन्दोद्गतबहुलबाष्पाप्लुतदृशः
Sphuratsphaarajyotsnaadhavalitatale kwaapi puline
Sukhaaseenaah shaantadhwanishu rajaneeshu dyusaritah
Bhava bhogodwignah shiva shiva shivetyaadivachasaa
Kadaa syaamaanandodgata-bahula-baashpaapluta-drishah  [39]
Tossed about mentally by this samsaara, the poet visualizes himself seated comfortably on the sandy river bed of the Ganges bathed in the milky whiteness of moonlight, uttering the names of Shiva and his eyes filled with copious tears of joy (on meditating on the beautiful form of the Lord).  He wonders whether he will ever have such a beautiful experience. 
महादेवो देवः सरिदपि सैषा सुरसरित्
गुहा एवागारं वसनमपि ता एव हरितः ।
सुहृद्वा कालोऽयं व्रतमिदमदैन्य व्रतमिदं
कियद्वा वक्ष्यामो वटविटप एवास्तु दयिता॥।
Mahaadevodevah saridapi cha saishaa surasarit
Guhaa evaagaaram vasanamapi taa eva haritah
Suhridwaa kaalo’yam vratamidamadainya vratamidam
Kiyadwaa vakshyaamo vatavitapa evastu dayitaa [40]
Shiva is the God.  Ganga is the holy river.  Cave is the shelter. The four quarters are the clothes.  Kala (Death) is the friend.  Vow is courage.  What else is to be said?  Let the banyan tree which provides the shelter be the loved one.
[Note: The poet here visualizes the simple and uncomplicated life of a person who has renounced the world]
एकाकी निस्पृहश्शान्तः पाणिपात्रो दिगंबरः ।
कदा शंभो भविष्यामि कर्मनिर्मूलनक्षमः ॥
Ekaakee nisprihah shaantah paanipaatro digambarah
Kadaa shambho bhavishyaami karmanirmoolanakshamah[41]
The poet says “O Lord!  Alone and without desires, tranquil and having nothing other than my palms for receiving alms, having only the four quarters as my clothes, when shall I be capable of destroying the results of my actions?”
आशानामनदी मनोरथजला तृष्णातरंगाकुला
रागग्राहवती  वितर्कविहगा धैर्यद्रुमध्वंसिनी ।
मोहावर्तसुदुस्तरातिगहना प्रोत्तुंगचिन्तातटी
तस्याः पारगताः विशुद्धमनसो नन्दन्ति योगीश्वराः॥
Aashaa naama nadee manorathajalaa trishnaatarangaakulaa
Raagagraahavatee vitarkavihagaa dhairyadrumadhwamsinee
Mohaavartasudustaraatigahana prottungachintaatatee
Tasyaah paaragataah vishuddhamanaso nandanti yogeeshwaraah [42]
The river desire has imagination as water, greed as its waves, and attachment as crocodiles and debate as the birds.  This river sweeps away the tree of courage.  It is difficult to cross because of the whirls of delusion and its depth.  Its high banks are thoughts (worries).  Only the yogis of pure mind who cross this river will attain real happiness.
विद्यानाधिगता कलंकरहिता वित्तं च नोपार्जितं
शुश्रूषापि समाहितेन मनसा पित्रोर्न संपादिता ।
आलोलायतलोचना युवतयः स्वप्नेऽपि नालिंगिताः
कालोऽयं परपिण्डलोलुपतया काकैरिव प्रेर्यते॥
Vidyaanaadhigataa kalankarahitaa vittam cha nopaarjitam
Shushrooshaa’pi samaahitenamanasaa pitrorna sampaaditaa
Aalolaayatalochanaa yuvatayah swapne’pi naalingitaah
Kaalo’yam  parapindalolupatayaa kaakairiva preryate [45]
The poet reflects on the life of persons who go through it without any aim. They go through life without acquiring unblemished learning or wealth. They do not take care of their parents with devotion. They do not have the company of beautiful women even in their dreams.   This means they do not attain dharma, artha or kaama which are the first three purushaarthas.  Such people go through life as parasites feeding on the food offered by others, like crows.  
वयमिह परितुष्टाः वल्कलैस्त्वं दुकूलैः
सम इह परितोषो निर्विशेषो विशेष: ।
स तु भवतु दरिद्रो यस्य तृष्णा विशाला
मनसि च परितुष्टे कोऽर्थवान् को दरिद्रः॥
Vayamiha paritushtaa valkalaistwam dukoolaih
Sama iha paritosho nirvishesho visheshah
Sa tu bhavatu daridro yasya trishnaa vishaalaa
Manasi cha paritushte ko’rthavaan ko daridrah  [47]
One who has renounced the world speaks to the King thus:
We are happy with our clothes made of tree barks. You are happy with silken clothes.  The happiness of both is equal; one is not greater than the other. The one who is extremely greedy is the real poor man.  When one is mentally content with what one has who is rich and who is poor?
चण्डालः किमयं द्विजातिरथवा शूद्रोऽथ किं तापसः
किम् वा तत्त्वविवेकपेशलमतिर्योगीश्वरकोऽपि वा ।
इत्युत्पन्न विकल्पजल्पमुख्ररैः संभाष्यमाणा जनैः
न क्रुद्धाः पथि नैव तुष्टमनसो यान्ति स्वयं योगिनः॥
Chandaalah kimayam dwijaatirathavaa shoodro’tha kim taapasah
Kim va tattwavivekapeshalamatiryogeeshwara ko’pi kim
Ityutpanna vikalpajalpamukharaih sambhaashyamaanaa janai-
rnakruddhaah pathi naiva tushtamanaso yaanti swayam yoginah [51]
When a group of yogis is passing through a village, people have doubts about their identities.  One may be a chandala, a brahmin, a shoodra, an ascetic, one who has known the highest truth, or a yogi. They talk among themselves loudly.  But the yogis hear their comments calmly; they are neither angry nor happy, they move on with their tranquility undisturbed by the loud noises made by the crowd.
मोहं मार्जय तामुपार्जय रतिं चन्द्रार्धचूडामणौ
चेतः स्वर्गतरंगिणी तटभुवामासंगमंगीकुरु ।
को वा वीचिषु बुद्बुदेषु च तटिल्लेखासु च स्त्रीषु च
ज्वालाग्रेषु च पन्नगेषु च सरिद्वेगेषु च प्रत्ययः ॥
Moham maarjaya taamupaarjaya ratim chandraardha-choodaamanau
Chetah swarga-taranginee-tatabhuvaam-aasangam-angeekuru
Ko va veechishu budbudeshu cha tadillekhaasu cah streeshu cha
Jwaalaagreshu cha pannageshu cha saridwegeshu cha pratyayah [53]
Wipe out your illusions, develop love for Lord Shiva who sports the half-moon on his locks and set your heart on the banks of the celestial river Ganga.  How can you trust waves, bubbles, flashes of lightning, women, volcanoes, snakes and flow of the rivers? (All things material are ever-changing, evanescent.)   
अग्रे गीतं सरसकवयः पर्श्वतो दाक्षिणात्याः
पृष्ठे लीलावलयरणितं चामरग्राहिणीनां ।
यद्यस्त्येवं कुरु भवरसास्वादने लम्पटत्वं
नो चेच्चेतः प्रविश सहसा निर्विकल्पे समाधौ ॥
Agre geetam sarasakavayah paarshwato daakshinaatyaah
Prishthe leelaavalayaranitam chaamaragraahineenaam
Yadyaastyevam kuru bhavarasaaswaadane lampatatwam
No chechchetah pravisha sahasaa nirvikalpe samaadhau [55]
The poet tells his mind: “O Mind! If there is music in front, witty poets from the South on the sides,  the tinkling sound of bracelets of the playful damsels who wave the chamaaras (fans)  from behind, then settle down to enjoy these worldly things.  If otherwise, O mind! enter without delay into nirvikalpa samadhi ( the state wherein all plurality ends and the Ultimate Truth only remains).   
विरमत बुधाः योषित्संगात् क्षणभंगुरात्
कुरुत करुणामैत्रीप्रज्ञावधूजनसंगमं ।
न खलु नरके हाराक्रांतं घनस्तनमण्डलं
शरणमथवा श्रॊणीबिंबं रणन्मणिमेखलं॥
Viramata budhaah yoshitsangaat kshanabhanguraat
Kuruta karunaa-maitree-prajnaa-vadhoojana-sangamam
Na khalu narake haaraakraantam ghanastanamandalam
Sharanamathavaa shroneebimbam rananmanimekhalam [56]
O wise men! avoid the company of women which is extremely fleeting.    Kindness, friendship, knowledge – these are the brides whose company you should keep.  Full breasts of damsels adorned with necklaces or the hips adorned with diamond- studded tinkling waistbands will not come to your rescue when you are in hell (as punishment for the wrongs you have done)
मातर्लक्ष्मि भजस्व कंचिदपरं मत्काङ्क्षिणी मा स्म भूः
भोगेषु स्पृहयालवो नहि वयं का निस्पृहानामसि ।
सद्यस्स्यूत पलाशपत्रपुटिका पात्रे पवित्रीकृतै
र्भिक्षासक्तुभिरेव संप्रति वयं वृत्तिं समीहामहे ॥
Maatarlakshmi bhajaswa kanchidaparam matkaangkshinee ma sma bhoo-
rbhogeshu sprihayaalavo nahi vayam ka nisprihaanaamasi
Sadyasyoota palaashapatraputikaa paatre pavitreekritai-
rbhikshaasaktubhireva samprati vayam vrittim sameehaamahe [57]
O mother Lakshmi! You please go to some one else.  Do not become attached to me.  We have no desire for the pleasures of the senses. What are you for people who are not without any desire?  We live by begging daily for a handful of powdered grains in a bowl made by stitching together a few fresh leaves of the palasa tree and consecrating it by offering it to the Lord before we partake of it.
गंगातरंगहिमशीकरशीतलानि
विद्याधराध्युषित चारुशिलातलानि ।
स्थानानि किं हिमवतः प्रलयं गतानि
यत्सावमानपरपिण्डरता: मनुष्याः ॥
Gangaatarangahimasheekarasheetalaani
Vidyaadharaadhyushitachaarushilaatalaani
Sthaanaani kim himavatah pralayam gataani
Yatsaavamaana parapindarataah manushyaah [59]
Have those spots of the Himalayas vanished which are cooled by the water droplets from the waves of the Ganga or the beautiful rocky places occupied by vidyaadharaas ?  If not why are people depending on the food provided by others suffering indignities in the process (They should retire to those natural places of the Himalayas and seek their liberation from the cycle of births and deaths)
मही रम्या शय्या विपुलमुपधानं भुजलता
वितानं चाकाशं व्यजनमनुकूलोऽयमनिलः।
स्फुरद्दीपश्चन्द्रो विरतिवनितासंगमुदितः
सुखं शान्तः शेते मुनिरतनुभूतिर्नृप इव॥
Mahee ramyaa shayyaa vipulamupadhaanam bhujalataa,
Vitaanam chaakaasham vyajanamanukooloyamanilah
Sphuraddeepashchandro virativanitaasangamuditah
Sukham shaantah shete muniratanubhootirnripa iva [67]
The earth is a beautiful bed, the hand folded at the elbow serves as a pillow, the canopy is the sky, the cool breeze is like a fan, and the moon serves the purpose of a lamp, the damsel virati (non-attachment, renunciation) provides company – in this environment the saint sleeps happily like a king.
किं वेदैः स्मृतिभिः पुराणपठनैः शास्त्रैर्महाविस्तरैः
स्वर्गग्रामकुटीनिवासफलदैः कर्मक्रियाविभ्रमैः
मुक्त्वैकं भवबन्धदुखरचनाविध्वस्तकालानलं स्वात्मानन्दपदप्रवेशकलनं शेषाः वणिग्वृत्तयः
Kim vedaih smritibhih puraanapathanaih shaastrairmahaavistaraih
Swargagraamakutee nivaasaphaladaih karmkriyaavibhramaih
Muktwaikam bhavabandhadukharachanaavidhwastakaalaanalam
Swaatmaanandapadapraveshakalanam sheshaa vanigvrittayah [69]
What is the use of studying and performing the complex rituals expounded in the Vedas, smritis, puraanaas and sastras, the only fruit of which is living in a small house in a small village in Heaven?  Except the effort which will burn all the sorrows and miseries of the samsaaraa and enable one to attain the bliss of the Self, other things are simply trading, giving something in exchange for something else.
मातर्मेदिनि तात मारुत सखे तेजः सुबन्धो जल
भ्रातर्व्योम निबद्ध एव भवतामेष प्रणामाञ्जलिः ।
युष्मत्संगवशोपजातसुकृतोद्रेकस्फुरन्निर्मल ज्ञानापास्तसमस्तमोहमहिमा लीये परे ब्रह्मणि॥
Maatarmedini taata maruta sakhe tejah subandho jala
Bhraatarvyoma nibaddha eva bhavataamesha pranaamaanjalih
Yushmat-sangavashopajaata-sukritodreka-sphurannirmala-
Jnaanaapaasta-samasta-mohamahimaa leeye pare brahmani [73]
O mother Earth!  father Air! friend Fire! relative Water! brother Space! I offer Salutations to you all by joining the palms of my hands.  With your help I have done meritorious deeds and thus purified I have attained to true knowledge which has dispelled my delusions and now I merge my self in the Brahman.
यावत्स्वस्थमिदं शरीरमरुजं यावच्च दूरे जरा यावच्चेन्द्रियशक्तिरप्रतिहता यावत्क्षयोनायुषः ।
आत्मश्रेयसि तावदेव वपुषा कार्यप्रयत्नो महान्
संदीप्ते भवने तु कूपखननं प्रत्युद्यमः कीदृशः
Yaavatswasthamidam shareeramarujam yaavachcha doore jaraa
Yavachchendriyashaktirapratihataa yaavatkshayonaayushah
Aatmashreyasi taavadeva vapushaa kaarya prayatno mahaan
Sandeepte bhavane tu koopa khananam pratyudyamah keedrishah  [74]
When the body is still healthy, when old age is far away, when all the senses are working with peak efficiency, when there are still many more years to live,  one should endeavour intensely, using this body, to elevate the self to the highest state. Trying to do this when one is at the fag end of one’s life is like starting to dig a well when the house is already on fire.
तृष्णा शुष्यत्यास्ये पिबति सलिलं शीतमधुरं
क्षुधार्तः शाल्यन्नं कबलयति मांसादिकलितं ।
प्रदीप्ते कामाग्नौ सुदृढतरमालिंगति वधूं
प्रतीकारं व्याधेः सुखमिति विपर्यस्यति जनः ॥
Trishaa shushyatyaasye pibati salilam sheetamadhuram
Kshudhaartah shaalyannam kabalayati maamsaadikalitam
Pradeepte kaamaagnau sudridhataramaalingati vadhoom
Prateekaaram vyaadheh sukhamiti viparyasyati janah [ 78]
When the mouth is dry because of thirst one drinks cool, sweet water. When one is afflicted with hunger, one  eats cooked rice mixed with pieces of meat.  When one is afflicted by lust one seeks union with one’s wife.  What is remedy for thirst, hunger and lust people wrongly think as pleasure.
धन्यानां गिरिकन्दरेषुवसतां ज्योतिः परं ध्यायतां  आनन्दाश्रुकणान् पिबन्ति शकुनाः निश्शंकमंगेशया:।
अस्माकं तु मनोरथाविरचित प्रासाद वापीतट -क्रीडाकाननकेलिकौतुकजुषां आयुः परं क्षीयते ॥
  
Dhanyaanaam girikandareshu vasataam jyotih param dhyaayataam
Aanandaashrukanaan pibanti shakunaah nihshankamankeshayaah
Asmaakam tu manorathaavirachita praasaada-vaapeetata-
Kreedakaanana-kelikautukajushaam aayuh param ksheeyate [84]
Those realized souls who live in the caves of mountains and meditate upon the Supreme self shed tears of joy which the birds of the wild drink sitting on their laps without fear or apprehension.  For us who build castles, lagoons and gardens in our  imagination and entertain ourselves in a dream-like state, only the ayuh  (life span) goes on diminishing; no higher goal is achieved.   
आक्रान्तं मरणेन जन्म जरसा विद्युच्चलं यौवनं
सन्तोषो धनलिप्सया शमसुखं प्रौढांगनाविभ्रमैः ।
लोकैर्मत्सरिभिर्गुणाः वन भुवो व्यालैर्नृपा दुर्जनै
रस्थैर्येन विभूतयोऽप्युपहता ग्रस्तं न किं केन वा ॥
Aaakraantam maraanena janma jarasaa vidyuchchalam yauvanam
Santosho dhanalipsayaa shamasukham praudhaanganaavibhramaih
Lokairmatsaribhirgunaah vana bhuvo vyaalair-nripaa durjanai-
rasthairyena  vibhootayo’pyupahataa grastam na kim kena vaa [85]
Birth is invaded by death,  youth which is fleeting as the lightning by agedness (senility), contentment by greed for wealth, tranquility by the flirtations of women, good qualities by jealous persons, forests by snakes, kings by evil men and abundance of riches by instability.  There is nothing in this world which is not adversely affected by something or other.
आयुर्वर्षशतं नृणां परिमितं रात्रौ तदर्धं गतं तस्यार्धस्यपरस्यचार्धमपरं बालत्व वृद्धत्वयोः
शेषं व्याधिवियोगदु:खसहितं सेवादिभिर्नीयते
जीवे वारितरंगचञ्चलतरे सौख्यं कुतः प्राणिनाम्
Aayurvarshashatam nrinaam parimitam raatrau tadardham gatam
Tasyaardhasya parasyachaardhamaparam baalatwa vriddhatwayoh
Shesham vyadhiviyogadukhasahitam sevaadibhirneeyate
Jeeve vaaritarangachanchalatare saukhyam kutah praaninaam [88]
The lifetime of a person is limited to one hindered years.  Half of this is wasted in the night.  One half of the remaining half is spent in childhood and old age.  The balance period is somehow lived  by service or other occupations undergoing sufferings by disease, separation from loved ones and grief from misfortunes.  Where is happiness in this life which is as transient  as the waves in the ocean? 
व्याघ्रीव तिष्ठति जरा परितर्जयन्ती
रोगाश्च शत्रव इव प्रविशन्ति देहं।
आयुः परिस्रवति भिन्नघटादिवांभः
लोकस्तथाप्यहितमाचरतीति चित्रं॥
Vyaaghreeva tishthati jaraa paritarjayantee
Rogaashcha shatrava iva praharanti deham
Aayuh parisravati bhinnaghataadivaambho
Lokastathaapyahitamaacharateeti chitram [90]
Senility stands threatening like a tigress, diseases attack the body like enemies, life is ebbing out of the body as water from a pot with holes;  in spite of all this it is amusing to see people engage themselves in undesirable activities.     
स्नात्वा गांगैः पयोभिः शुचिकुसुमफलैरर्चयित्वा विभो त्वां

ध्येये ध्यानं नियोज्य क्षितिधरकुहरग्रावपर्यंकमूले ।
आत्मारामः फलाशी गुरुवचनरतस्त्वत्प्रसादात्स्मरारे दु:खान्मोक्ष्ये कदाऽहं तव चरणरतो ध्यानमार्गैकनिष्ठः
Snaatwaa gaangaih payobhih shuchikusumphhalairarchayitwaa vibho twaa,
Dhyeye dhyaanam niyojya kshitidhara-kuhara-graava-paryanka-moole
Aaatmaaraamah phalaashee guruvachanaratastwatprasaadaatsmaraare,
Dukhaanmokshye kadaa’ham tava charanarato dhyaanamaargaikanishthah [91]
Bathing in the sacred waters of the Ganga,   worshipping You, O Lord!, with fresh flowers and fruits, meditating on your beautiful form seated on a rock in a Himalayan cave, experiencing the bliss of the self, living only on fruits, following the advice of the guru, heart set on your lotus feet and establishing myself in dhyaanayoga, when shall I, by Your grace, be liberated from the miseries of this samsaara ?
गात्रं संकुचितं गतिर्विगलिता भ्रष्टा च दन्तावलिः
दृष्टिर्नश्यति वर्धते बधिरता वक्त्रं च लालायते
वाक्यं नाद्रियते च बांधवजनो भार्या न शुश्रूषते
हा कष्टं पुरुषस्य  जीर्णवयसः पुत्रोऽप्यमित्रायते
Gaatram samkuchitam gatirvigalitaa bhrashtaa cha dantaavalih
Drishtirnashyati vardhate badhirataa vaktram cha laalaayate
Vaakyam naadriyate cha bandhavajano bhaaryaa na shushrooshate
Ha kashtam purushasya jeernavayasah putropyamitraayate [95]
The body has shrunk, the walk is tottering, the teeth have fallen, the sight has dimmed, hearing is diminished, saliva drips from the mouth, relatives do not heed the words, the wife also does not render service, even the son has become an enemy. O ! the misery of an aged person.
अहौ वा हारे वा बलवति रिपौ वा सुहृदि वा
मणौ वा लोष्टे वा कुसुमशयने वा दृषदि वा ।
तृणे वा स्त्रैणे वा मम समदृशो यान्ति दिवसाः क्वचित्पुण्येऽरण्ये शिवशिवशिवेति प्रलपतः ॥
Ahau vaa haare vaa balavati ripau vaa suhridi vaa,
Manau vaa loshte va kusumashayane vaa drishadi vaa
Trine vaa straine vaa mama samadrisho yaanti divasaah
Kwachitpunye’ranye shivashivashiveti pralapatah [98]
My days are passed in a sacred forest chanting the name of Shiva and having the same equal vision whether it is a snake or a garland, an enemy or a friend, a diamond or a lump of clay, a bed of flowers or of stone,  a bundle of grass or a group of women.
चला लक्ष्मीश्चला प्राणाश्चलं जीवितयौवनं
चलाचले च संसारे धर्म एको हि निश्तितः
Chalaa lakshmeeshchalaa praanaashchalam jeevitayauvanam
Chalaachale cha samsaare dharma eko hi nishchalah  [100]
Wealth is fleeting, breath is fleeting, life is fleeting and youth is fleeting.  In this world of moveable and immoveable life 
forms only dharma is stable, permanent.



NEETI SHATAKAM OF BHARTHRUHARI

QUOTES FROM SUBHAASHITA TRISHATEE OF RAJA BHARTRIHARI

Neeti Shakatam

The great philosopher-poet, Bharthruhari, was the King of Ujjain. He was the elder step brother of the renowned Vikramaaditya. His life presents to us a living account of a person’s transformation from a pleasure-loving king to an ascetic. It was he who gave us the immortal Subhashita Trishati consisting the trilogy of Neeti Sataka, Sringara Sataka and Vairagya Sataka which truly reflect his life expeiences as a king, as a lover and as an ascetic.

Students of Sanskrit are sure to have read selections from Subhashita Trishati which encompasses almost every experience known to man and pours them forth in beautiful poetry. It provides philosophy to those interested in it. It provides metrical delight to lovers of poetry by the use of common meters such as Indravajra, Upendravajra, Vasantatilaka, Malini, Sikharini, Mandakranta, Sardulavikridita, Sragdhara etc. It teaches morality to those who would llike lead a moral life. It has some thing in it for every one who delves into its pages.

Criticism of fools (moorkhanindaa)
अज्ञः सुखमाराध्यः
सुखतरमाराध्य्ते विशेषज्ञ: ।
ज्ञानलवदुर्विदग्धं
ब्रह्मापि नरं न रञ्जयति ॥
Ajjnah sukhamaaraadhyah
sukhataramaaraadhyate visheshajjnah.
Jnaanalavadurvidagdham
brahmaapi naram na ranjayati 1.2.

The ignorant one is easily convinced. It is easier to convince a really knowledgeable person. But even the Creator himself will not be able to convince a fool who, with his half-baked knowledge, thinks that he is the wisest person in the world.

स्वायत्तमेकान्तगुणं विधात्रा
विनिर्मितं छादनमज्ञतायाः ।
विशेषतः सर्वविदां समाजे
विभूषणं मौनमपण्डितानाम् ॥
Swaayattamekaantagunam vidhaatraa
vinirmitam chchhaadanamajjnataayaah.
Visheshatah sarvavidaam samaaje
vibhooshanam maunamapanditaanaam 1.6.

Brahma has created a unique quality, which is available to any one, for covering one’s ignorance. This quality is silence. Especially in an assembly of all-knowing wise men, silence becomes the adornment of fools since it keeps their ignorance from coming to light.

यदा किञ्चिज्ञोऽहं द्विप इव मदान्धः समभवं
तदा सर्वज्ञोऽस्मीत्यभवदवलिप्तं मम मनः ।
यदा किञ्चित् किञ्चित् बुधजनसकाशादवगतं
तदा मूर्खोऽस्मीति ज्वर इव मदो मे व्यपगतः ॥

Yadaa kimchijjno’ham dwipa iva madaandhah samabhavam
Tadaa sarvajno’smeetyabhavadavaliptam mama manah
Yadaa kimchit kimchit budhajanasakaashaadavagatam,
Tadaa moorkho’smeeti jwara iva mado me vyapagatah 1.7

When I had a little knowledge I was blind with conceit like a rutty elephant. I thought I was all-knowing and my vanity was great. Then, gradually, by virtue of my association with wise men, it dawned on me that knowledge was a vast ocean. My intoxication vanished like a fever and I realized that I was really a fool.

शक्यो वारयितुं जलेन हुतभुक् छत्रेण सूर्यातपो
नागेन्द्रोनिशितांकुशेन समदो दण्डेन गौर्गर्दभः ।
व्याधिर्भेषजसंग्रहैश्च विविधैः मन्त्रप्रयोगैर्विषं
सर्वस्यौषधमस्ति शास्त्रविहितं मूर्खस्य नास्त्यौषधम् ॥
shakyo vaarayitum jalena hutabhuk chchhatrena sooryaatapo
Naagendro nishitaankushena samado dandena gourgardabhah
Vyaadhirbheshajasangrahaishcha vividhaih mantraprayogairvisham
Sarvasyaushadhamasti shaastravihitam moorkhasya naastyaushadham 1.10

Fire can be put out by water. An umbrella can be used as protection from the sun. The rutty elephant can be controlled with an ankush (a weapon with a sharp hook at one end used by a mahout). A cow or donkey can be herded with a stick. A disease can be treated with medicines. Poison can be counteracted by chanting mantras. There is a remedy for everything prescribed in the shaastras. But there is no remedy for the fool.

Praise of the learned and the wise (vidwatprashamsaa)
हर्तुर्याति न गोचरं किमपि शं पुष्णातियस्सर्वदा-
ह्यर्थिभ्यः प्रतिपाद्यमानमनिशं प्राप्नोति वृद्धिं परां ।
कल्पान्तेष्वपि न प्रयाति निधनं विद्याख्यमन्तर्धनं
येषां तान् प्रति मानमुञ्झत नृपाः कस्तैस्सह स्पर्धते ॥
Harturyaati na gocharam kimapi sham pushnaati yatsarvadaa
Hyarthibhyah pratipaadyamaanamanisham praapnoti vriddhim paraam
Kalpaanteshwapi na prayaati nidhanam vidyaakhyamantardhanam
Yeshaam taan prati maanamujjhatha nripaah kastaissaha spardhate 1.14

It is not visible to the thief. It always bestows on the possessor joy and happiness. The more it is imparted to those who want it the more it increases. Even after ages it never perishes. It is vidya (learning, knowledge) which is an internal wealth. O Kings! Do not pride yourselves before those who possess such wealth of knowledge. Who can compete with them?

केयूराणि न भूषयन्ति पुरुषं हारा न चंद्रोज्ज्वला
न स्नानं न विलेपनं न कुसुमं नालंकृताः मूर्धजाः ।
वाण्येका समलंकरोति पुरुषं या संस्कृता धार्यते
क्षीयन्तेऽखिलभूषणानि सततं वाग्भूषणं भूषणम् ॥
Keyooraani na bhooshayanti purusham haaraa na chandrojjwalaa
Na snaanam na vilepanam na kusumam naalamkritaa moordhajaah
Vaanyekaa samalankaroti purusham yaa samskritaa dhaaryate
Ksheeyante’khila bhooshanaani satatam vagbhooshanam bhooshanam 1.18

Glittering gold and diamond ornaments, bathing, sandal wood paste for the body, flowers and adornments for the head do not really embellish a person. The greatest adornment of a person is refined and soft speech. All other articles of adornment pale into insignificance before such speech.

क्षान्तिश्चेत्कवचेनकिं? किमरिभिः क्रोधोऽस्तिचेद्देहिनां
ज्ञातिश्चेदनलेन किं? यदि सुहृत् दिव्यौषधैः किं फलम् ?।
किं सर्पैर्यदिदुर्ज्जनाः किमु धनैर्विद्यानवद्या यदि
व्रीडा चेत्किमुभूषणैः सुकविता यद्यस्ति राज्येन किं ?
Kshaantishchet kavachena kim? Kimaribhih krodhosticheddehinaam
Jnaatishchedanalena kim? Yadi suhrit divyaushadhaih kim phalam
Kim sarpairyadi durjanaah kimu dhanairvidyaanavadyaa yadi
Vreedaa chetkimu bhooshanaih sukaviataa yadyasti raajyena kim 1.20

If one has patience (endurance) what is the use of a shield? If one has anger what if enemies are there, anger being the greatest enemy. If a person has relatives he should not worry about fire because the relatives will generate enough heat for him. If one has a friend that friend will do the work of highly effective medicines. If one is in the company of evil men, such evil men will do the work of a poisonous snake. If one has unblemished learning there is no use of wealth as learning is inexhaustible wealth. If one has shyness (modesty) gold and diamond adornments are of no use. If one has beautiful and ennobling poems and literature, the resultant happiness is more than having a kingdom.

Praise of self-respect and valour (maanashaurya prashamsaa)
दाक्षिण्यं स्वजने दया परिजने शाठ्यं सदा दुर्जने
प्रीतिस्साधुजने नयो नृपजने विद्वज्जनेष्वार्जवम् ।
शौर्यं शत्रुजने क्षमा गुरुजने कान्ताजनॆ धृष्टता
ये चैवं पुरुषाः कलासु कुशलाः तेष्वेव लोकस्थितिः ॥
Daakshinyam swajane dayaa parijane shaathyam sadaa durjane
Preetih saadhujane nayo nripajane vidwajjaneshwaarjavam
Shauryam shatrujane kshamaa gurujane kaantaajane dhrishtataa
Ye chaivam purushaah kalaasu kushalaasteshweva lokasthitih 1.21

Those who are skilled in the art of interpersonal relationships show generosity towards relatives, kindness to servants, severity to evil men, devotion to saintly persons, diplomacy towards kings, straightforwardness where learned persons are concerned, valour towards enemies, patience towards elders and tactfulness with women. The world depends on the skill of such people.

प्रारभ्यते न खलु विघ्नभयेन नीचैः
प्रारभ्य विघ्नविहता विरमन्ति मध्याः ।
विघ्नैः पुनः पुनरपि प्रतिहन्यमानाः
प्रारब्धमुत्तमगुणा न परित्यजन्ति ॥
Prarabhyate na khalu vighnabhayena neechaih
Praarabhya vighnavihataa viramanti madhyaah
Vighnaih punah punarapi pratihanyamaanaah
Prarabdhamuttama janaah na parityajanti 1.26

There are three categories of persons who contemplate an undertaking. At the lowest level are those who never start off for fear of encountering obstacles. Those at the middle level start the project but, at the first sign of obstacles, withdraw themselves from the endeavour. At the top level are those who, in spite of repeated obstacles, persist in their endeavour until they take the undertaking to a successful conclusion.

क्षुत्क्षामोऽपि जराकृशोऽपि शिथिलप्रायोऽपि कष्टांदशा-
मापन्नोऽपि विपन्न दीधितिरपि प्राणेषु नश्यत्स्वपि ।
मत्तेभेन्द्र विभिन्न कुंभ कवळ ग्रासैक बद्धस्पुह:
किं जीर्णं तृणमत्ति मानमहतामग्रेसर केसरी ॥
Kshutkshaamo’pi jaraakrisho’pi shithilapraayo’pi kashtaamdashaa-
Maapanno’pi vipannadeedhitirapi praaneshu nashyatswapi
Mattebhendra-vibhinna-kumbha-kavala-graasaika-baddha-sprihah
Kim jeernam trinamatti maanamahataamagresara kesaree 1.28

The Lion, King of the forest, who breaks the head of the elephant and bites into its flesh to satisfy his hunger, will never stoop to the level of eating dry grass. He may be famished by hunger and weakened by old age. His limbs may have lost their flexibility and his condition may be miserable and even his life may be ebbing out of his body. But he will never do anything which is beneath his dignity and majesty as the King of the forest. Similar is the nature of men of substance and majesty.

स्वल्पस्नायु वसावसेकमलिनं निर्मांसमप्यस्थिकं
श्वा लब्ध्वा परितोषमेति न तु तत्तस्य क्षुधा शान्तये।
सिंहो जम्बुकमंगमागतमपि त्यक्त्वा निहन्ति द्विपं
सर्वः कृच्छ्रगतोऽपि वाञ्झति जनः सत्वानुरूपं फलम् ॥
Swalpa-snaayu-vasaavaseka-malinam nirmamsamapyasthikam
Shwaa labdhwaa paritoshameti na tu tattasya kshudhaa shaantaye
Simho jambukamankamaagatamapi tyaktwaa nihanti dwipam
Sarvah krichchhragato’pi vaajnchchhati janah satwaanuroopam phalam 1.29

The dog is satisfied with a piece of bare bone which is dirty with a little blood and fatty substance on it though it is not sufficient to satisfy its hunger. The lion, on the other hand, ignores the jackal within its reach and kills a mighty elephant for his meal. Men of majesty, though passing through a difficult period of their life, do not want to compromise their dignity and will accept only something befitting their dignity and strength.

परिवर्तिनि संसारे मृतः को वा न जायते।
स जातो येन जातेन याति वंशः समुन्नतिम् ॥
Parivartini samsaare mritah ko vaa na jaayate
Sa jaato yena jaatena yaati vamshah samunnatim 1.31

In this world of constant change who does not take birth after one dies ? But one who takes his clan to greater heights is the one really born.

सिंहश्शिशुरपि निपतति मदमलिनकपोलभित्तिषु गजेषु ।
प्रकृतिरियं सत्त्ववतां न खलु वयस्तेजसो हेतुः॥
Simhashshishurapi nipatati madamalinakapolabhittishu gajeshu
Prakritiriyam sattwavataam na khalu vayastejaso hetuh 1.36

Even a lion cub attacks a rutty elephant and breaks its head. This is the nature of men of strength and majesty. Age does not affect their prowess.

Praise of wealth (Dravya prashamsaa)
जातिर्यातु रसातलं गुणगणास्तस्याप्यधो गच्छतां
शीलं शैलतटात्पतत्वभिजनो संदह्यतां वह्निना ।
शौर्ये वैरिणि वज्रमाशुनिपतत्वर्थोऽस्तु नः केवलं
येनैकेन विना गुणास्तृणलवप्रायास्समस्ता इमे ॥
Jaatiryaatu rasaatalam gunaganastasyaapyadho gachchhataam
Sheelam shailatataatpatatwabhijanaah sandahyataam vahninaa
Shourye vairini vajramaashu nipatatwarthostu na kevalam
Yenaikena vinaa gunaastrinalavapraayaah samastaah ime 1.38

Let the jaati (caste, occupation) sink to the nether world. Let all good qualities go down deeper still. Let good conduct fall from the top of a hill. Let all relatives be burnt in a fire. Let valour against the enemy be struck by thunderbolt. Let us have only wealth (money). Without money all good qualities are nothing more than a bundle of grass.

यस्यास्ति वित्तं स नरः कुलीनः
स पण्डितः स श्रुतवान् गुणज्ञः।
स एव वक्ता स च दर्शनीयः
सर्वेगुणाः काञ्चनमाश्रयन्ति॥
Yasyaasti vittam sa narah kuleenah sa panditah sa shrutavaan gunajnah
Sa eva vaktaa sa cha darshaneeyah, sarve gunaah kaanchanamaashrayanti 1.40

If one has wealth he is considered born of a good family. He is learned, he recognizes good qualities, he is an orator, he is handsome etc. All these qualities are attributed to a man possessing wealth whether or not these qualities actually reside in him.

दानं भोगो नाशस्तिस्रोगतयो भवन्ति वित्तस्य ।
यो न ददाति न भुङ्क्ते तस्य तृतीया गतिर्भवति ॥
Daanam bhogo naashastisrogatayo bhavanti vittasya
Yo na dadaati na bhungkte tasya triteeyaa gatirbhavati. 1.42

Giving to others, enjoying oneself or losing it – these are the only ways for utilising wealth. If one does not give to others or enjoy himself, it will result in the third course i.e. loss of wealth (either by theft, deceit, fire or squandering).

राजन् दुधुक्षसि यदि क्षितिधेनुमेनां
तेनाद्यवत्समिव लोकममुं पुषाण ।
तस्मिंश्च सम्यगनिशं परिपुष्यमाणे
नाना फलं फलति कल्पलतेव भूमिः ॥
Raajan dudhukshasi yadi kshitidhenumenaam,
Tenaadya vatsamiva lokamamum pushaana
Tasmishcha samyaganisham paripushyamaane
Naanaaphalam phalati kalpalateva bhoomih 1.44

O King! The earth (land) over which you rule is like a cow. If you want to milk the cow you should nourish the calf, your subjects, with the milk of the cow. If you do this always diligently the earth will yield you all its resources in abundance like a wish-yielding creeper (kalpalataa)

आज्ञा कीर्तिः पालनं ब्राह्मणानां
दानं भोगो मित्रसंरक्षणम् च ।
येषामेते षड्गुणाः न प्रवृत्ता:
कोऽर्थस्तेषां पार्थिवोपाश्रयेण ॥
Aajnaa keertih paalanam brahmanaanaam
Daanam bhogo mitrasamrakshanam cha
Yeshaamete shadgunaah na pravruttaah
Ko’rthasteshaam paarthivopaashrayena 1.47

Power, fame, care of brahmins, charity, enjoyment of the fruits of wealth and protection of one’s friends – if these six are not in a person serving the king, then what is the use of being in the service of the king?

रे रे चातक! सावधानमनसा मित्र क्षणं श्रूयतां
अंभोदा बहवो हि सन्ति गगने सर्वेऽपि नैतादृशाः ।
केचिद्वृष्टिभिरार्द्रयन्ति वसुधां गर्जन्ति केचित् वृथा
यं यं पश्यसि तस्य तस्य पुरतो मा ब्रूहि दीनं वच: ॥
Re re chataka saavadhaanamanasaa mitra kshanam shrooyataam
Ambhodaa bahavo hi santi gagane sarve’pi naitaadrushaah
Kechit vrishtibhiraardrayanti vasudhaam garjanti kechit vruthaa
Yam yam pashyasi tasya tasya purato maa broohi deenam vachah 1.50

O Friend chaataka! Listen carefully to what I am saying. There are so many clouds in the sky but all of them are not of the same character. Some of them drench the earth with precious rain. Some others do nothing but thundering. They do not yield a drop of water. Therefore do not beg for water before every cloud you seen in the sky.

[ Note: The legenday bird chataka is supposed to quench its thirst only from water from the clouds. Here clouds are the kings. And the chataka birds are those who want to make a living by serving the king. Here is advice to such persons that they should not approach all and sundry. Only a few kings are generous, others only boast of themselves but are stingy.]
Criticism of evil men (durjana Nindaa )
अकरुणत्वमकारणविग्रहः परधने परयोषिति च स्पृहा ।
स्वजबन्धुजनेष्वसहिष्णुता प्रकृतिसिद्धमिदं हि दुरात्मनाम् ॥
Akarunatwamakaaranavigrahah paradhane parayoshiti cha sprihaa
Swajana bandhujaneshwasahishnutaa Prakritisiddhamidam hi duraatmanaam 1.51

Cruelty, fighting with others for no reason whatsoever, desire for others’ wealth and women, jealousy at the prosperity of relatives and other family members – men of evil mind are naturally endowed with these bad qualities.

दुर्जनः परिहर्तव्यो विद्ययाऽलंकृतोऽपि सन् ।
मणिना भूषितः सर्पः किमसौ न भयंकरः ॥
Durjanah parihartavyo vidyayaa’lamkrito’pi san
Maninaa bhooshitah sarpah kimasau na bhayamkarah? 1.52

Evil men should be avoided though they may be learned. Is a serpent adorned with a jewel (naaga maanikya) less frightening? [Note: Legend has it that good serpents have a luminous stone (maanikya) on top of their hood]

लोभश्चेदगुणेन किं पिशुनता यद्यस्ति किं पातकैः
सत्यं चेत्तपसा च किं शुचिमनो यद्यस्ति तीर्थेन किम्।
सौजन्यं यदि किं जनैः सुमहिमा यद्यस्ति किं मण्डनैः
सद्विद्या यदि किं धनैरपयशो यद्यस्ति किं मृत्युना ॥
Lobhashchedagunena kim pishunataa yadyasti kim paatakaih
Satyam chettapasaa cha kim shuchimano ydyasti teerthena kim
Saujanyam yadi kim janaih sumahimaa yadyasti kim mandanaih
Sadvidyaa yadi kim dhanairapayasho yadyasti kim mrityunaa 1.54

If one has greed what is the need for other bad qualities? If one is a backbiter what is the need for evil deeds? If one has Truth what is the need for tapas? If one is pure of mind what is the need for teertha (holy rivers, lakes, sea etc.)? If one is of good conduct what is the need for friends ? If one has fame what is the use of ornaments? If one has right learning why does he need wealth? If one is infamous why does he need death? [ Note: The idea is that for one possessing the quality listed first, the quality listed second is redundant. The first quality is adequate without the second.]

मौनान्मूकः प्रवचनपटुः वाचको जल्पको वा
धृष्टः पार्श्वे वसति च तथा दूरतश्चाप्रगल्भः ।
क्षान्त्या भीरुर्यदि न सहते प्रायशो नाभिजात:
सेवाधर्म परमगहनो योगिनामप्यगम्यः ॥
Maunaanmookah pravachanapatuh vaachako jalpako vaa
Dhrushtah paarshwe vasati cha tathaa dooratashchaapragalbhah
Kshaantyaa bheeruryadi na sahate praayasho naabhijaatah
Sevaadharma paramagahano yoginaamapyagamyah 1.57

Here the poet lists the difficulty of serving the King or other wealthy person. If the person serving is silent he is considered dumb. If he is a good orator he is dubbed a chatterbox or a babbler. If he stays near he is termed impudent. If he stays away he is called a fool. If he forgives he is timid. If he cannot endure he does not come from a good family. The duties of a servant are such that even yogis may find difficult to approach.

आरंभगुर्वी क्षयिणी क्रमेण
लघ्वी पुरा दीर्घमुपैति पश्चात् ।
दिनस्य पूर्वार्धपरार्ध भिन्ना
छायेवे मौत्री खलसज्जनानाम् ॥
Aaarambha gurvee kshayinee kramena
Laghwee puraa deerghamupaiti pashchaat
Dinasya poorvaardha paraardha bhinnaa
Chchhaayeva maitree khalasajjanaanaam 1.59

In the forenoon the shadow of a person is long as the Sun rises. It gradually becomes shorter until the Sun is at the zenith. In the afternoon the shadow is short to begin with but becomes gradually longer until the Sun sets. The friendship of evil men, like the shadow of the forenoon, is long to start with but gradually fizzles out. On the other hand, the friendship of good men is like the shadow of the afternoon. It is short to start with and gradually becomes longer(closer) over a period.

मृगमीनसज्जनानां
तृणजलसंतोष विहित वृत्तीनां ।
लुब्धक धीवर पिशुना
निष्कारणमेव वैरिणो जगति ॥
Mrigameenasajjanaanaam trinajalasantoshavihitavritteenaam
Lubdhaka dheevara pishunaa nishkaaranameva vairino jagati 1.60

Deer, fish and good men live on grass, water and contentment respectively. But the hunter, the fisherman and the backbiter, respectively, are their enemies without any reason. This is the nature of evil men.

Praise of good men (sujanaprashamsa)
संपत्सु महतां चित्तं
भवत्युत्पलकोमलं ।
आपत्सु च महाशैल-
शिलासंघात कर्कशम् ॥
Sampatsu mahataam chittam bhavatyutpalakomalam
Aapatsu cha mahaashaila shilaasanghaata karkasham 1.61

In good times the heart of great men is soft as the petals of the lotus flower. In bad times, however, it becomes as hard as the rocks of the mountain.

वाञ्झा सज्जनसंगतौ परगुणे प्रीतिर्गुरौ नम्रता
विद्यायां व्यसनं स्वयोषिति रतिः लोकापवादात् भयम्।
भक्तिः शूलिनि शक्तिरात्मदमने संसर्गमुक्तिः खले-
ष्वेते येषु वसन्ति निर्मलगुणास्तेभ्यो महद्भ्यो नमः ॥
Vaajnjhaa sajjanasangatau paragune preetirgurau namrataa
Vidyaayaam vyasanam swayoshiti ratih lokaapavaadaat bhayam
Bhaktih shoolini shaktiraatmadamane samsargamuktih khale-
shwete yeshu vasanti nirmalagunaastebhyo mahadbhyo namah 1.62

salutations to those great men in whom reside such sterling qualities as the desire for friendship with the good, appreciation of good qualities in others, humility before the guru, thirst for knowledge, find conjugal pleasure in one’s own wife, fear of scandals about one’s character, devotion to Lord Shiva, power to control one’s mind and avoiding the company of evil men.

विपदिधैर्यमथाभ्युदये क्षमा
सदसि वाक्पटुता युधि विक्रमः ।
यशसिचाभिरुचिर्व्यसनं श्रुतौ
प्रकृतिसिद्धमिदं हि महात्मनाम् ॥
Vipadi dhairyamathaabhyudaye kshamaa
Sadasi vaakpatutaa yudhi vikramah
Yashasi chaabhiruchirvyasanam shrutau
Prakriti siddhamidam hi mahaatmanaam 1.63

Great men are naturally endowed with such qualities as courage in times of misfortune, patience when the times are good, oratory skills in an assembly, valour in battle, desire to earn fame and addiction to acquisition of knowledge.

संतप्तायसि संस्थितस्य पयसो नामापि न श्रूयते
मुक्ताकारतया तदेव नलिनीपत्रस्थितं राजते ।
मध्ये सागरशुक्तिमध्यपतितं तन्मौक्तिकं जायते
प्रायेणाधम मध्यमोत्तमगुनाः संसर्गतो देहिनाम् ॥
Santaptaayasi samsthitasya payaso naamaapi na shrooyate
Muktaakaaratayaa tadeva nalineepatrasthitam raajate
Madhye saagarashuktimadhyapatitam tanmouktikam jaayate
Praayenaadhama madhyamottamagunaah samsargato dehinaam 1.66

A drop of water in contact with hot iron evaporates in no time and is lost. The same drop of water on a lotus leaf shines taking the shape of a pearl. If the drop of water gets into a pearl oyster it becomes pearl itself. This analogy can be applied to humans. The qualities one acquires depend on the quality of the person with whom one associates. The three illustrations given relate to association with people with levels of low, medium and high quality

प्रीणाति यस्सुचरितैः पितरं स पुत्रो
यद्भर्तुरेव हितमिच्छति तत्कलत्रम् ।
तन्मित्रमापदि सुखे च समक्रियं यत्
एतत्त्रयं जगति पुण्यकृतो लभन्ते ॥
Preenaati yah sucharitaih pitaram sa putro
Yadbhartureva hitamichchhati tatkalatram
Tanmitramaapadi sukhe cha samakriyam yat
Etattrayam jagati punyakrito labhante 1.67

A son is one who, by his good conduct and character, pleases one’s father. A wife is one who always thinks of her husband’s good. A friend is one whose behaviour remains constant in misfortune and good fortune. Only people who have earned merit (punya) by doing good deeds will be blessed with such a son, wife and friend.

Praise of helping others (paropakaara stuti)
भवन्ति नम्रास्तरव फलोद्गमैः
नवांबुभिर्भूमिविलंबिनो घनाः ।
अनुद्धता सत्पुरुषाः समृद्धिभिः
स्वभाव एवैष परोपकारिणाम् ॥
Bhavanti namraastarava phalodgamaih
Navaambubhirbhoomivilambino ghanaah
Anuddhataah satpurushaah samriddhibhih
Swabhaava evaisha paropakaarinaam 1.70

Tress laden with fruits bend down (so that people may enjoy the fruits). Clouds laden with water come down (in the form of rain cooling the earth and watering plants and trees). In the same way noble men do not become conceited when fortune embraces them but use their wealth to help others. This is the nature of persons who are always eager to be of help to fellow humans.

पापान्निवारयति योजयते हिताय
गुह्यं निगूहति गुणान् प्रकटीकरोति ।
आपद्गतं च न जहाति ददाति काले
सन्मित्रलक्षणमिदं प्रवदन्ति सन्तः ॥
Paapaannivaarayati yojayate hitaaya
Guhyam nigoohati gunaan prakateekaroti
Aapadgatam cha na jahaati dadaati kaale
Sanmitralakshanamidam pravadanti santah 1.72

Saintly persons say that the mark of a true friend is preventing one from committing sinful actions, putting one on the path that will lead to good only, keeping one’s secrets, bringing out the innate qualities in one, not forsaking when one is in trouble and giving one whatever is required at the appropriate time.

एते सत्पुरुषाः परार्थघटकाः स्वार्थान् परित्यज्य ये
सामान्यास्तु परार्थमुद्यमभृतः स्वार्थाविरोधेन ये ।
तेऽमी मानुषराक्षसा: परहितं स्वार्थाय निघ्नन्ति ये
ये तु घ्नन्ति निरर्थकं परहितं ते के न जानीमहे ॥

Ete satpurushaah pararthaghatakaah swaarthan parityajya ye
Saamaanyaastu paraarthamudyamabhritah swaarthaavirodhena ye
Te’mee maanusha raakshasaah parahitam swaarthaaya nighnanti ye
Ye tu ghnanti nirarthakam parahitam te ke na jaaneemahe 1.74

Those are the greatest souls who, for the sake of helping others, forsake their own interests or comforts. Those are among the ordinary run of people who, without compromising their own interests, engage themselves in helping others. Those are verily demons in the shape of men who, for the sake of their selfish ends, put obstacles in the way of others and spoil their endeavours. What can be said about those who, without any purpose, come in the way of others’ welfare? We do not know.

क्षीरेणात्मगतोदकाय हि गुणाः दत्ताः पुरा तेऽखिलाः
क्षीरोत्तापमवेक्ष्य तेन पयसा स्वात्मा कृशानौ हुतः ।
गन्तुं पावकमुन्मनस्तदभवत् दृष्ट्वा तु मित्रापदं
युक्तं तेन जलेन शाम्यति सतां मैत्री पुनस्त्वीदृशी ॥
Ksheerenaatmagatodakaaya hi gunaah dattaah puraa te’khilaah
Ksheerottapamavekshya tena payasaa swaatmaa krishaanau hutah
Gantum paavakamunmanastadabhavat drishtwaa tu mitraapadam
Yuktam tena jalena shaamyati sataam maitree punastweedrishee 1.77

Milk gave all its qualities to water that was mixed with it. When milk was being heated on a fire water, unable to bear the suffering of its friend, sacrificed itself in the fire (i.e. water in the milk evaporated). Milk, in turn, finding water in trouble, itself comes up in the boiling pot to offer itself to the fire. But, mixed with water again, it settle downs to the previous level. The friendship of good people is like this. Each is prepared to sacrifice himself to save the other.

मनसि वचसि काये पुण्यपीयूषपूर्णाः
त्रिभुवनमुपकारश्रेणिभि: प्रीणयन्तः ।
परगुणपरमाणून् पर्वतीकृत्य नित्यं
निजहृदि विकसन्तः सन्ति सन्तः कियन्तः ॥
Manasi vachasi kaaye punyapeeyooshapoornaa-
stribhuvanamupakaarashrenibhih preenayantah
Paragunaparamaanoon parvateekritya nityam
Nijahridi vikasantah santi santah kiyantah 1.79

There are only a handful of good people in this world who, in thought, word and body (deed) are full of the sweetness of nectar. Such people please the three worlds by their continuous efforts for helping others. Their hearts fill with joy when they find even an iota of good in others and shower high praise on such good qualities.

Praise of courage and determination (dhairya-gunagaana)
रत्नैर्महाब्धेः तुतुषुर्न देवाः
न भेजिरे भीमविषेन भीतिम् ।
सुधाम् विना न प्रययुर्विरामं
न निश्चितार्थाद्विरमन्ति धीराः ॥
Ratnairmahaabdheh tutushurna devaah
Na bhejire bheemavishena bheetim
Sudhaam vinaa na prayayurviraamam
Na nishchitaarthaadwiramanti dheeraah 1.82

The Devas, while churning the milky ocean, got invaluable jewels but they were not content with that. Even poison from the churning could not deter them from their goal. They were determined not to stop until thery obtained the nectar. Those of strong will and determination never stop until they realize their objective.

क्वचित् भूमौ शय्या क्वचिदपि च पर्यङ्कशयनं
क्वचिच्छाकाहारः क्वचिदपि च शाल्यन्नरुचिः ।
क्वचित्कंथाधारी क्वचिदपि च दिव्यांबरधरो
मनस्वी कार्यार्थी न गणयति दु:खं न च सुखम् ॥
Kwachit bhoomau shayyaa kwachidapi cha paryankashayanam
Kwachichchhaakaahaarah kwachidapi cha shaalyodanaruchih
Kwachitkanthaadhaaree kwachidapi cha divyaambaradharo
Manaswee kaaryaarthee na ganayati dukham na cha sukham 1.83

Those of courage and determination may sleep on the hard earth or on a soft bed, may eat a meal of vegetables or enjoy the taste of fine rice, clothe themselves in tatters or put on fine clothes. These diametrically opposite states do not deter them from their objective. They are focused on their goal and do not care for pleasure or pain.

ऐश्वर्यस्य विभूषणं सुजनता शौर्यस्य वाक्संयमो
ज्ञानस्योपशमः श्रुतस्य विनयॊ वित्तस्य पात्रे व्ययः।
अक्रोधस्तपसः क्षमा प्रभवितुर्धर्मस्य निर्व्याजता
सर्वेषामपि सर्वकारणमिदं शीलं परं भूषणम् ॥
Aishwaryasya vibhhooshanam sujanataa shauryasya vaaksamyamo
Jnaanasyopashamah, shrutasya vinayo vittasya paatre vyayah
Akrodhastapasah Kshamaa prabhaviturdharmasya nirvyaajataa
Sarveshaamapi sarvakaaranamidam sheelam param bhooshanam 1.84

Affluence is adorned by goodness, valour by not boasting, knowledge by control of the senses, scholarship by modesty, wealth by giving to the deserving, tapas by the absence of anger, power by forgiveness and dharma by Truth. All good qualities of men are embellished by good conduct.

निन्दन्तु नीतिनिपुणा यदिवा स्तुवन्तु
लक्ष्मीः समाविशातु गच्छतु वा यथेष्टम् ।
अद्यैव वा मरणमस्तु युगान्तरे वा
न्यायात्पथात्प्रविचलन्ति पदं न धीराः ॥
Nindantu neetinipunaa yadi vaa stuvantu
Lakshmeeh samaavishatu gachchhatu vaa yatheshtam
Adyaiva vaa maranamastu yugaantare vaa
Nyaayaatpathah pravichalanti padam na dheeraah 1.85

Those of courage and determination will not ever deviate from the righteous path whether knowers of codes of conduct (neeti nipunaah) praise or blame them , whether Goddess Lakshmi (wealth) comes to them or leaves them, whether death comes immediately or after ages.

.

On Fate (Destiny) (bhaagya, daiva)
भग्नाशस्य करण्डपिण्डिततनोः म्लानेन्द्रियस्य क्षुधा
कृत्वाखुर्विवरं स्वयं निपतितो नक्तं मुखे भोगिनः ।
तृप्तस्तत्पिशितेन सत्वरमसौ तेनैव यातः पथा
लोकाः पश्यत दैवमेव हि नृणाम् वृद्धौ क्षये कारणम् ॥
Bhagnaashasya karandapinditatanoh mlaanendriyasya kshudhaa
Kritwaakhurvivaram swayam nipatito naktam mukhe bhoginah
Triptastatpishitena satwaramasau tenaiva yaata pathaa
Lokaah pashyata daivameva hi nrinaam vriddhau kshaye kaaranam 1.86

A snake, caught by a snake charmer, was put in a round casket made of cane. It was lying inside the casket coiled and afflicted by hunger. All its senses had become weak and it had no hope of getting out. Then, during the night, a rat made a whole in the casket and got into it. The snake caught the rat and satisfied its hunger. It then escaped through the very hole the rat had made. It is clear that only fate (destiny) is behind the fortunes or misfortunes of men.

छिन्नोऽपि रोहति तरुः
क्षीणोप्युपचीयते पुनश्चन्द्र: ।
इति विमृशन्तस्सन्तः
सन्तप्यन्ते न विलुप्ता लोके ॥
Chchhinno’pi rohati taruh ksheeno’pyupacheeyate punashchandrah
Iti vimrishantah santah santapyante na viluptaa loke 1.87

A tree sprouts again after it is cut, the moon waxes again after waning. Contemplating thus and consoling themseleve that is their fate, good men do not grieve in times of misfortune.

नेता यस्य बृहस्पतिः प्रहरणं वज्रं सुराः सैनिकाः
स्वर्गो दुर्गमनुग्रहः किल हरेरैरावतो वारणः।
इत्यैश्वर्यबलान्वितोऽपि बलिभिर्भग्नः परैः संगरे
तद्व्यक्तं वरमेव दैवशरणं धिक् धिक् वृथा पौरुषम् ॥
Netaa yasya brihaspatih praharanam vajram suraah sainikaah
Swargo durgamanugrahah kila harerairaavato vaaranah
Ityaishwaryabalaanwito’pi balibhirbhagnah paraih sangare
Tadvyaktam varameva daivasharanam dhigdhigvrithaa paurusham 1.88

Indra has Brihaspati as his guru, vajraayudha as his weapon, , devas as his army, Heaven as his fort and Airawata as his elephant. He has also the blessings of Hari. In spite of all this he is defeated by the powerful asuras. It is clear that it is better to take refuge in fate (daivam). Fie on human effort.

खर्वाटो दिवसेश्वरस्य किरणैर्संतापिते मस्तके
गच्छन् देशमनातपं द्रुतगतिस्तालस्य मूलं गतः ।
तत्राप्यस्य महाफलेन पतता भग्नं सशब्दं शिरः
प्रायो गच्छति यत्र दैवहतकस्तत्रैव यान्त्यापदः ॥
Kharvaato divaseshwarasya kiranaih santaapite mastake
Gachchhan deshamanaatapam drutagatistalasya moolam gatah
Tatraapyasya mahaaphalena patataa bhagnam sashabdam shirah
Praayo gachchhati yatra daiva hatakah tatraiva yaantyaapadah 1.89

A wayfarer, his bald head exposed to the heat of the sun, hastened to take shelter under a palmyrah tree. No sooner had he come under the shade of the tree, his head was broken with a great sound by the big fruit falling from the tree. Wherever an ill-fated person goes misfortune follows him.

karma
ब्रह्मा येन कुलालवन्नियमितो ब्रह्माण्ड भाण्डोदरे
विष्णुर्येन दशावतार गहने क्षिप्तो महासंकटे ।
रुद्रो येन कपालपाणिपुटके भिक्षाटनं सेवते
सूर्यॊ भ्राम्यति नित्यमेव गगने तस्मै नमः कर्मणे ॥
Bhrahmaa yena kulaalavanniyamito brahmaanda bhaandodare
Vishnuryena dashaavataara gahane kshipto mahaa sankate
Rudro yena kapaalapaaniputake bhikshaatanam sevate
Sooryo bhraamyati nityameva gagane tasmai namah karmane 1.94

Salutations to karma which has made Brahma a potter (creator) in the universe, which has put Vishnu in difficult circumstances through His ten incarnations, which has made Shiva beg for alms with a container made of the human skull and at the bidding of which the Sun wanders in the sky every day.

नैवाकृतिर्फलति नैव कुलं न शीलं
विद्यापि नैव न च यत्नकृतानि सेवा ।
भाग्यानि पूर्वतपसा खलु सञ्चितानि
काले फलन्ति पुरुषस्य यथैव वृक्षाः ॥
Naivaakrutih phalati naiva kulam na sheelam
Vidyaapi naiva na cha yatnakritaani seva
Bhaagyaani poorva tapasaa khalu sanchitaani
Kaale phalanti purushasya yathaiva Vrikshaah 1.95

An attractive form, noble lineage, good conduct, scholarship, efforts made to serve kings or wealthy persons – all these are of no consequence. Only the merit earned and accumulated by the meritorious deeds (tapas) of the previous births will yield the desired results like trees which yield their fruits at the appropriate time.

वने रणे शत्रुजलाग्निमध्ये
महार्णवे पर्वतमस्तके वा ।
सुप्तं प्रमत्तं विषमस्थितं वा
रक्षन्ति पुण्यानि पुरा कृतानि ॥
Vane rane shatru jalaagnimadhye, mahaarnave parvatamastake vaa
Suptam pramattam vishamasthitam vaa rakshanti punaayni puraakritaani

Only the fruits of meritorious acts done in the past can save a person lost in a forest, fighting a battle, facing enemies, engulfed by water or fire, in the vast ocean or on the mountain top while sleeping, inadvertent or facing difficult situations.

भीमं वनं भवति यस्य पुरं प्रधानं
सर्वो जनस्स्वजनतामुपयान्ति तस्य ।
कृत्स्ना च भूर्भवति सन्निधिरत्नपूर्णा
यस्यास्ति पूर्वसुकृतं विपुलं नरस्य ॥
Bheemam vanam bhavati yasya puram pradhaanam
Sarvo janah swajanataamupayaati tasya
Kritsnaa cha bhoorbhavati sannidhiratnapoorna
Yasyaasti poorvasukritam vipulam narasya 1.100

A dense forest becomes the capital city, all people become friends and the whole world becomes full of valuable treasures for the one who has accumulated in previous births fruits of meritorious actions (punya).

को लाभो गुणिसंगमः किमसुखं प्राज्ञेतरैर्संगतिः
का हानिर्समयच्युतिः निपुणता का धर्मतत्त्वे रतिः ।
कः शूरो विजितेन्द्रियः प्रियतमाकाऽनुव्रता किं धनं
विद्या किं सुखमप्रवासगमनं राज्यं किमाज्ञाफलम् ॥
Ko laabho gunisangamah kimasukham praajnetaraih sangatih
Kaa haanih samayachyutih nipunataa kaa dharmatattve ratih
Kah shooro vijitendriyah priyatamaa kaa’nuvrataa kim dhanam
Vidyaa kim sukhamapravaasagamanam raajyam kimaajnaaphalam 1.102

What is gain? Company of good people. What is pain? Company of fools. What is loss? Wastage of time. What is skill? Passion for the principles of dharama. Who is valiant? One who has conquered his senses. Who is dear to the husband? A wife who follows in the footsteps of the husband. What is wealth? Learning. What is happiness? Not being in a far away land. What is kingdom? The power to command people.

कान्ताकटाक्षविशिखा न दहन्ति यस्य
चित्तं न निर्दहति कोपकृशानुतापः ।
कर्षन्ति भूरिविषयाश्च न लोभपाशैः
लोकत्रयं जयति कृत्स्नमिदं स धीरः ॥

Kaantaa kataaksha vishikhaa na dahanti yasya
Chittam na nirdahati kopakrishaanutaapah
Karshanti bhoorivishayaashcha na lobhapaashaih
Lokatrayam jayati kritsnamidam sa dheerah 1.106

One who does not burn in the fire of passion generated by the eye-arrows of beautiful women, who is not subjected to the heat of anger, whom the pleasures of the senses do not drag with ropes of greed – that person of adamantine heart conquers all the three worlds.

QUOTES FROM CHANAKYA NEETI

Quotations from Chanakya Niti

Chanakya, also known as Kautilya and Vishnugupata, was an adviser and a prime minister to Emperor Chandragupta of the Maurya dynasty. He was a professor at Takshashila University and is widely believed to be instrumental in the creation of the Mauryan Empire after bringing about the downfall of the Nanda dynasty.

Two books are attributed to Chanakya: Arthashastra and Nitishastra which is also known as Chanakya Niti. The Arthashastra discusses monetary and fiscal policies, welfare, international relations and war strategies in detail. Nitishastra is a treatise on the ideal way of life; it shows Chanakya’s in-depth study of the Indian way of life.

Chanakya is known as “The Indian Machiavelli” in the Western world.
Given below is a selection of verses from Chanakya Niti. The language is so simple and easy to follow that many of these verses find a place in Sanskrit primers. They are easy to commit to memory by students and contain a wealth of native wisdom and moral and practical advice. Though these were written in the context of the society and the times in which Chanakya lived, many of these codes of conduct are of universal application.
 
विद्वत्वं च नृपत्वं च नैव तुल्यं कदाचन ।
स्वदेशे पूज्यते राजा विद्वान् सर्वत्र पूज्यते ॥
 
Vidwatwam cha nripatwam cha naiva tulyam kadaachana
Swadeshe poojyate raajaa vidwaan sarvatra poojyate
 
Scholarship and kingship can never be equated. A king is respected in his own kingdom whereas a scholar is respected everywhere.

पण्डिते च गुणास्सर्वे मूर्खे दोषा हि केवलं ।
तस्मात् मूर्खसहस्रेभ्य: प्राज्ञ एको विशिष्यते ॥

Pandite cha gunaah sarve moorkhe doshaah hi kevalam
Tasmaat moorkhasahasrebhyah praajna eko vishishyate
 
A wise man has all qualities in him, a fool has only faults. Therefore a single wise person is better than a thousand fools.

 
परोक्षे कार्यहंतारं प्रत्यक्षे प्रियवादिनं ।
वर्जयेत्तादृशं मित्रं विषकुंभं पयोमुखम् ॥
 
Parokshe kaaryhantaaram pratyakshe priyavaadinam
Varjayettaadrisham mitram vishakumbham payomukham

A friend whose talk is sweet in person but who spoils the job when out of sight should be abandoned like a pot of poison topped with milk.

 
रूपयौवनसंपन्ना विशालकुलसंभवाः ।
विद्याहीना न शोभन्ते निर्गन्धा इव किंशुका: ॥
 
Roopayauvanasampanna vishaalakulasambhavaah
Vidyaaheenaa na shobhante nirgandhaa iva kimshukaah
 
Those who are goodlooking, young and born in a good family do not shine if they are devoid of learning, just as the flowers of the kimshuka tree do not shine (i.e. attract people) because they are without fragrance.

 
ताराणां भूषणं चन्द्रो नारीणाम् भूषणं पतिः ।
प्रिथिव्या भूषणं राजा विद्या सर्वस्य भूषणम् ॥
 
Taaraanam bhooshanam chandro naareenaam bhooshanam patih
Prithivyaa bhooshanam raajaa vidyaa sarvasya bhooshanam
 
The moon is the adornment of the stars; husband is the adornment of woman; the king is the adornment of the earth (country); learning is the adorment of all.
 

कोऽर्थः पुत्रेण जातेन यो न विद्वान् न भक्तिमान् ।
कानेन चक्षुषा किं वा चक्षु: पीडैव केवलम् ॥
 
Ko’rthah putrena jaatena yo na vidwaan na bhaktimaan
Kaanena chakshushaa kim vaa chakshuh peedaiva kevalam
 
What is the purpose of having a son who is neither learned nor devoted to God? It is useless to have a blind eye which will only result in eye-ache.
 
 
लालयेत् पंच वर्षाणि दश वर्षाणि ताडयेत् ।
प्राप्ते तु षोडशे वर्षे पुत्रं मित्रवदाचरेत् ॥
 
Laalayet pancha varshaani dasha varshaani taadayet
Praapte tu shodashe varshe putram mitravadaacharet
 
For five years one’s son should be pampered, the next ten years he should be beaten (meaning he must be disciplined) and once he turns sixteen he should be treated as a friend.

 
एकेनापि सुवृक्षेण पुष्पितेन सुगन्धिना ।
वासितं स्यात् वनं सर्वं सुपुतेण कुलं तथा ॥
 
Ekenaapi suvrikshena pushpitena sugandhinaa
Vaasitam syaat vanam sarvam suputrena kulam tathaa
 
Even as a single good tree with fragrant flowers can spread the fragrance in the entire forest, so also the entire family (or clan) shines by a son possessing good qualities.
 
 
एकेन शुष्कवृक्षेण दह्यमानेन वह्निना ।
दह्यते हि वनं सर्वं कुपुत्रेण कुलं तथा ॥
 
Ekena shushka vrikshena dahyamaanena vahninaa
Dahyate hi vanam sarvam kuputrena kulam tathaa
 
Even as a single dry tree on fire will destroy the whole forest, so also the entire family (or clan) will be destroyed by a son of evil character or tendencies.

 
निर्गुणेष्वपि सत्त्वेषु दयां कुर्वन्ति साधवः ।
न हि संहरते ज्योत्स्नां चन्द्रश्चण्डालवेश्मनि ॥
 
Nirguneshwapi sattweshu dayaam kurvanti saadhavah
Na hi samharate jyotsnaam chandrashchandaalaveshmani
 
Good men show kindness even to those who do not possess good qualities just as the Moon does not withhold her light from the hut of a chandala

 
विद्या मित्रं प्रवासेषु माता मित्रं गृहेषु च ।
व्याधितस्यौषधं मित्रं धर्मो मित्रं मृतस्य च ॥
 
Vidyaa mitram pravaaseshu maataa mitram griheshu cha
Vyaadhitasyaushadham mitram dharmo mitram mritasya cha

For one in an alien land learning is friend, for one staying at home mother is friend , for one suffering from illness medicine is friend and for the departed souls dharma is friend.
 
 
न कश्चित् कस्यचिन्मित्रं न कश्चित् कस्यचिद्रिपुः ।
व्यवहारेण जायन्ते मित्राणि रिपवस्तथा ॥
 
Na kashchit kasyachinmitram na kashchit kasyachidripuh
Vyavahaarena jaayante mitraani ripavastathaa
 
No one is a friend per se and no one is an enemy per se; friends and enemies are created out of personal dealings and behaviour.

 
दुर्जन: प्रियवादी च नैतद्विश्वासकारणं ।
मधु तिष्ठति जिह्वाग्रे हृदये तु हलाहलम् ॥
 
Durjanah priyavaadee cha naitadwishwaasakaaranam
Madhu tishthhati jihwaagre hridaye tu halaahalam
 
An evil person but his talk is pleasing to the ears of the recipient- these two things cannot go together. No one can give credence to this. It is like honey on the tongue with deadly poison in the heart.

 
दुर्जनः परिहर्तव्यो विद्ययाऽलंकृतोऽपि सन् ।
मणिना भूषितस्सर्पः किमसौ न भयंकर: ॥
 
Durjanah parihartavyo vidyayaa’lamkrito’pi san
Maninaa bhooshitah sarpah kimasu na bhayamkarah
 
An evil person, though adorned with learning, is to be avoided. Is not the snake adorned with a jewel in its hood not frightening?
 
 
सर्प क्रूरः खल क्रूरः सर्पात् क्रूरतर खलः।
मन्त्रौषधिवशः सर्पः खलः केन निवार्यते ॥
 
Sarpah kroorah khalah kroorah sarpaat krooratarah khalah
Mantraushadhivashah sarpah khalah kena nivaaryate
 
The sepent is cruel, the evil person is cruel; the evil person is more cruel than the serpent. The serpent can be controlled by mantra and medicines. By what means can the evil person be prevented from committing evil acts?

 
धनानि जीवितश्चैव परार्थे प्राज्ञ उत्सृजेत्
सन्निमित्ते वरं त्यागो विनाशे नियते सति
 
Dhanaani jeevitashchaiva paraarthe praajna utsrijet
Sannimitte varam tyaago vinaashe niyate sati
 
Wise men should given up wealth and even life for the sake of others. Wealth and life are sure to be lost by their very nature. Therefore sacrificing these for a good cause is better than losing them wihout benefit to anyone.

 
आयुष क्षण एकोऽपि न लभ्य: स्वर्णकोटिभि: ।
स चेन्निरर्थकं नीतः का नु हानिस्ततोधिका? ॥
 
Aayushah kshana ekopi na labhyah swarnakotibhih
Sa chennirarthakam neetah kaanu haanistato’dhikaa
 
Even a minute of one’s life cannot be obtained even for a million gold coins. If it is not used puposefully what loss is bigger than that?

 
शरीरस्य गुणानां च दूरमत्यन्तमन्तरम् ।
शरीरं क्षणविध्वंसि कल्पान्तस्थायिनो गुणाः ॥
 
Shareerasya gunaanaam cha dooramatyantamantaram
Shareeram kshanavidhwamsi kalpaantasthaayino gunaah
 
There is considerable distance betwwen the body and good qualities. The body can die any minute but the good qualities stay for many many ages (Persons are remembered for their good qualities even after death, not for their bodily features).

 
धनिक: श्रोत्रियो राजा नदी वैद्यश्च पंचमः ।
पंच यत्र न विद्यन्ते तत्र वासं न कारयेत् ॥
 
Dhanikah shrotriyo raajaa nadee vaidyshcha panchamah
Pancha yatra na vidyante tatra vaasam na kaarayet
 
One should not take up residence in a place where these five are absent – rich person, a brahman learned in the vedas, king, river and doctor.

 
मूर्खा: यत्र न पूज्यन्ते धान्यं यत्र सुसंचितं ।
दंपत्योः कलहो नास्ति तत्र श्री स्वयमागता॥
 
Moorkhaah yatra na poojyante dhaanyam yatra susanchitam
Dampatyoh kalaho naasti tatra shreeh swayamaagataa
 
Where fools are not respected, food grains are well-stocked and there is no quarrel between husband and wife, there Goddess Lakshmi comes uninvited.

 
अस्ति पुत्रो वशे यस्य भृत्यो भार्या तथैव च।
अभावेऽप्यस्ति सन्तोषः स्वर्गस्थोऽसौ महीतले ॥
 
Asti putro vashe yasya bhrityo bhaaryaa tathaiva cha
Abhaave’pyatisantoshah swargastho’sau maheetale
 
A person whose son, servant and wife are under his control and who is content even in times of scarcity, that person is in Heaven on earth.

 
माता यस्य गृहे नास्ति भार्याचाप्रियवादिनी ।
अरण्यं तेन गन्तव्यं यथारण्यं तथा गृहम् ॥
 
Maataa yasya grihe naasti bhaaryaa chaapriyavaadinee
Aranyam tena gantavyam yathaaranyam tathaa griham
 
A person whose mother is not in his house and his wife always offends him by her speech, should better take to the forest. For him home is also like a forest.

 
कोकिलानां स्वरो रूपं नारी रूपं पतिव्रतं ।
विद्या रूपं कुरूपाणां क्षमा रूपं तपस्विनाम् ॥
 
Kokilaanaam swaro roopam naaree roopam pativratam
Vidyaa roopam kuroopaanaam kshamaa roopam tapaswinaam
 
The cuckoo’s beauty is its melody, a woman’s beauty is pativratam, an ugly person’s beauty is learning and a tapaswi’s ( one who does tapas) beauty is forgiveness.

 
गुरुरग्निर्द्विजातीनां वर्णानां ब्राह्मणो गुरुः ।
पतिरेको गुरुस्त्रीणां सर्वस्याभ्यागतो गुरुः
 
Gururagnirdwijaateenaam varnaanaam braahmano guruh
Patireko guruh streenaam sarvasyaabhyaagato guruh
 
For the Brahmins, Agni (Fire) is guru, for the other varnas (kshatriya, vysya and Sudra) braahmana is guru, for women husband is guru and the guest (Atithi) is guru for everyone.

 
स जीवति गुणा यस्य धर्मो यस्य स जीवति ।
गुणधर्मविहीनस्य जीवनं निष्प्रयोजनम् ॥
 
Sa jeevati gunaa yasya dharmo yasya sa jeevati
Gunadharmaviheenasya jeevanam nishprayojanam
 
He lives who has good qualities. He also lives who has dharma. The life of one who has neither good qualities nor dharma is without any purpose.

 
दुर्लभं प्राकृतं मित्रं दुर्लभ: क्षेमकृत् सुतः ।
दुर्लभा सदृशी भार्या दुर्लभः स्वजन प्रियः ॥
 
Durlabham praakritam mitram durlabhah kshemakrit sutah
Durlabhaa sadrishee bhaaryaa durlabhah swajanah priyah
 
Rare indeed is a natural friend. A son who thinks of the welfare of the parents is difficult to get. A wife who is like her husband in every way (i.e. in thought, word and deed) is hard to find. A relative who is also a loved one is very rare.

 
साधूनां दर्शनं पुण्यं तीर्थभूता हि साधवः।
तीर्थं फलति कालेन सद्यः साधुसमागमः||
 
Saadhoonaam darshanam punyam teerthabootaah hi saadhavah
Teertham phalati kaalena sadyah saadhusamaagamah
 
The sight of saintly persons is punyam. Such saintly persons are like sacred rivers or lakes (teerthabhootaah) which absolve one’s sins. The holy waters (Teerthas) give results in their own time. The meeting with saintly persons gives instant results.

 
सत्संगः केशवे भक्तिः गंगांभसि निमज्जनं ।
असारे खलु संसारे त्रीणि सारानि भावयेत् ॥
 
Satsangah keshave bhaktirgangaambhasi nimajjanam
Asaare khalu samsaare treeni saaraani bhaavayet
 
In this evanescent world consider only these three things as of any substance – company of good people, devotion to Keshava (Krishna or Vishnu) and bathing in the waters of the Ganga.

 
शान्तितुल्यं तपो नास्ति न संतोषात् परं सुखं ।
न तृष्णाया परो व्याधिर्न च धर्मो दया समः ॥
 
Shaantitulyam tapo naasti na santoshaat param sukham
Na trishnaayaah paro vyaadhirna cha dharmo dayaa samah
 
No penance is equal to peace of mind (tranquility); no happiness is equal to contentment; no illness is equal to greed and no dharma is equal to kindness.

 
अन्नदाता भयत्राता विद्यादाता तथैव च। ।
जनिता चोपनेता च पंचैते पितरः स्मृताः॥
 
Annadaataa bhayatraataa vidyaadaataa tathaiva cha
Janitaa chopanethaa cha panchaite pitarah smritaah
 
The following five are considered fathers – one who gives food, one who saves from fear, one who imparts learning, one who is the cause of birth and one who performs the upanayana (and gives the Gayatri mantra)

 
आदौ माता गुरोः पत्नी ब्राह्मणी राजपत्निका ।
धेनुर्धात्री तथा पृथ्वी सप्तैताः मातरः स्मृताः॥
 
Aadau maataa guroh patnee braahmanee raajapatnikaa
Dhenurdhaatree tathaa prithwee saptaitaah maatarah smritaah
 
The following seven are considered mothers – One who has given birth, wife of the guru, a brahmana’s wife, wife of the king, the cow, dhatree (one who brings up, other than the mother) and prithwee ( the Earth).

 
आपदाम् कथितः पन्था इन्द्रियाणामसंयमः ।
तज्जय: संपदाम् मार्गो येनेष्टम् तेन गम्यताम् ॥
 
Aapadaam kathitah panthaa indriyaanaamasamyamah
Tajjayah sampadaam maargo yeneshtam tena gamyataam
 
Not controlling the senses is the road to adversity and sorrow. Conquering the senses is the road to prosperity and happiness. Choose either of the two which you like; that is your decision.

 
समुद्रावरणा भूमिः प्राकारावरणं गृहं।
नरेन्द्रावरणो देशः चरित्रावरणा स्त्रियः॥
 
Samudraavaranaa bhoomih praakaaraavaranam griham
Narendraavarano deshah charitraavaranaa striyah
 
The earth is having the seas as her covering (protection) , the house has the compound as covering, the king has the country as covering and women have chastity as covering.

 
परोपकरणं येषां जागर्ति हृदये सतां।
नश्यन्ति विपदस्तेषां सम्पद: स्युः पदे पदे ॥
 
Paropakaranam yeshaam jaagarti hridaye sataam
Nashyanti vipadasteshaam sampadah syuh pade pade
 
For those noble souls in whose heart arise the thoughts of helping others there is no adversity and sorrow; prosperity and happiness embrace them at every step.

 
नास्ति विद्यासमं चक्षुर्नास्ति सत्यसमं तपः।
नास्ति रागसमं दु:खं नास्ति त्यागसमं सुखं॥
 
Nasti vidyaasamam chakshurnaasti satyasamam tapah
Naasti raagasamam dukham naasti tyaagasamam sukham
 
There is no eye(vision) equal to learning; there is no tapas (penance) equal to truth; there is no sorrow equal to desire or attachment; there is no happiness equal to renunciation (or sacrifice).

 
पादपानां भयं वातात् पद्मानाम् शिशिराद्भयं।
पर्वतानां भयं वज्रात् साधूनां दुर्जनाद्भयं ॥
 
Paadapaanaam bhayam vaataat padmaanaam shishiraadbhayam
Parvataanaam bhayam vajraat saadhoonaam durjanaadbhayam
 
For the trees there is fear from strong winds; for the lotus there is fear from winter; for the mountains there is fear from Vajrayudha of Indra; for the good and noble souls there is fear from the evil ones.

 
सुभिक्षं कृषके नित्यं नित्यं सुखमरोगिनः।
भार्या भर्तु: प्रिया यस्य तस्य नित्योत्सवं गृहं ॥
 
Subhiksham krishake nityam nityam sukhamaroginah
Bhaaryaa bhartuh priyaa yasya tasya nityotsavam griham
 
There is always plenty for the tiller of the soil. There is always happiness for the healthy (free from disease) one. It is daily celebration in the home of one who has a loving wife.

 
प्रथमे नार्जिता विद्या द्वितीये नार्जितं धनं।
तृतीये नार्जितं पुण्यं चतुर्थे किं करिष्यति॥
 
Prathame naarjitaa vidyaa dwiteeye naarjitam dhanam
Triteeye naarjitam punyam chaturthe kim karishyati
 
During the first (twenty years of life) no learning was earned. In the second (twenty years of life) no wealth was earned. In the third (twenty years of life) no merit (punyam) was earned. What will one earn in the fourth( twenty years of life)?

 
क्षमया दयया प्रेम्णा सूनृतेनार्जवेन च।
वशीकुर्याज्जगत्सर्वं विनयेन च सेवया ॥
 
Kshamayaa dayayaa premnaa soonritenaarjavena cha
Vasheekuryaajjagatsarvam vinayena cha sevayaa
 
One can bring the whole world under one’s influence (power) by such sterling qualities as patience (or forgiveness), kindness, love, truth, straightforwardness, humility and service

 
अजरामरवत् प्राज्ञो विद्यामर्थम् च चिन्तयेत्।
गृहीत इव केशेषु मृत्युना धर्ममाचरेत् ॥
 
Ajaraamaravat praajno vidyaamartham cha chintayet
Griheeta iva kesheshu mrityunaa dharmamaacharet
 
On should think of acquiring learning and wealth as if one will never age or die (meaning that one should engage one self in learning and earning wealth throughout one’s life). One should do dharma as if Death has caught hold of one’s locks of hair (Since death can claim one any moment, one should hasten to do acts of dharma before one dies.)

 
अनेकसंशयोच्छेदि परोक्षार्थस्य दर्शकं।
सर्वस्य लोचनं शास्त्रं यस्य नास्त्यंध एव सः ॥
 
Anekasamshayochchhedi parokshaarthasya darshakam
Sarvasya lochanam shaastram yasya naastyandha eva sah
 
The Shaastras are like eyes for every one. They clear the many doubts that arise in one’s mind. They bring us knowledge of things which cannot be known by our senses. One who has not studied the shaastras is indeed a blind person.

 
मनस्यन्यत् वचस्यन्यत् कर्मण्यन्यत् दुरात्मनां ।
मनस्येकं वचस्येकं कर्मण्येकं महात्मनाम् ॥
 
Manasyanyat vachasyanyat karmanyanyat duraatmanaam
Manasyekam vachasyekam karmanyekam mahaatmanaam
 
Men of evil mind have one thing in the mind, another thing in their speech and some thing different in their actions. Men of great mind have the same thing in their thought, word and deed, meaning what they think they talk about and what they talk about they translate into action.

 
प्रविचार्योत्तरं देयं सहसा न वदेत् क्वचित्।
शत्रोरपि गुणा ग्राह्याः दोषास्त्याज्या गुरोरपि॥
 
Pravichaaryottaram deyam sahasaa na vadet kwachit
Shatrorapi gunaah graahyaah Doshaastyaajyaa gurorapi
 
Before one gives an answer one should carefully think about it; one should not talk something on impulse. One should accept good qualities even from an enemy. One should reject bad qualities even of the guru.

 
त्यज दुर्जनसंसर्गं भज साधुसमागमं।
कुरुपुण्यमहोरात्रं स्मर नित्यमनित्यताम् ॥
 
Tyaja durjanasamsargam bhaja saadhusamaagamam
Kurupunyamahoraatram smara nityamanityataam
 
Abandon the company of evil men, associate with good and noble men, do good meritorious deeds day and night and always think of the evanescence of the world.

 
दृष्टिपूतं न्येसेत्पादं वस्त्रपूतं जलं पिबेत्।
सत्यपूतम् वदेद्वाचं मनःपूतं समाचरेत् ॥
 
Drishtipootam nyaset paadam vastrapootam jalam pibet
Satyapootaam vadet vaaacham manahpootam samaacharet
 
Step on a place after seeing that it is clean, drink water after filtering it through a piece of cloth, utter your words purified by truth, do such deeds which, your conscience says, are good.

 
सत्येन धार्यते पृथ्वी सत्येन तपते रविः।
सत्येन वायवो वान्ति सर्वं सत्ये प्रतिष्ठितम् ॥
 
Satyena dhaaryate prithvee satyena tapate ravih
Satyena vaayavo vaanti sarvam satye pratishthhitam
 
The earth is supported by Truth; by Truth the Sun radiates heat; by Truth the air blows; everything is established in Truth.

 
कोऽतिभारः समर्थानां किं दूरे व्यवसायिनां।
को विदेशः सविद्यानाम् कः परः प्रियवादिनाम् ||
 
Ko’tibhaarah samarthaanaam kim doore vyavasaayinaam
Ko videshah savidyaanaam kah parah priyavaadinaam
 
For the competent what is great brden? What is far away for those who work hard? Which is a foreign country for the learned? Who is not one’s own for one whose speech is laced with love?

 
शोकस्थानसस्राणि भयस्थानशतानि च ।
दिवसे दिवसे मूढमाविशन्ति न पण्डितम् ॥
 
Shokasthaanasahasraani bhayasthaanashataani cha
Divase divase moodhhamaavishanti na panditam
 
For the fool there are thousands of sources of sorrow and hundreds of sources of fear every day, not so for the wise and the learned.

 
दरिद्रता धीरतया विराजते कुरूपता शीलतया विराजते।
कुभोजनं उष्णतया विराजते कुवस्त्रता शुभ्रतया विराजते ॥
 
daridrataa dheeratayaa viraajate kuroopataa sheelatayaa viraajate
Kubhojanam choshnatayaa viraajate kuvastrataa shubhratayaa viraajate
 
Poverty shines by courage, ugliness shines by good conduct, bad food shines by being hot and bad clothes shine by being clean.

 
यथा चतुर्भिः कनकं परीक्ष्यते निकर्षणछेदनतापताडनैः ।
तथा चतुर्भिः पुरुषः परीक्ष्यते श्रुतेन शीलेन कुलेन कर्मणा॥
 
Yathaa chaturbhih kanakam pareekshyate n ikarshanachchhedanataapataadanaih
Tathaa chaturbhih purushah pareekshyate shrutena sheelena kulena karmanaa
 
Just as the purity of gold is tested by four means, namely, rubbing, cutting, burning and beating so also man is tested by four means, namely, learning, conduct, pedigree and action

 
अनभ्यासे विषं विद्या अजीर्णे भोजनं विषं ।
विषं गॊष्ठी दरिद्रस्य भोजनान्ते जलं विषं ॥
 
Anabhyaase visham vidyaa ajeerne bhojanam visham
Visham goshthhee daridrasya bhojanante jalam visham
 
With no practice learning becomes poison; with indigestion food becomes poison; for the poor an assembly (of the rich) is poison; water immediately after eating is poison.

 
मातृवत्परदारेषु परद्रव्येषु लोष्टवत्।
आत्मवत्सर्वभूतेषु यः पश्यति स पण्डितः॥
 
Matrivatparadaareshu paradraqvyeshu loshtavat
Aatmavatsarvabhooteshu yah pashyati sa panditah
 
One who looks upon other men’s wives as mother, other people’s wealth as a lump of clay and all living beings as the Self is the real Pandita (wise and learned person )

 
दानेन पाणिर्नतुकंकणेन स्नानेन शुद्धिर्नतु चन्दनेन।
मानेन तृप्तिर्नतुभोजनेन ज्ञानेन मुक्तिर्नतु मण्डनेन ॥
 
Daanena paanirna tu kankanena snaanena shuddhirna tu chandanena
Maanena triptirna tu bhojanena jnaanena muktirna tu mandanena
 
The hand shines by giving, not by bangles. One becomes clean by bathing, not by smearing sandalwood paste. One gets satisfaction from respect of others, not by sumptuous food. Liberation comes from knowledge of the Truth, not by adornments.

 
कः कालः कानि मित्राणि को देशः कौ व्ययागमौ।
कस्याहं का च मे शक्तिरिति चिन्त्यं मुहुर्मुहु: ॥
 
Kah kaalah kaani mitraani ko deshah kau vyayaagamau
Kasyaaham kaa cha me shaktiriti chintyam muhurmuhuh
 
How is the time? Who are the friends? Which is the kingdom (or country)? What are the expenses and income? Where do I belong? What is my strength? One should frequently ponder on all these matters.

 
अत्यन्तकोपः कटुका च वाणी दरिद्रता च स्वजनेषु वैरं ।
नीचप्रसङ्ग: कुलहीनसेवा चिह्नानि देहे नरकस्थितानाम् ॥
 
Atyanta kopah katukaa cha vaanee daridrataa cha swajaneshu vairam
Neechaprasangah kulaheenasevaa chihnaani dehe narakasthitaanaam
 
Extreme of anger, harsh speech, poverty, enmity with relatives, association with evil men, service of people from not so good a family – these are the marks of people living in Hell

 
धनधान्यप्रयोगेषु विद्यासंग्रहणेषु च ।
आहारे व्यवहारे च त्यक्तलज्ज सुखी भवेत् ॥
 
Dhanadhaanyaprayogeshu vidyaasamgrahaneshu cha
Aahaare vyavahaare cha tyaktalajjah sukhee bhavet
 
Those who do not feel shy in the way they use wealth and food, in acquiring learning, in food and in personal relations, will always be happy.

 
गुणैरुत्तमतां याति नोच्चैरासनमास्थितः।
प्रासादशिखरस्थोऽपि काक: किं गरुडायते ?॥
 
Gunairuttamataam yaati nochchairaasanamaasthitah
Praasaadashikharastho’pi kaakah kim garudaayate
 
One attains a high status only by his good qualities not by sitting on a high seat. Will the crow ever become the kite even though it is sitting on a high mansion?

 
प्रियवाक्यप्रदानेन सर्वे तुष्यन्ति जन्तवः ।
तस्मात्तदेव वक्तव्यं वचने का दरिद्रता॥
 
Priyavaakyapradaanena sarve tushyanti jantavah
Tasmaattadeva vaktavyam vachane kaa daridrataa
 
All beings are happy to hear sweet words tempered with truth and love. Therefore one should utter only such words; why should one be stingy in using proper words?

 
पुस्तकेषु च या विद्या परहस्तेषु यद्धनं।
उत्पन्नेषु च कार्येषु न सा विद्या न तद्धनम्||
 
Pustakeshu cha yaa vidyaa parahasteshu yaddhanam
Utpanneshu cha kaaryeshu na saa vidyaa na taddhnam
 
The knowledge in the books and wealth in the hands of others – these will not be available when the need for them arises.

 
सन्तोषस्त्रिषु कर्तव्यः स्वदारे भोजने धने।
त्रिषु चैव न कर्तव्योऽध्ययने जपदानयोः॥
  
Santoshastrishu kartavyah swadaare bhojane dhane
Trishu chaiva na kartavyo’dhyayane japadaanayoh
 
Three things one should be content with – one’s own wife, food and wealth. Three things one should not be content with – learning, japa (repetition of the names of the Lord) and charity (daana)

 
विप्रयोर्विप्रवह्न्योश्च दम्पत्योः स्वामिभृत्ययोः।
अन्तरेण न गन्तव्यं हलस्य वृषभस्य च ॥
 
Viprayorvipravahnyoshcha dampatyoh swaamibhrityayoh
Antarena na gantavyam halasya vrishabhasya cha
 
One should not go (cross) between two brahmins, between brahmin and fire, between husband and wife, , master and servant and plouth and the ox.

 
पादाभ्याम् न स्पृशेदग्निं गुरुं ब्राह्मणमेव च।
नैव गां च कुमारीं च न वृद्धं न शिशुं तथा ॥
 
Paadaabhyaam na sprishedagnim gurum braahmanameva cha
Naiva gaam cha kumaareem cha na vriddham na shishum tathaa
 
One should not touch with one’s feet fire, guru, brahmin, cow, kumaari ( a girl less than twelve years old), an old person or a baby.

QUOTABLE QUOTES FROM VALMIKI RAMAYANA

                  QUOTABLE QUOTES FROM VALMIKI RAMAYANA
Ramayana and Mahabharata are the two epics which have so mingled with the collective conscience of our people that,  to this day,  the ideas and values in them continue to influence our lives.  Ramayana is considered the Adi Kavya,, the first ever epic poem written.  Maharshi  Valmiki is known as the Adi Kavi,  the first ever poet in the history of Sanskrit literature, nay, the history of world literature.
Ramayana pictures the whole gamut of life of an individual.  It throws light on his/her duties and responsibilities in various roles as father, mother, son, daughter, husband, wife, brother, sister, friend, master, servant, teacher and so on.  Valmiki  presents Rama as the ideal man and Sita as the ideal woman. However,  later versions of Ramayana like Ramcharitmanas of Tulsidas, Kamba Ramayanam in Tamil by poet Kamban, Adhyatma Ramayana in Malayalam by poet Ezuthachan and Ranganatha Ramayana in Telugu present Rama as an incarnation of Lord Vishnu.
The quotes selected and presented here are the words of the different characters of this great epic uttered in different situations.  The ideas and values contained in them form part of what is called sanatana dharma and are eternally true for all ges. In these times of social upheaval it is all the more necessary for us to get back to these fundamental principles of life and living which we have almost forgotten in the rat race for material gains.
आहुः सत्यं हि परमं धर्मं धर्मविदो जनाः
 Aahuh  satyam hi paramam dharmam dharmavido janaah
 2.14.3
Those who have knowledge of dharma say that Truth is the highest dharma
[Context:  Dasaratha had promised three boons to Kaikeyi when she saved his life during one of those battles he fought on the side of the Devas.  When the coronation of Rama is announced, Kaikeyi asks for two of the boons from Dasaratha.  She wants Bharata to be installed as the King and Rama to be sent to the forest for fourteen years. When Dasaratha was in a dilemma, Kaikeyi says that Truth is the highest dharma, implying that Dasaratha should keep his promise as otherwise he will be guilty of transgressing dharma.]
दुर्लभं हि सदा सुखं                  
 Durlabham hi sadaa sukham
 2.18.13
To be happy always is something which is difficult to achieve.  That is to say,  happiness and sorrow alternate in one’s life and there cannot be uninterrupted happiness alone.
[Context: Rama’s words to Kaikeyi when he saw his father deep in sorrow and in tears at the prospect of Rama going  into the forest for 14 years.]
रामो द्विर्नाभिभाषते
Ramo dwir naabhibhaashate
2.18.30
Once Rama gives his word,  that is final and it is kept at any cost.  There is no question of repetition of the same a second time.
[Context: Rama’s words to Kaikeyi : tat broohi vachanam devi raajno yadabhikaangkshitam   Karishye pratijaane cha ramo dwir naabhibhaashate      “O Devi!  Please tell me what the King wants of me.  I promise that I will carry out whatever is his wish.  What Rama says once he carries out; there is no looking back.”]
गुरोरप्यवलिप्तस्य कार्याकार्यमजानतः ।
उत्पथं प्रतिपन्नस्य कार्यं भवति शासनम्॥।
Gurorapy avaliptasya kaaryaakaaryam ajaanatah
Utpathham pratipannasya kaaryam bhavati shaasanam
 2.11.13
One who is haughty, who does not know whether what he does is right or wrong and who has taken to the wrong path is to be disciplined even if he is guru, parent or an elder in age or learning.
[Context: These are words addressed to Rama by Lakshamana who  is angry at the turn of events with Rama preparing himself to live 14 years in the forests because of the boon granted by Dasaratha to Kaikeyi.  By the word ‘guru’ Lakshmana, by implication, is referring to Dasaratha in this context. ]
विक्लवो वीर्यहीनो यः स दैवमनुवर्तते  ।
वीराः सम्भावितात्मानो न दैवं पर्युपासते॥
  Viklavo veeryaheeno yah sa daivamanuvartate
  Veeraah sambhaavitaatmaano na daivam paryupaasate
  2.23.16
Only the timid and the weak leave things to  destiny (daivam)  but the strong and the self-confident never bank on destiny or luck (bhagya)
[Context: These are words of Lakshmana addressed to Rama when the latter says that neither Kaikeyee nor his father was responsible for his banishment to the forests.  It was all the play of destiny ( daivam).] .
यो हि दत्वा द्विपश्रेष्ठं कक्ष्यायां कुरुते मनः ।
रज्जुस्नेहेन किं तस्य त्यजतः कुञ्जरोत्तमम्॥।
 Yo hi datwaa dwipashreshthham kakshyaayaam kurute manah
 Rajjusnehena kim tasya tyajatah kunjarottamam
 2.37.3
If a  person is gifting away his elephant but his heart is set on the rope used for tying the elephant, of what use is his attachment to the rope when he is giving away the elephant itself.
[Context: Dasaratha wanted to send the royal retinue to follow Rama to the forests.  Kaikeyi objects to this. Rama says that when he is abandoning the kingdom itself what royal paraphernalia to him is. It is like giving away the elephant and setting one’s heart on the rope with which the elephant is tied.]
 नातन्त्री विद्यते वीणा नाचक्रो विद्यते रथः।
नापतिः सुखमेधेत या स्यादपि शतात्मजा ॥
 Naatantree vidyate veenaa naachakro vidyate rathah
 Naapatih sukhamedheta yaa syaadapi shataatmajaa 
 2.39.29
A Veena cannot exist without its strings.  A chariot cannot exist without its wheels.  Without her husband a woman can never live happily even though she has a hundred sons.
[Context: Sita’s response to Kausalya’s advice asking her to respect and obey Rama in spite of his being deprived of the kingdom.]
शोको नाशयते  धैर्यं शोको नाशयते श्रुतं।
शोको नाशयते सर्वं नास्ति शोकोसमो रिपुः॥
Shoko naashayate dhairyam shoko naashayate shrutam
Shoko naashayete sarvam nasti shokasamo ripuh
 2.62.15
Grief destroys one’s courage.  It destroys one’s learning.  It destroys one’s everything.  There is no enemy greater than grief.
[Context: These are the words of Kausalya.  She had spoken harsh words to Dasratha for sending Rama to the forests.  She repents and says that she spoke thus because of  her intense grief on Rama being sent to the forests]
यदन्नः पुरुषो भवति तदन्नास्तस्य देवताः
Yadannah purusho bhavati tadannaastasya devataah
2.103.30
Whatever is one’s food, the same food shall be offered to one’s gods.
[Context: Rama hears the news of Dasaratha’s death from Bharata.  He performs the obsequies of his father.  He says that one can offer to the departed souls only what one is having for food i.e. fruits and roots which are the only things available in the forest.]
कुलीनमकुलीनं वा वीरं पुरुषमानिनं ।
चारित्रमेव व्याख्याति शुचिम् वा यदि वाऽशुचिम् ॥
Kuleenam akuleenam vaa veeram purushamaaninam
Charitrameva vyaakhyaati shuchim vaa yadi vaashuchim
2.109.4
उद्विजन्ते यथा सर्पात् नरादनृत वादिनः
 
Udwijante yathaa sarpaat naraadanruta vaadinah
2.109.12
सत्यमेवेश्वरो लोके सत्ये धर्मः समाश्रितः                   
Satyameveshwaro loke satye dharmah samaashritah
 2.109.13
Only a person’s  conduct and character proclaim whether he is born in a good family or whether he is boasting about himself or whether he is unblemished (shuchih) or blemished (ashuchih).
Just as people are afraid of serpents they are afraid of persons who  utter lies.
Truth controls this world and dharma is rooted in truth.
[Context: These are words of Rama to Maharshi Jabali who advises him to ignore his father’s wishes and go back to Ayodhya. The Maharshi speaks lika a nastika and makes disparaging remarks about dharma, truth, good conduct, character  etc.  Rama, however, reiterates the values of truth, dharma and character in a man’s life. ]
न सुप्रतिकरं तत्तु मात्रा पित्रा च यत्कृतं     
Na supratikaram tattu maatraa pitraa cha yatkrutam
 2.111.9
It is difficult for the children to repay the debt of  what  the mother and the father have done to bring them up.
[Context: Rama’s words  to Vasishtha who accompanies Bharata to the forests for bringing back Rama to Ayodhya]
 लक्ष्मी चन्द्रादपेयाद्वा हिमवान् वा हिमं त्यजेत्
अतीयाद्सागरो वेलां न प्रतिज्ञामहं पितुः
Lakshmee chandrat apeyaadwaa himavaan vaa himam tyajet
Ateeyaat saagaro velaam na pratijnaamaham pituh
 2.112.18
Beauty may leave the moon,  Himavaan may become bereft of snow, the ocean may transgress its shores but I will never violate the promise given by my father.
[Context: Rama’s words to Bharata when he requests him to return to Ayodhya and rule the Kingdom.]
धर्मादर्थः प्रभवति धर्मात् प्रभवते सुखं।
धर्मेण लभते सर्वं धर्मसारमिदं जगत् ॥
 Dharmaadarthah prabhavati dharmaat prabhavate sukham
 Dharmena labhate sarvam dharmasaaramidam jagat
 3.9.30
आत्मानं नियमैः तैस्तैः कर्शयित्वा प्रयत्नतः ।
प्राप्यते निपुणैर्धर्मो न सुखात्  लभते सुखम् ॥
 Aatmaanam niyamaih taistaih karshayitwaa prayatnatah
 Praapyate nipunair dharmo na sukhaat labhate sukham
 3.9.31
Wealth springs from dharma, from dharma comes happiness and one gets everything from dharmaDharma is the essence of this world.
Dharma, which is the source of all happiness, can be attained even by a skilled person, only after observing various disciplines for his own purification and after great effort subjecting himself to great strain and stress.  One cannot attain such dharma by leading a life given to the pleasures of the senses.
[Context: Sita apprehands that Rama, armed always,  as he is,  with his bow and arrows,  may tend  to hurt animals in the forest or hurt those rakshasas  from whom there is no threat. She emphasises the importance  of ahimsa and other virtues and requests Rama to be compassionate, kind and merciful.]
अनागतविधानं तु कर्तव्यं शुभमिच्छता।
आपदाशंकमानेन पुरुषेन विपश्चिता ॥
Anaagata vidhaanam tu kartavyam shubhamichchhataa
Aapadaashankamaanena purushena vipashchitaa
3.24.11
A wise man should foresee tragedy or misfortune and take action to prevent or overcome such tragedy or misfortune well before it strikes.  Thus only he can enjoy a safe and good life.
[Context: There are bad omens in the forest and Rama anticipates trouble from Khara, the terrible raakshasa.   He therefore forewarns Lakshmana in these words and asks him to take Sita to a safe place.]
कर्म लोकविरुद्धं तु कुर्वाणं क्षणदाचर।
तीक्ष्णं सर्वजनो हन्ति सर्पं दुष्टमिवागतम्
Karma lokaviruddham tu kurvaanam kshanadaachara
Teekshnam sarvajano hanti sarpam dushtamivaagatam
3.29.4
न चिरं पापकर्माणः क्रूराः लोकजुगुप्सिताः ।
ऐश्वर्यं प्राप्य तिष्ठन्ति शीर्णमूलाः इव द्रुमाः॥
Na chiram paapakarmaanah kruooraah lokajugupsitaah
Aishwaryam praapya thishthhanti sheernamoolaah iva drumaah
3.29.5
न चिरात् प्राप्यते लोके पापानां कर्मणां फलं।
सविषाणामिवान्नानां भुक्तानां क्षणदाचर॥
 Na chiraat praapyate loke paapaanaam karmanaam phalam
 Savishaanaamivaannaanaam bhuktaanaam kshanadaachara
 3.29.9
O Rakshasa! People will kill, as they kill a poisonous snake, a cruel and ferocious person whose actions are against the people and hurt them.
Those cruel persons who, by their sinful actions, inflict physical and mental injury on others are detested by people.   Though such people may amass immense wealth they cannot retain it for long.  They will perish like a tree whose roots have become decayed.
In this world, one will, before long, suffer the consequences of one’s sinful actions in the same way as poisonous food taken by a person kills him within a short time.
[Context: Rama admonishes the rakshasa Khara in these words and warns him that his sins will overtake him and cause him severe physical and mental suffering.]
परदाराभिमर्शात्तु नान्यत् पापतरं महत्
Paradaaraabhimarshaattu naanyat paapataram mahat
3.38.30
There is no greater sin than coveting another man’s wife.
[Context: This is Maaricha’s warning to Ravana who is bent on abducting Sita and solicits the  help of Maaricha in this misadventure.]
स भारः सौम्य भर्तव्यो यो नरं नावसादयेत् ।
तदन्नमपि भोक्तव्यं जीर्यते यदनामयम्
Sa bhaarah saumya bhartavyo yo naram naavasaadayet
Tadannamapi bhoktavyam jeeryate yadanaamayam
3.50.18
यत्कृत्वा न भवेत् धर्मो न कीर्तिर्न यशो ध्रुवं।
शरीरस्य भवेत् खेदः कस्तत्कर्म समाचरेत् ॥
 Yatkrutwaa na bhaveddharmo na keertirna yasho dhruvam
 Shareerasya bhavet khedah kastatkarma samaacharet
 3.50.19
One should  lift  only such weight as will not exhaust one beyond a limit.  One should eat only such food as will easily digest.
Who will engage himself in such action as will get him neither dharma nor reputation  nor lasting fame and which will only result in physical exhaustion?
[Context: Jatayu’s advice to Ravana to refrain from abducting Sita.  This is going to cost him dearly, something which he will not be able to bear.]
मुमुर्षूणाम् तु सर्वेषाम् यत्पथ्यं तन्न रोचते
 Mumurshoonaam tu sarveshaam yatpathhyam tanna rochate
 3.53.17
 One who is bent on courting his death will not take kindly to sage counsel given by his well-wishers
[Context: Sita admonishes Ravana for his despicable act and says that he will not hear good advice as he is bent on dying at the hands of Rama.]
उत्साहो बलवानार्य नस्त्युत्साहात् परं बलं।
सोत्साहस्यहि लोकेषु न किञ्चिदपि दुर्लभं ॥
 Utsaaho balavaanaarya  naastyutsaahaat param balam
 Sotsaahasya hi lokeshu na kinchidapi durlabham.
 4.1.121
Enthusiasm has great strength.  There is no greater strength than enthusiasm.  There is nothing which is not attainable in this world for the enthusiastic.
 [Context: Lakshmana’s words to cheer up Rama who is deep in sorrow at the loss of Sita.  He emphasizes that Rama should come out of his grief and be cheerful and enthusiastic about seeking out Sita’s whereabouts.]
दु:खितः सुखितो वापि सख्युर्नित्यं सखा गतिः
 Dukhitah sukhito vaapi sakhyurnityam sakhaa gatih
 4.8.40
 Whether in sorrow or in happiness a friend  is always a friend’s support.
[Context: Sugreeva’s words to Rama after he narrates his sorrowful tale to Rama.]
ज्येष्ठ भ्राता पिता वापि यश्च विद्यां प्रयच्छति ।
त्रयो वै पितरो ज्ञेयाः धर्मे च पथि वर्तिनः ॥
Jyeshthho bhraataa pitaa vaapi yashcha vidyaam prayachchhati
Trayo vai pitaro jneyaah dharme cha pathhi vartinah
4.18.13
One’s elder brother, father and the teacher who gives knowledge –  all these three, treading the path of dharma,  are to be considered as one’s father.
[Context: Rama is justifying his action in killing Vali from behind a tree.  Vali, being the elder brother of Sugreeva should have been like a father to him.  Instead, he had taken away  Sugreeva’s wife causing the latter mental agony.]
अर्थीनाम् उपपनानां पूर्वं चाप्युपकारिणां।
आशाम् सम्श्रुत्य यो हन्ति स  लोके पुरुषाधमः॥
Arthheenaam upapannaanaam poorvam chaapyupakaarinaam
Aashaam samshrutya  yo hanti sa loke purushaadhamah
4.30.71
A person gives hope to another who requests for money or other material thing or to one who had helped that person in the past.   Having given them hope, if that person disappoints them by not keeping his promise, then he is the worst kind of person in this world.
[Context: Rama’s words to Lakshmana whom he sends to Sugreeva to remind him of the need to take urgent measures for searching out Sita.  Sugreeva, having promised help in finding Sita, seemed to be taking it easy.]
गोघ्ने चैव सुरापे च चौरे भग्नव्रते तथा ।
निष्कृतिर्निहिता सद्भिः कृतघ्ने नास्ति निष्कृतिः  ॥
Goghne chaiva suraape cha choure bhagnavrate tathhaa
Nishkritih nihitaa sadbhih kritaghne naasti nishkritih
4.34.12
There is atonement, laid down by men of character,  for one who kills a cow, consumes intoxicating drinks, steals or  breaks one’s promise but there is no atonement for one who  is ungrateful.
[Context: These are words of Lakshmana to Sugreeva who seemed to have forgotten whatever Rama had done for him.  He seemed to be delaying action to find the whereabouts of Sita.]
न कश्चिन्नापराध्यति
 Na kashchinnaaparaadhyati
 4.36.11
   To err is human, there is none who has not erred some time or other.
 [Context: Sugreeva apologizes to Lakshmana and says he had erred and he would now send his men in search of Sita.]
अनिर्वेदं च दाक्ष्यं च मनसश्चापराजयं
कार्य्सिद्धिकराण्याहुः
Anirvedam cha daakshyam cha manasashchaaparaajayam
Karyasiddhikaraanyaahuh                                         
4.49.6
Not getting dejected or depressed, skill in doing one’s job and not losing heart in the face of difficulties – these are the qualities which enable one to achieve one’s goals.
[Context: These are the words of Angada, son of Sugriva, to his team members who are on the mission of finding  the whereabouts of Sita.  They were beginning to lose heart when, in spite of extensive search,  they could not find Sita.]
न विषादे मनः कार्यं विषादो दोषवत्तरः।
विषादो हन्ति पुरुषं बालं क्रुद्ध इवोरगः॥
 Na  vishaade manah kaaryam vishaado doshavattarah
Vishaado hanti purusham baalam kruddhah ivoragah
4.64.9
One should not let one’s mind to be overcome by melancholy.   Melancholy or moroseness   is  a very bad thing.  It kills (destroys) a man just as an angered serpent  kills a child.
[Context: These are the words of Angada to the Vanaras who were beginning to lose heart looking at the vast expanse of the ocean which had to be crossed to reach Lanka where Sita was kept in captivity]
अनिर्वेदः श्रियो मूलं अनिर्वेदः परं सुखं
Anirvedah shriyo moolam anirvedah param sukham
5.12.10
विनाशे बहवो दोषाः जीवन्नाप्नोति भद्रकं
Vinaashe bahavo doshaah jeevannaapnoti bhadrakam
 5.13.45
Not getting depressed, frustrated or dejected is the basis for all prosperity and happiness.
Giving up one’s life produces nothing good, to continue to live is the way to joy and happiness.
[Context: Soliloquy of Hanuman when, in spite of extensive search in the palaces of Ravana, he does not find Sita. He was beginning to lose heart and was even thinking of taking his life.  He then tells himself that he should not think on those lines.]
धिगस्तु परवश्यताम्
Dhigastu paravashyataam
5.25.20
दृश्यमाने भवेत् प्रीतिः सौहृदं नास्त्यदृश्यतः
Drishyamaane bhavet preetih sauhridam naastyadrishyatah
5.26.41
To be under the control of another is to be condemned; it is the worst thing that can befall a person.
Love and affection is possible only when a person is being seen and is not out of sight in a far away place.
[Context: Soliloquies of Sita who is being threatened by the Rakshasis guarding her to accept the advances of Ravana which Sita totally refuses to do.]
कल्याणी बत गाथेयं लौकिकी प्रतिभाति मे ।
एति जीवन्तमानन्दो नरं वर्षशतादपि॥
Kalyaanee bata gaathheyam laukikee prathibhaati me
Ethi jeevantam aanando naram varsha shataadapi
5.34.6
The saying “If one continues to live, happiness and bliss may come even after a gap of a hundred years” seems to me an auspicious one.
[Context: Sita’s words to Hanuman from whom she hears news of Rama and Lakshmana and their efforts to kill Ravana and the Rakshasas and release her from captivity. She had earlier contemplated suicide but now she realizes that living was a good thing because happiness will not elude one for ever.]
आनृशंस्यं परो धर्मः
Aanrushamsyam paro dharmah
5.38.39
To be compassionate, kind, merciful and humane is a great virtue.
 [Context: Sita’s message to Rama through Hanuman entreating Rama to show some mercy one her and rescue her without further delay.]
न साम रक्षस्सु गुणाय कल्पते
न दानमर्थोपचितेषु युज्यते
 Na saama rakshassu gunaaya kalpate
 Na daanamarthopachiteshu yujyate
 5.41.3
Words of conciliation to the rakshasas will not bring out any good (Soft words will not have any effect on a rakshasa). In the same way one cannot pacify an immensly wealthy person by offering him material things.
[ Context: Soliloquy of Hanuman before he starts destroying the ashoka vana  of Ravana and thus show his valour which only will have some effect on the Rakshasas, not saama or daana ]
कोपं न गच्छन्ति हि सत्त्ववन्तः  
Kopam na gachchhanti hi sattwantah
The strong of heart do not become angry.
वाच्यावाच्यं प्रकुपितो न विजानाति कर्हिचित्।
नाकार्यमस्ति क्रुद्धस्य नावाच्यं विद्यते क्वचित् ॥
Vaachyaavaachyam prakupito na vijaanaati karhichit
Naakaaryamasti kruddhasya naavaachyam vidyate kwachit   
5.55.5
नाग्निरग्नौ प्रवर्तते
Naagniragnau pravartate
 5.55.22
One who is angry does not distinguish between what can be spoken and what is unspeakable. There is nothing which an angry man cannot do meaning he can commit any crime.  There is nothing unspeakable for him.
Fire cannot act on fire.
[Context: Soliloquy of Hanuman when, after burning down the palaces in Lanka from the fire set to his tail, he becomes worried that Sita might have been hurt by the fire.  He chides himself for getting angry and observes that an angry person loses his capacity to think and does not know what the right thing to say or do is.  On further contemplation, Hanuman realizes that a pativrata like Sita herself is like fire.  How can fire act on fire? ]
निरुत्साहस्य दीनस्य शोकपर्याकुलात्मनः
सर्वार्थाः व्यवसीदन्ति व्यसनं चाधिगच्छति
 Nirutsaahasya deenasya shokaparyaakulaatmanah
 Sarvaarthhaah vyavaseedanti vyasanam chaadhigachchhati
 6.2.6
The efforts of one who is unenthusiastic, weak and immersed in sorrow cannot bring out any good
and he comes to grief.
[Context:  These are words of Sugreeva to enthuse Rama and lift his spirits. Hanuman has brought   news  of Sita and Rama’s joy knows no bounds.  At the same time he is worried about how he and his army of vanaras will cross the ocean and reach Lanka to fight with the Rakshasas and rescue Sita.]
मन्त्रमूलं च विजयं प्रवदन्ति मनस्विनः
 Mantramoolam cha vijayam pravadanti manaswinah
  6.6.5
Wise men say that the root of victory is consultation and discussion with learned and  wise men. .
[Context: These are words of Ravana to his ministers. Rattled by the destruction and devastation committed by Hanuman in Lanka, Ravana convenes an assembly of his ministers and invites their suggestions about the next course of  action.]
जानामि शीलं ज्ञातीनां सर्वलोकेषु राक्षस!
हृष्यन्ति व्यसनेष्वेते ज्ञातीनाम् ज्ञातयस्सदा॥
Jaanaami sheelam jnaateenaam sarvalokeshu raakshasa!
Hrishyanti vyasaneshwete jnaateenaam jnaatayah sadaa
 6.16.3
यथा पुष्करपत्रेषु पतितास्तोयबिन्दवः ।
न श्लेषमभिगच्छन्ति तथानार्येषु सौहृदम्॥
 Yathhaa pushkarapatreshu patitaastoyabindavah
Na shleshamabhiganchchanti tathhaanaaryeshu sauhridam
 6.16.11
I know the nature of one’s relatives.  Relatives  always  rejoice when their relatives are in trouble.
Just like drops of water on lotus leaves do not stick to the leaves, in the same way is the friendship with people who lack character.
[Context: These are sarcastic remarks made by Ravana against Vibheeshana who had advised Ravana to return Sita to Rama with honour. Ravana is not prepared to accept this sage advice.  On the other hand he was terribly angry with Vibhishana for suggesting such a course of action.]
आकारः छाद्यमनोऽपि न शक्यो विनिगूहितुं।
बलाद्धि विवृणोत्येव भावमन्तर्गतं नृणाम् ॥
Aaakarah chhaadyamaanopi  na shakyo vinigoohitum
Balaaddhi vivrunotyeva bhaavamantargatam nrunaam
6.17.64
One’s innermost thoughts and emotions reflect on one’s physical appearance which it is difficult to cover up however one may try to do it.   Such changes in one’s physical appearance forcefully expose such innermost emotions and thoughts.
[Context:  These are words of Hanuman to Rama who consults the vanara leaders about accepting Vibheeshana who has come to join their side after parting company with Ravana.  Many of the vanara leaders do not want to accept him and some even suggest that he may be a spy of Ravana.  Hanuman, however, cogently argues the case for Vibhashana’s acceptance. He says that Vibheeshana’s body language clearly indicates that he is earnest and does not have evil intentions.]
गर्जन्ति न वृथा शूराः निर्जला इव तोयदा:।
 Garjanti na vruthhaa shooraah nirjalaa iva toyadaah
  6.65.3
The thundering of clouds which have spent all their water does not produce any rain.  But the really valiant do not roar in vain;  they show their valor in action also.
[Context:  These are the words of Kumbhakarna addressed to Ravana.   He sets out to  face  Rama, Lakshmana  and the entire army of vanaras. and vows to kill Rama and  thus once for all put an end to  the troubles of Ravana]
यः स्वपक्षं  परित्यज्य परपक्षं निषेवते।
स्वपक्षे च क्षयं याते पश्चात्तैरेय हन्यते॥
Yah swapaksham parityajya parapaksham nishevate
 swapakshe cha kshayam yaate pashchaattaireva hanyate
 6.87.16
The one who abandons one’s own camp and joins the enemy’s camp will be killed by the very  men of his former camp after the latter camp is completely destroyed by the former.
[Context: These are the words of Indrajit to Vibhishana when he encounters the latter in the battle field. He implies that Rama and his army will be wiped out and he (Vibheeshana) will be put to death by the rakshasas.]
परस्वानां च हरणं परदाराभिमर्शनं
सुहृदामतिशंका च त्रयो दोषाः क्षयावहाः
 Paraswaanaam cha haranam paradaaraabhimarshanam
 Suhrudaamatishankaa cha trayo doshaah kshayaavahaah
 6.85.23
Stealing the wealth of others, coveting another man’s wife and doubting the integrity and character of friends – these three lead to one’s destruction.
[Context: This is Vibheeshana’s reply to the taunts of Indrajit who encounters the former in the battle field and  rebukes  Vibhishana for ditching Ravana.]
देशे देशे कलत्राणि देशे देशे च बांधवाः ।
तं तु देशं न पश्यामि यत्र भ्राता सहोदरः॥
Deshe deshe kalatraani deshe deshe cha baandhavaah
Tam tu desham na pashyaami yatra bhraataa sahodarah
 6.101.14
One may have wives and relatives in every country but one cannot have a brother like Lakshmana in every place.
[Context: Rama’s words of sorrow when Lakshmana becomes unconscious in the battle field struck by the spear of Indrajit.]
न हि प्रतिज्ञां कुर्वन्ति वितथां सत्यवादिनः
लक्षणं हि महत्त्वस्य प्रतिज्ञा परिपालनम्
Nahi pratijnaam kurvanti vithathhaam satyavaadinah
Lakshanam hi mahattwasya pratijnaaparipaalanam
6.101.52
                  
Those who always adhere to truth do not make false promises.  Keeping one’s promises is, surely,  the mark of one’s  greatness.
[Context: Rama was plunged into deep sorrow and loses heart  when Lakshamana was struck unconscious by a spear thrown at him by Ravana.  Lakshmana was revived by the sanjeevani  brought by Hanuman.  Seeing Rama’s condition Lakshmana reminds him of Rama’s vow to kill Ravana who had abducted Sita.  Lakshmana  says that the vow made by Rama should never become false. ]
पतिव्रतानां नाकस्मात् पतन्त्यश्रूणि भूतले  
            
Pativrataanaam naakasmaat patantyashrooni  bhootale
6.111.67
The tears of virtuous women (pativratas) do not fall on the ground in vain, meaning it will destroy those who caused them such anguish of heart causing tears to be shed.
 [Context: These are the words of Mandodari who mourns the death of Ravana. She says Ravana met this fate because of the tears shed by Sita who was a pativrata and whom Ravana anguished by his improper advances]
धारणाद्धर्ममित्याहुः धर्मेण विधृताः प्रजाः
Dhaaranaaddharmamityaahuh dharmena vidhrutaah prajaah
 (7.59  Prakshipta: 2/7)
Dharma is so called because it sustains or supports society (from the root dhri meaning to support). The people of a country are held together and sustained by Dharma.
क्रोधः प्राणहरो शत्रुः क्रोधो मित्रमुखो रिपुः।
क्रोधोह्यसिर्महातीक्ष्णः सर्वम् क्रोधोऽपकर्षति॥   
Krodhah praanaharo shatruh krodho mitramukho ripuh
Krodhohyasirmahaateekshnah sarvam krodhopakarshati
(7.59 prakshipta 2/21)
Anger is the enemy which takes one’s life. Anger is enemy with the face of a friend. Anger is like a very sharp sword.  Anger destroys everything.
न सा सभा यत्र न सन्ति वृद्धाः
वृद्धा न ते ये न वदन्ति धर्मं ।
नासौ धर्मो यत्र न सत्यमस्ति
न तत्सत्यं यच्छलेनानुविद्धम्
 Na saa sabhaa yatra na santi vruddhaah
Vriddhaa na te ye na vadanti dharmam
Naasau dharmo yatra na satyamasti
Na tatsatyam yachchhalenaanuviddham   
That is not an assembly where wise old men are not there.  They are not wise old men who do not preach dharma.  That is not dharma where there is no Truth.  That is not Truth which is covered over with deceit.
तपो हि परमं श्रेयः सम्मोहमितरत्सुखम्
  Tapo hi paramam shreyah sammohamitaratsukham
  7.84.3
Tapas is the highest good.  All other pleasures or joys are only  delusions.
 [Context: These are the words of vRRitrAsura(वृत्रासुरः)who wants to do severe tapas. ]