BHISHMASTAVARAJAH (FROM THE EPIC MAHABHARATA)

     BHISHMASTAVARAJAH
Bhishma Stava Rajah is one of the finest hymns to the
Ultimate Reality incarnated as Lord Krishna. It is considered as one of the
five jewels in the great epic of Mahabharata as mentioned in the following
oft-quoted  verse:
                
                              गीता नामसहस्रं च स्तवराजोऽनुस्मृतिः।
           गजेन्द्रमोक्षणं चैव पञ्चरत्नानि भारते॥
The following are the five jewels in Mahabharata:
Bhagavadgita, the Song Divine, a Universal philosophy
of life and being enabling  the individual
soul transcend the pluralistic universe and experience its complete identity
with the One Ultimate Reality
.
     
Vishnu
Shasranama, the thousand names of Vishnu.
Bhishmastavaraajah,
Hymn by Bhishma addressed to Lord Krishna while the former was awaiting Uttaraayana
(when the Sun turns North from the tropic of Capricorn)   to
cast off his mortal body.
Anusmruti, ways to remember the Lord
while one still in this world and  in
one’s last moments,  as
expounded by Lord Vishnu to Narada
Maharshi
Gajendra
Moksham,  the story of the Gajendra’s
release by the Lord from the clutches of an allegator and Gajendra’s hymn
addressed to the Lord.
Given
below is the text of the jewel of a hymn by Bhishma Pitamaha addressed to
Lord Krishna
                                भीष्मस्तवराजः
जनमेजय उवाच-
शरतल्पेशयानस्तु भरतानां पितामहः
कथमुत्सृष्टवान् देहं कञ्च योगमधारयत्॥१॥
वैशम्पायन उवाच-
शृणुष्वावहितो राजन् शुचिर्भूत्वा समाहितः।
भीष्मस्य कुरुशार्दूल देहोत्सर्गं महात्मनः॥२॥
निवृत्तमात्रे त्वयन उत्तरे वै दिवाकरे।
समावेशयदात्मानमात्मन्येव समाहितः॥३॥
विकीर्णांशुरिवादित्यो भीष्मः शरशतैश्चितः।
शुशुभे परया लक्ष्म्या वृतो ब्राह्मणसत्तमैः॥४॥
व्यासेन वेदविदुषा नारदेन सुरर्षिणा।
देवस्थानेन वात्स्येन तथाश्मकसुमन्तुना॥५॥
तथा जैमिनिना चैव पैलेन च महात्मना।
शाण्डिल्यदेवलाभ्यां च मैत्रेयेण च धीमता॥६॥
असितेन वसिष्ठेन कौशिकेन महात्मना।
हारीतलोमशाभ्यां च तथात्रेयेण धीमता ॥७॥
बृहस्पतिश्च शुक्रश्च च्यवनश्च महामुनिः
सनत्कुमारः कपिलो वाल्मीकिस्तुम्बुरुः कुरुः॥८॥
मौद्गल्यो भार्गवो रामस्तृणबिन्दुर्महामुनिः
पिप्पलादोऽथ वायुश्च संवर्तः पुलहः कचः॥९॥
काश्यपश्च पुलस्त्यश्च क्रतुर्दक्षः पराशरः।
मरीचिरङ्गिराः काश्यो गौतमो गालवो मुनिः॥१०॥
धौम्यो विभाण्डो भाण्डव्यो धौम्रः कृष्णानुभौतिकः।
उलूकः परमो विप्रो मार्कण्डेयो महामुनिः ॥११॥
भास्करिः पूरणः कृष्णः सूतः परमधार्मिकः।
एतैश्चान्यैर्मुनिगणैर्महाभागैर्महात्मभिः ॥१२॥
श्रद्धादमशमोपेतैर्वृतश्चन्द्र इव ग्रहैः
भीष्मस्तु पुरुषव्याघ्र कर्मणा
मनसा गिरा ॥१३॥
शरतल्पगतः कृष्णं प्रदध्यौ प्राञ्जलिः शुचिः।
स्वरेण हृष्टपुष्टेन तुष्टाव मधुसूदनम्   ॥१४॥
योगेश्वरं पद्मनाभं विष्णुं जिष्णुं जगत्पतिम्।
कृताञ्जलिपुटो भूत्वा वाग्विदां प्रवरः प्रभुः ।
भीष्मः परमधर्मात्मा वासुदेवमथास्तुवत् ॥१५॥
भीष्म उवाच –
आरिराधयिषुः कृष्णं वाचं जिगदिषामि यां
तया व्याससमासिन्या प्रीयतां पुरुषोत्तमः ॥१६॥
शिचिं शुचिपदं हंसं तत्पदं परमेष्ठिनं।
मुक्त्वा सर्वात्मनात्मानं तं प्रपद्ये प्रजापतिम् ॥१७॥
अनाद्यन्तं परं ब्रह्म न देवा नर्षयो विदुः।
एको यं वेद भगवान्धाता नारायणो हरिः ॥१८॥
नारायणादृषिगणास्तथा सिद्धमहोरगाः।
देवा देवर्षयश्चैव यं विदुः परमव्ययम् ॥१९॥
देवदानवगन्धर्वा  यक्षराक्षसपन्नगाः।
यं न जानन्ति को ह्येष कुतो वा भगवानिति॥२०॥
यस्मिन् विश्वानि भूतानि तिष्ठन्ति च विशन्ति च।
गुणभूतानि भूतेशे सूत्रे मणिगणा इव ॥२१॥
यस्मिन्निन्ये तते तन्तौ दृढे स्रगिव तिष्ठति।
सदसद्ग्रथितं विश्वं विश्वाङ्गे विश्वकर्मणि॥२२॥
हरिं सहस्रशिरसं सहस्रचरणेक्षणम्।
सहस्रबाहुमुकुटं सहस्रवदनोज्ज्वलम् ॥२३॥
प्राहुर्नारायणं देवं यं विश्वस्य परायणम्।
अणीयसामणीयांसं स्थविष्ठं च स्थवीयसाम् ॥२४॥
गरीयसां गरिष्ठं च श्रेष्ठं च श्रेयसामपि ॥२५॥
यं वाकेष्वनुवाकेषु निषत्सूपनिषत्सु च ।
गृणन्ति सत्यकर्माणं सत्यं सत्येषु सामसु ॥२६॥
चतुर्भिश्चतुरात्मानं सत्त्वस्थं सात्वतां पतिम्।
यं दिव्यैर्देवमर्चन्ति गुह्यैः परमनामभिः ॥२७॥
यस्मिन्नित्यं तपस्तप्तं मदङ्गेष्वनुतिष्ठति।
सर्वात्मा सर्ववित् सर्वः सर्वज्ञः सर्वभावनः ॥२८॥
यं देवं देवकी देवी वसुदेवादजीजनत्
भौमस्य ब्रह्मणो गुप्त्यै दीप्तमग्निमिवारणिः॥२९॥
यमनन्यो व्यपेताशीरात्मानं वीतकल्मषम्।
दृष्ट्वानन्त्याय गोविन्दं पश्यत्यात्मानमात्मनि ॥३०॥
अतिवाय्विन्द्रकर्माणमतिसूर्यातितेजसम्।
अतिबुद्धीन्द्रियात्मानं तं प्रपद्ये प्रजापतिम् ॥३१॥
पुराणे पुरुषं प्रोक्तं ब्रह्म प्रोक्तं युगादिषु।
क्षये सङ्कर्षणं प्रोक्तं तमुपास्यमुपास्महे ॥३२॥
यमेकं बहुधात्मानं प्रादुर्भूतमधोक्षजम्।
नान्यभक्ताः क्रियावन्तो यजन्ते सर्वकामदम्॥३३॥
यमाहुर्जगतः कोशं यस्मिन् सन्निहिताः प्रजाः।
यस्मिन् लोकाः स्फुरन्तीमे जले शकुनयो यथा ॥३४॥
ऋतमेकाक्षरं ब्रह्म यत्तत्सदसतोः परम्।
अनादिमध्यपर्यन्तं न देवा नर्षयो विदुः॥३५॥
यं सुरासुरगन्धर्वाः सिद्धा ऋषि महोरगाः।
प्रयता नित्यमर्चन्ति परमं दुःखभेषजम् ॥३६॥
अनादिनिधनं देवमात्मयोनिं सनातनम् ।
अप्रेक्ष्यमनभिज्ञेयं हरिं नारायणं प्रभुम् ॥३७॥
यं वै विश्वस्य कर्तारं जगतस्तस्थुषां पतिम्।
वदन्ति जगतोऽध्यक्षमक्षरं परमं पदम् ॥३८॥
हिरण्यवर्णं यं गर्भमदितिर्दैत्यनाशनम्।
एकं द्वादशधा जज्ञे तस्मै सूर्यात्मने नमः ॥३९॥
शुक्ले देवान् पितॄन् कृष्णे तर्पयत्यमृतेन यः।
यश्च राजा द्विजातीनां तस्मै सोमात्मने नमः ॥४०॥
महतस्तमसः पारे पुरुषं ह्यतितेजसम्।
यं ज्ञात्वा मृत्युमत्येति तस्मै ज्ञेयात्मने नमः ॥४१॥
यं बृहन्तं बृहत्युक्थे यमग्नौ यं महाध्वरे।
यं विप्रसंघाः गायन्ति तस्मै वेदात्मने नमः ॥४२॥
ऋग्यजुःसामधामानं दशार्धहविरात्मकम्।
यं सप्ततन्तुं तन्वन्ति तस्मै यज्ञात्मने नमः॥४३॥
चतुर्भिश्च चतुर्भिश्च द्वाभ्यां पञ्चभिरेव च।
हूयते च पुनर्द्वाभ्यां तस्मै होमात्मने नमः ॥४४॥
यः सुपर्णो यजुर्नाम छन्दोगात्रस्त्रिवृच्छिराः।
रथन्तरं बृहत्साम तस्मै स्तोत्रात्मने नमः ॥४५॥
यः सहस्रसमे सत्रे जज्ञे विश्वसृजामृषिः।
हिरण्यपक्षः शकुनिस्तस्मै हंसात्मने नमः ॥४६॥
पदाङ्गसन्धिपर्वाणं स्वरव्यञ्जनभूषणम्।
यमाहुरक्षरं दिव्यं तस्मै वागात्मने नमः॥४७॥
यज्ञाङ्गो यो वराहो वै भूत्वा गामुज्जहार ह।
लोकत्रयहितार्थाय तस्मै वीर्यात्मने नमः ॥४८॥
यः शेते योगमास्थाय पर्यङ्के नागभूषिते ।
फणासहस्ररचिते तस्मै निद्रात्मने नमः॥४९॥
यस्तनोति सतां सेतुमृतेनामृतयोनिना।
धर्मार्थव्यवहाराङ्गैस्तस्मै सत्यात्मने नमः॥५०॥
यं पृथग्धर्मचरणाः पृथग्धर्मफलैषिणः
पृथग्धर्मैः समर्चन्ति तस्मै धर्मात्मने नमः॥५१॥
यतः सर्वे प्रसूयन्ते ह्यनङ्गात्माङ्गदेहिनः।
उन्मादाः सर्वभूतानां तस्मै  कामात्मने नमः ॥५२॥
यं च व्यक्तस्थमव्यक्तं विचिन्वन्ति महर्षयः।
क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञमासीनं तस्मै क्षेत्रात्मने नमः ॥५३॥
यं त्रिधात्मानमात्मस्थं वृतं षोडशभिर्गुणैः।
प्राहुः सप्तदशं सांख्यास्तस्मै सांख्यात्मने नमः ॥५४॥

यं विनिद्राः जितश्वासाः सत्त्वस्थाः संयतेन्द्रियाः।
ज्योतिः पश्यन्ति युञ्जानास्तस्मै योगात्मने नमः ॥५५॥
अपुण्यपुण्योपरमे यं पुनर्भवनिर्भयाः।
शान्ताः संन्यासिनो यान्ति तस्मै मोक्षात्मने नमः ॥५६॥
योऽसौ युगसहस्रान्तप्रदीप्तार्चिर्विभावसुः।
संभक्षयति भूतानि तस्मै घोरात्मने नमः ॥५७॥
संभक्ष्य सर्वभूतानि कृत्वा चैकार्णवं जगत्।
बालः स्वपिति यश्चैकस्तस्मै मायात्मने नमः ॥५८॥
तद्यस्य नाभ्यां संभूतं यस्मिन् विश्वं प्रतिष्ठितम्।
पुष्करे पुष्कराक्षस्य तस्मै पद्मात्मने नमः   ॥५९॥
सहस्रशिरसे चैव पुरुषायामितात्मने।
चतुःसमुद्रपर्याय योगनिद्रात्मने नमः॥६०॥
यस्य केशेषु जीमूताः नद्यः सर्वाङ्गसन्धिषु।
कुक्षौ समुद्राश्चत्वारस्तस्मै  तोयात्मने नमः ॥६१॥
यस्मात् सर्वाः प्रसूयन्ते सर्गप्रलयविक्रियाः।
यस्मिंश्चैव प्रलीयन्ते  तस्मै हेत्वात्मने नमः॥६२॥
यो निषण्णो भवेद्रात्रौ दिवा भवति विष्ठितः।
इष्टानिष्टस्य च द्रष्टा तस्मै द्रष्ट्रात्मने नमः ॥६३॥ 
अकुण्ठं सर्वकार्येषु धर्मकार्यार्थमुद्यतम्।
वैकुण्ठस्य च तद्रूपं तस्मै कार्यात्मने नमः॥६४॥
त्रिःसप्तकृत्वो यः क्षत्रं धर्मवित् क्रान्तगौरवम्।
क्रुद्धो निजघ्ने समरे तस्मै क्रौर्यात्मने नमः ॥६५॥
विभज्य पञ्चधात्मानं वायुर्भूत्वा शरीरगः।
यश्चेष्टयति भूतानि तस्मै वाय्वात्मने नमः॥६६॥
युगेष्वावर्तते योगैर्मासर्त्वयनहायनैः।
सर्गप्रलययोः कर्ता तस्मै कालात्मने नमः ॥६७॥
ब्रह्म वक्त्रं भुजौ क्षत्रं कृत्स्नमूरूदरं विशः।
पादौ यस्याश्रिताः शूद्रास्तस्मै वर्णात्मने नमः॥६८॥
यस्याग्निरास्यं द्यौर्मूर्द्धा खं नाभिश्चरणौ क्षितिः।
सूर्यश्चक्षुर्दिशः श्रोत्रे तस्मै लोकात्मने नमः ॥६९॥
परः कालात् परो यज्ञात् परात्परतरश्च यः।
आनादिरादिर्विश्वस्य तस्मै विश्वात्मने नमः॥७०॥
विषये वर्तमानानां यं तं वैशेषिकैर्गुणैः।
प्राहुर्विषयगोप्तारं तस्मै गोप्त्रात्मने नमः ॥७१॥
अन्नपानेन्धमयो रसप्राणविवर्धनः।
यो धारयति भूतानि तस्मै प्राणात्मने नमः ॥७२॥
प्राणानां धारणार्थाय योऽन्नं भुङ्क्ते चतुर्विधम्।
आन्तर्भूतः पचत्यग्निस्तस्मै पाकात्मने नमः ॥७३॥
पिङ्गेक्षणसटं यस्य रूपं दंष्ट्रानखायुधम्।
दानवेन्द्रान्तकरणं तस्मै दृप्त्यात्मने नमः ॥७४॥
यं न देवा न गन्धर्वा न दैत्या न च दानवाः।
तत्त्वतो हि विजानन्ति तस्मै सूक्ष्मात्मने नमः॥७५॥
रसातलगतः श्रीमाननन्तो भगवान् विभुः।
जगद्धारयते कृत्स्नं तस्मै वीर्यात्मने नमः॥७६॥
यो मोहयति भूतानि स्नेहपाशानुबन्धनैः।
सर्गस्य रक्षणार्थाय तस्मै मोहात्मने नमः ॥७७॥
आत्मज्ञानमिदं ज्ञानं ज्ञात्वा पञ्चस्ववस्थितम्।
यं ज्ञानेनाभिगच्छन्ति तस्मै ज्ञानात्मने नमः ॥७८॥
अप्रमेयशरीराय सर्वतोबुद्धिचक्षुषे।
अनन्तपरिमेयाय तस्मै दिव्यात्मने नमः ॥७९॥
जटिने दण्डिने नित्यं लम्बोदरशरीरिणे।
कमण्डलुनिषङ्गाय तस्मै ब्रह्मात्मने नमः ॥८०॥
शूलिने त्रिदशेशाय त्र्यम्बकाय महात्मने
भस्मदिग्धोर्ध्वलिङ्गाय तस्मै रुद्रात्मने नमः ॥८१॥
चन्द्रार्धकृतशीर्षाय व्यालयज्ञोपवीतिने।
पिनाकशूलहस्ताय तस्मै उग्रात्मने नमः ॥८२॥
सर्वभूतात्मभूताय भूतादिनिधनाय च।
अक्रोधद्रोहमोहाय तस्मै शान्तात्मने नमः ॥८३॥
यस्मिन् सर्वं यतः सर्वं यः सर्वं सर्वतश्च यः।
यश्च सर्वमयो नित्यं तस्मै सर्वात्मने नमः ॥८४॥
विश्वकर्मन्नमस्तेऽस्तु विश्वत्मन् विश्वसंभव।
अपवर्गस्थ  भूतानां पञ्चानां परतः स्थित
॥८५॥
नमस्ते त्रिषु लोकेषु नमस्ते परतस्त्रिषु।
नमस्ते दिक्षु सर्वासु त्वं हि सर्वमयो निधिः॥८६॥
नमस्ते भगवन् विष्णॊ लोकानां प्रभवाप्यय।
त्वं हि कर्ता हृषीकेश संहर्ता चापराजितः ॥८७॥
नहि पश्यामि ते भावं दिव्यं हि त्रिषु वर्त्मसु।
त्वां तु पश्यामि तत्त्वेन यत्ते रूपं सनातनम् ॥८८॥
दिवं ते शिरसा व्याप्तं पद्भ्यां देवी वसुन्धरा।
विक्रमेण त्रयो लोका:
पुरुषोऽसि सनातनः ॥८९॥
दिशो भुजा रविश्चक्षुर्वीर्यं शुक्रः प्रतिष्ठितः।
सप्त मार्गा निरुद्धास्ते वायोरमिततेजसः॥९०॥
अतसीपुष्पसङ्काशं पीतवाससमच्युतम्।
ये नमस्यन्ति गोविन्दं न तेषां विद्यते भयम्॥९१॥
एकोऽपि कृष्णस्य कृतः प्रणामो
दशाश्वमेधावभृथेन तुल्यः।
दशाश्वमेधी पुनरेति जन्म
कृष्णप्रणामी न पुनर्भवाय ॥९२॥
कृष्णव्रताः कृष्णमनुस्मरन्तो
रात्रौ च कृष्णं पुनरुत्थिता ये।
ते कृष्णदेहाः प्रविशन्ति कृष्णं
आज्यं यथा मन्त्रहुतं हुताशे ॥९३॥
नमो नरकसन्त्रासरक्षामण्डलकारिणे।
संसारनिम्नगावर्ततरिकाष्ठाय विष्णवे ॥९४॥
नमो ब्रह्मण्यदेवाय गोब्राह्मणहिताय च।
जगद्धिताय कृष्णाय गोविन्दाय नमो नमः॥९५॥
प्राणकान्तारपाथेयं संसारोच्छेदभेषजम्।
दुःखशोकपरित्राणं हरिरित्यक्षरद्वयम् ॥९६॥
यथा विष्णुमयं सत्यं यथा विष्णुमयं जगत्।
यथा विष्णुमयं सर्वं पाप्मा मे नश्यतां तथा ॥९७॥
त्वां प्रपन्नाय भक्ताय गतिमिष्टां जिगीषवे।
यच्छ्रेयः पुण्डरीकाक्ष तद्ध्यायस्व सुरोत्तम ॥९८॥
इति विद्यातपोयोनिरयोनिर्विष्णुरीडितः।
वाग्यज्ञेनार्चितो देवः प्रीयतां मे जनार्दनः ॥९९॥
नारायणः परंब्रह्म नारायण परं तपः।
नारायणपरो देवः सर्वं नारायणः सदा॥१००॥
वैशम्पायन उवाच
एतावदुक्त्वा वचनं भीष्मस्तद्गतमानसः।
नम इत्येव कृष्णाय प्रणाममकरोत्तदा ॥१०१॥
अभिगम्य तु योगेन भक्तिं भीष्मस्य माधवः
त्रैलोक्यदर्शनं ज्ञानं दिव्यं दत्त्वा ययौ हरिः ॥१०२॥
तस्मिन्नुपरते शब्दे ततस्ते ब्रह्मवादिनः।
भीष्मं वाग्भिर्बाष्पकण्ठास्तमानर्चुमहामतिम् ॥१०३॥
ते स्तुवन्तश्च विप्राग्र्याः केशवं पुरुषोत्तमम्।
भीष्मं च शनकैः सर्वे प्रशशंसुः पुनः पुनः ॥१०४॥
विदित्वा भक्तियोगं तु भीष्मस्य पुरुषोत्तमः।
सहसोत्थाय संहृष्टो यानमेवान्वपद्यत ॥१०५॥
केशवः सात्यकिश्चापि रथेनैकेन जग्मतुः।
अपरेण महात्मानौ युधिष्ठिरधनञ्जयौ ॥१०६॥
भीमसेनो यमौ चोभौ रथमेकं समाश्रिताः।
कृपो युयुत्सुः सूतश्च सञ्जयश्च परन्तपः॥१०७॥
ते रथैर्नगराकारैः प्रयाताः पुरुषर्षभाः।
नेमिघोषेण महता कम्पयन्तो वसुन्धराम् ॥१०८॥
ततो गिरः पुरुषवरस्तवान्विता
द्विजेरिताः पथि सुमनाः स शुश्रुवे।
कृताञ्जलिं प्रणतमथापरं जनं
स केशिहा मुदितमनाभ्यनन्दत ॥१०९॥
इति श्रीमहाभारते शान्तिपर्वणि राजधर्मानुशासनपर्वणि
भीष्मस्तवराजे सप्तचत्त्वारिंशत्तमोऽध्यायः

QUOTATIONS ON BHAKTI FROM BHAGAVATAM

Quotations from Srimad Bhaagavatam on Bhakti (Loving devotion to the Lord)

Sage Vyasa divided the ancient Vedic lore into the four Vedas. He wrote the Mahabharata which is of epic proportions shedding light on every aspect of human life. He also authored some of the puranas  which together with Mahabharata expound and expand the essence of the Vedas in a language and idiom intelligible to ordinary human beings.  In spite of all this prodigious output, he felt in his subconscious that some thing was wanting, some thing lacking in what he had so far written. He expressed his feelings to Sage Narada who told him that in whatever he had so far written he had not adequately dealt with the leelas of Lord Mahavishnu and his incarnations.  He had not sufficiently expounded the importance of bhakti  as a path for attaining the Lord.  He had also not narrated the stories of the Lord’s bhaktas  in sufficient detail.  This was the cause for his feeling of inadequacy in whatever he had written so far.  Taking this cue from Sage Narada, Vyasa composed Srimad Bhagavatam describing in detail the divine leelas of the Lord and his incarnations and the nectar of wisdom and knowledge imparted by Him to His devotees during such incarnations.       
Among the Puranas authored by Sage Vyasa,  Srimad Bhagavata outshines the others, being the crest-jewel of the entire Puranic literature. This alone is capable of saving humanity from the fear of  the Serpent of Time (kala vyala)  as described in the Padma Purana:

   कालव्यालमुखग्रासत्रासनिर्नाशहेतवे  । श्रीमद्भागवतं शास्त्रं कलौ कीरेण भाषितम् ॥
  
  kaala-vyaala-mukha-graasa  thraasa-nirnaasha-hethave
   sreemad-bhaavatham shaastram kalau keerena bhaashitam  

[Sage Suka has narrated the bhagavata sastra to allay the fears of those who are caught in the jaws of  kaalavyala (Serpent of Time)]

Bhagavata  alone is described, time and again,  as one without a second and incomparable as an  instrument for freeing humans from the bonds of samsaara and  help  them attain liberation (mukti) :
           एकं भागवतं शास्त्रं मुक्तिदानेन गर्जति
           Ekam Bhaagavatam shaastram mukti-daanena garjathi

Srimad Bhagavata alone is enriched by the tejas (splendour, effulgence, power) of  sri Vasudeva.  Bhagavata is the incarnation of the Lord in the form of vangmaya ( body of literature) and it is here that  He always resides,  as it has been said in Paadma  Purana:

स्वकीयं यद्भवेत्तेजः तच्च भागवतेऽदधात्

तिरोधाय
प्रविष्टोऽयं श्रीमद्भागवतार्णवम्


तेनेयं
वाङ्मयी मूर्तिः प्रत्यक्षा वर्तते हरेः

 swakeeyam yad bhavethejah  thachcha  bhagavathe’dadhaath 
thirodhaaya pravishtoyam srimad bhaagavathaarnavam
 theneyam vangmayee moorthih pratyakshaa vartate hareh

[The Lord deposited his power (tejas) in Bhagavata and entering the sea of  bhagavata, He disappeared into it.  Therefore bhagavata is the word- form ( vangmayee moorthih) of the Lord visible to the naked eye of man ]

The ocean of nectar which is Bhagavatha is easily available even for the dull-witted (abudhaah)  in this world but is difficult to attain even for the celestial beings (vibudhaah) of the other worlds, as it has been said :
 
    श्रीमद्भागवती वार्ता सुराणामपि दुर्लभा           
    sreemad bhagavatee vaartaa suraanaamapi durlabhaa

  [The episodes of Bhagavata are not accessible even to the devas ]

Given below is a collection of slokas  from this great Purana specifically those extolling bhakti

Navadhaa Bhakti (Nine types of bhakti)

श्रवणं कीर्तनं विष्णोः स्मरणं पादसेवनम् ।
अर्चनं वन्दनं दास्यं सख्यमात्मनिवेदनम् ॥

Sravanam keertanam vishnoh smaranam paadasevanam
Archanam vandanam daasyam sakhyamaatmanivedanam [7.5.23]

Hearing stories about the glories of the Lord,  singing His praises, remembering His captivating form and His exploits, serving His lotus-feet, worshipping Him by flowers and fruits, obeisance or prostration before Him ,  humble service to Him,  friendship with Him and complete surrender to Him  – these are the nine types of bhakti.  The following sloka gives examples of devotees who excelled in each of these types of bhakti:

श्रीविष्णोः श्रवणे परीक्षिदभवत् वैयासकिः कीर्तने
प्रह्लादः स्मरणे तदंघ्रिभजने लक्ष्मीः पृथुः पूजने ।
अक्रूरस्त्वभिवन्दने कपिपतिर्दास्येऽथ सख्येऽर्जुनः
सर्वस्वात्मनिवेदने बलिरभूत् कृष्णाप्तिरेषाम् परम्॥।

Shreevishnoh sravane pareekshidabhavat vaiyaasakih keertane
Prahladah smarane tadanghribhajane lakshmeeh prithuh poojane
Akroorastwabhivandane kapipatirdaasye’tha sakhye’rjunah
Sarvaswaatmanivedane balirabhootkrishnaaptireshaam param

Pareekshit excelled in hearing, shuka in singing, Prahlada in remembering, Goddess Lakshmi in serving His lotus-feet, Prithu in worshipping, Akrura in obeisance, Hanuman in humble service, Arjuna in friendship and Bali in total surrender.

Shravanam (Hearing)

निशम्य कर्माणि गुणानतुल्यान्वीर्याणि लीलातनुभिः कृतानि।
यदाऽतिहर्षोत्पुलकाश्रुगद्गदं प्रोत्कण्ठमुद्गायति रौति नृत्यति ॥

Nishamya karmaani gunaanatulyaa-
nveeryaani leelaatanubhih kritaani
Yadaatiharshotpulakaashrugadgadam
Protkanthhamudgaayati rauti nrityati  [7.7.34]

Hearing stories about the deeds of the Lord, his unmatched qualities and  His valorous deeds  during incarnations when he takes a body in a playful manner, the devotee’s hairs stand on end in ecstasy, his eyes fill with tears of bliss, his throat is choked because of the intense emotion and he sings and cries and dances in joy.

शृण्वन् सुभद्राणि रथांगपाणेर्जन्मानि कर्माणि च यानि लोके।
गीतानि नामानि तदर्थकानि गायन् विलज्जो विचरेदसंगः ॥

Shrinvan subhadraani rathaangapaane-
rjanmaani karmaani cha yaani loke
geetaani naamaani tadarthakaani
gaayan vilajjo vicharedasangah  [11.2.39]

The devotee should hear about the auspicious incarnations of the Lord and his exploits in this world  and  sing His praises and His divine names forsaking all shyness or inhibitions and carry on his life without attachments.

तरवः किं न जीवन्ति भस्त्रा किं न श्वसन्त्युत ।
न खादन्ति न मेहन्ति किं ग्रामपशवोऽपरे? ॥

Taravah kim na jeevanti bhastraah kim na shwasantyuta
Na khadanti na mehanti kim graamapashavo’pare        [ 2.3.18]

Are not the trees living?  Are not the bellows used in the smithy breathing?  Are not  the cattle in the village eating  and excreting? [ All these activities are common to man and animals].  

श्वविड्वराहोष्ट्रखरैः संस्तुतः पुरुषः पशुः । न यत्कर्णपथोपेतो जातु नाम गदाग्रजः ॥

Shwavidvaraahoshtrakharaih sanstutah purushah pashuh
Na yatkarnapathopeto jaatu naama gadaagrajah          [2.3.19]  

Man is considered better than the dog, the cat, the pig, the camel and the donkey.  But one into whose ears the name of Lord Vishnu has not entered is no better than an animal.

Keertanam (Singing, chanting)

कलेर्दोषनिधेर्राजन्नस्ति ह्येको महान् गुणः ।

कीर्तनादेव कृष्णस्य मुक्तसंगः परं व्रजेत् ॥


Kalerdoshanidher-raajannasti hyeko mahaan gunah
Keertanaadeva krishnasya muktasangah param vrajet [12.3.51]

O King!  Though the age of Kali is full of evils there is also a great good quality in this age.  In the age of Kali by the mere chanting and singing (keertana) of the names of Krishna one is released from his attachments and attains to the highest Truth. 
 कृते  यत् ध्यायतो विष्णुं त्रेतायां यजतो मखैः । द्वापरे परिचर्यायां कलौ तद्धरिकीर्तनात् ॥

Krite yaddhyaayato vishnum tretaayaam yajato makhaih
Dwaapare paricharyaayaam kalau taddharikeertanaat [12.3.52]

What one achieves in Krita Yuga by meditation, in  Treta Yuga by sacrificial rites, in Dwapara Yuga by serving the Lord, the same goal is achieved in Kali Yuga by chanting and singing (keertanaat) the names of Hari.
तदेव रम्यं रुचिरं नवं नवं तदेव शश्वन्मनसो महोत्सवम्।
तदेव शोकार्णवशोषणं नृणां यदुत्तमश्लोकयशोनुगीयते॥
Tadeva ramyam ruchiram navam navam tadeva shashwanmanaso mahotsavam
Tadeva shokaarnava shoshanam nrinaam yaduttamaslokayasho’nugeeyate [12.12.49]

Singing the praise of Lord Krishna’s deeds and his glory is the only thing dearest to the heart of the devotee.  For him it is the sweetest thing, it is ever new and he never tires of it, it is the greatest celebration for his heart and  it dries up the ocean of his sorrows.
न यद्वचश्चित्रपदं हरेर्यशो जगत्पवित्रं प्रगृणीत कर्हिचित्।
तद्ध्वाङ्क्षतीर्थं न तु हंससेवितं यत्राच्युतस्तत्र हि साधवोऽमलाः

Na yadvachashchitrapadam hareryasho jagatpavitram pragrineeta karhichit
Taddhwaangkshateertham na tu hamsasevitam yatraachyutastatra hi saadhavo’malaah [12.12.50]

Words or speech, containing picturesque expressions, but which do not eulogize the Lord’s deeds and glory which purify the whole world, are considered only as kakatirtha  infested by crows and not as manasarovar which is populated by swans.  Those of pure mind are present only where Achyuta is praised.

स वाग्विसर्गो जनताघविप्लवो यस्मिन् प्रतिश्लोकमबद्धवत्यपि।
नामान्यनन्तस्य यशोऽङ्कितानि यच्छृण्वन्ति गायन्ति गृणन्ति सन्तः॥
Sa vaagvisargo janataaghaviplavo
Yasmin pratishlokamabaddhavatyapi
Naamaanyanantasya yashonkitaani ya-
chchhrinwanti gaayanti grinanti santah [12.12.51]

Words or speech,  though not properly crafted or not in accordance with the rules of poetry, are nevertheless heard, sung and chanted by the saints and absolve men of all their sins if such words contain the names of the Lord bearing the stamp of His glory. 

भगवत उरुविक्रमांघ्रिशाखानखमणिचन्द्रिकया निरस्ततापे।
हृदि कथमुपसीदतां पुनः स प्रभवति चन्द्र इवोदितेऽर्कतापः॥

Bhagavata uruvikramanghrishaakhaa-
nakhamani chandrikayaa nirastataape
Hridi kathamupaseedataam punah
Sa prabhavati chandra ivodite’rkataapah

The toe-nails of Lord Krishna shine like the moon and the moonlight emanating from them dispel the  sorrow or grief in the hearts of devotees.  How can then grief arise in the devotee’s heart just as there cannot be the heat of the sun when the moon has risen?.

Paadasevanam (Service to the Lord’s feet)


सकृन्मनः कृष्णपदारविन्दयोर्निवेशितं तद्गुणरागि यैरिह।
न ते यमं पाशभृतश्च तद्भटान् स्वप्नेऽपि पश्यन्ति हि चीर्णनिष्कृताः॥



Sakrinmanah krishnapadaaravindayo-
rniveshitam tadgunaraagi yairiha
Na te yamam paashabhritashcha tadbhataan
Swapne’pi pashyanti hi cheernanishkritaah [6.1.19]

Once the devotees’ minds,  captivated by the good qualities of the Lord,  dwell on His lotus-feet, all their sins are absolved and they will not see, even in a dream, Yama and his lieutenants armed with roaps in their hands. 

श्रीर्यत्पदांबुजरजश्चकमे तुलस्या लब्ध्वाऽपि वक्षसि पदं किल भृत्यजुष्टम्।
यस्याः स्ववीक्षणकृतेऽन्यसुरप्रयासस्तद्वद्वयं च तव पादरजः प्रपन्नाः ॥

Shreeryatpadaambujarajashchakame tulasyaa
Labdhwaapi vakshasi padam kila bhrityajushtam
Yasyaah swaveekshanakrite’nyasuraprayaasa-
stadvadvayam cha tava paadarajaprapannah [10.29.37]

These are the words of Gopis of Vrindavan to Krishna:

Even  Lakshmi from whom the other celestials endeavour to get a glance and who  has been given a place on your chest wants to share with Tulsi and other devotees of yours the dust of your feet.  In the same way we also want to take refuge in the dust of your feet.  

तापत्रयेनाभिहतस्य घोरे संतप्यमानस्य भवाध्वनीश।
पश्यामि नान्यच्छरणं तवांघ्रिद्वन्द्वातपत्रादमृताभिवर्षात् ॥
Taapatrayenaabhihatasya  ghore santapyamaanasya bhavaadhwaneesha
Pashyaami naanyachchharanam tavaanghridwandwaatapatraadamritaabhivarshaat [11.19.9]

Afflicted by the three types of sorrows and subjected to great suffering in the path of this terrible samsaara,  I find no other refuge except the umbrella of your lotus-feet raining nectar.

Vandanam (Obeisance)

खं वायुमग्निं सलिलं महीं च ज्योतींषि सत्त्वानि दिशो द्रुमादीन्।
सरित्समुद्रांश्च हरेः शरीरं यत्किंच भूतं प्रणमेदनन्यः ॥
Kham vaayumagnim salilam maheem cha
Jyoteemshi sattwaani disho drumaadeen
Saritsamudraamshcha hareh shareeram
Yatkincha bhootam pranamedananyah [11.2.41]

Sky, air, fire, water, earth, stars, all living beings, all quarters, trees, rivers, oceans  and whatever else made of the five elements are the body of Hari.  Therefore the devotee should pay obeisance to all these.

Sarvaswa Nivedanam (Surrendering everything)

कायेन वाचा मनसेन्द्रियैर्वा बुध्यात्मना वाऽनुसृतस्वभावात्।
करोति यद्यत् सकलं परस्मै नारायणायेति समर्पयेत्तत्॥


Kaayena vaachaa manasendriyairvaa
Budhyaatmanaa vaa’nusritaswabhaavaat
Karoti yat yad sakalam parasmai
Naaraayanaayeti samarpayettat  [11.2.36]

Whatever is done by the body, by words, by the mind, by the senses, by the intellect, by the self or by innate nature – everything should be surrendered to Lord Narayana.

Bhakti saamaanyam (Bhakti in general)

शृण्वन् गृणन् संस्मरयंश्च चिन्तयन् नामानि रूपाणि च मंगलानि ते।
क्रियासु यस्त्वच्चरणारविंदयोराविष्टचेताः न भवाय कल्पते ॥


Shrinwan grinan samsmarayamshcha chintayan
Naamaani roopaani cha mangalaani te
Kriyaasu yastwachcharanaaravindayo-
raavishta chetaah na bhavaaya kalpate [10.2.37]

Hearing, singing or chanting, remembering and thinking about your auspicious names and forms,  engaged in various activities, but at the same time the mind thinking of your lotus feet  –  such a person will never again be subjected to the cycle of births and deaths.

विपदः सन्तु नः शश्वत्तत्र तत्र जगद्गुरो।
भवतो दर्शनं यत्स्यादपुनर्भवदर्शनम् ॥
Vipadah santu nah shashwat tatra tatra jagatguro
Bhavato darshanam yatsyaadapunarbhavadarshanam [1.8.25]

Kunti Devi to Krishna:

O Teacher of the World!  Let us face trials and tribulations once in a while so that we can see you in our midst and such seeing will surely ensure that we never again take birth to face the sufferings of this samsaara

वाणी गुणानुकथने श्रवणौ कथायां हस्तौ च कर्मसु मनस्तव पादयोर्नः।
स्मृत्यां शिरस्तव निवासजगत्प्रणामे दृष्टि: सतां दर्शनेऽस्तु भवत्तनूनाम्॥
Vaanee gunaanukathane shravanau kathaayaam
Hastau cha karmasu manastavapaadayornah
Smrityaam shirastava nivaasajagatpranaame
Drishtih sataam darshane’stu bhavattanoonaam [10.10.38]

Let our speech be engaged in praising your excellences, ears in hearing your stories, hands in your service, mind in remembering your lotus feet,  head in paying obeisance to all beings wherein you reside as antaryaami

श्रेयःस्रुतिं भक्तिमुदस्य ते विभो क्लिश्यन्ति ये केवलबोधलब्धये ।
तेषामसौ क्लेशल एव शिष्यते नान्यद्यथा स्थूलतुषावघातिनाम् ॥

Shreyasrutim bhaktimudasya te vibho
Klishyanti ye kevalabodhalabdhaye
Teshaamasu kleshala eva shishyate
Naanyadyathaa sthoolatushaavaghatinaam [10.14.4]

For those who keep aside bhakti which is the source all auspicious things and make great effort to attain pure knowledge, only the effort remains and nothing else.  It is like pounding the husk to get the rice (which is a futile attempt).
आत्मारामाश्च मुनयो निर्ग्रन्था अप्युरुक्रमे।
कुर्वन्त्यहैतुकीं भक्तिमित्थंभूतगुणो हरिः॥

Aaatmaaraamaashcha munayo nirgranthaa apyurukrame
Kurvantyahaitukeem bhaktim ittham bhootaguno Harih [1.7.10]

Even saints who revel in their own Self and who have cut asunder all wordly bonds still  have unselfish devotion to the Lord; such are the noble qualities of Hari. 

न साधयति मां योगो न सांख्यं धर्म उद्धव 
न स्वाध्यायस्तपस्त्यागो यथा भक्तिर्ममोर्जिता ॥
Na saadhayati maam yogo na saamkhyam dharma uddhava
Na swaadhyaayastapastyaago yathaa bhaktirmamorjitaa [11.14.20]

O Uddhava ! One can easily attain me by intense loving devotion to me; but not so easily by the practice of yoga ,  by following the sankhya philosophy, by adhering to dharma , by the repetition of the Vedas, by undertaking tapas ( penance) or by renunciation.

Bhaktasya lakshnam maahaatmyam cha (Mark of a devotee and his greatness)

सर्वभूतेषु यः पश्येद्भगवद्भावमात्मनः ।
भूतानि च भगवत्यात्मन्येष  भागवतोत्तमः ॥


Sarvabhooteshu yah pashyed-bhagavad-bhaavam-aatmanah
Bhootaani bhagavtyaatman-yesha bhaagavatottamah [11.2.45]

One who sees in all beings the divinity which is in himself and all beings in one’s own divinity is the foremost of my devotees

त्रिभुवनविभवहेतवेऽप्य्कुण्ठस्मृतिरजितात्मसुरादिभिर्विमृग्यात्।
न चलति भगवत्पदारविंदाल्लवनिमिषार्धमपि य स वैष्णवाग्र्यः

Tribhuvanavibhavahetave’pyakunthha-
Smritirajitaatmasuraadibhirvimrigyaat
Na chalati bhagavatpadaaravindaa-
llavanimishaardhamapi yah sa vaishnavaagryah[11.2.53]

The lotus feet of the Lord is sought after by the devas  having no control over their minds. But  one,  whom all the riches of the three worlds cannot distract from the remembrance of the Lord’s  lotus feet even for half a second, is the foremost of  all the viashanavas.

विसृजति हृदयं न यस्य साक्षाद्धरिरवशाभिहतोऽप्यघौघनाशः।
प्रणयरशनयाधृतांघ्रिपद्मः स भवति भागवतप्रधान उक्तः  ॥

Visrijati hridayam na yasya saakshaa-
ddhariravashaabhihito’pyaghoughanaashah
Pranayarashanayaadhritaanghripadmah
Sa bhavati bhaagavatapradhaana uktah [11.2.55]

The utterance of the name of Hari  will  absolve one of all sins even when such utterance is made only when one is in great trouble.  The one whose heart Hari never leaves and who has tied the lotus-feet of the Lord by the strings of his love is considered  the chief among the devotees of the Lord.

क्वचिद्रुतन्त्यच्युतचिन्तया क्वचिद्धसन्ति नन्दन्ति वदन्त्यलौकिकाः।
नृत्यन्ति गायन्त्यनुशीलयन्त्यजं भवन्ति तूष्णीं परमेत्य निर्मलाः ॥

Kwachidrudantyachyutachintayaa kwachi-
Ddhasanti nandanti vadantyalaukikaah
Nrityanti gayantyanusheelayatyajam
Bhavanti toosheem parametya nirvritaah [11.3.32]

The devotee immersed in the thought of the Lord alternately cries, laughs, becomes overcome by joy, talks incoherently, dances, sings, meditates on the Lord and finally becomes silent retiring into the infinite peace of the Atman.   

न नाकपृष्ठं न च सार्वभौमं न पारमॆष्ठ्यं  न रसाधिपत्यं।
न योगसिद्धीरपुनर्भवं वा वाञ्झन्ति यत्पादरजः प्रपन्नाः॥

Na naakaprishthham na cha saarvabhaumam
Na paarameshthhyam na rasaadhipatyam
Na yogasidheerapunarbhavam vaa
Vaajnchchanti yatpaadarajah prapanaah [10.16.37]

Those who have taken refuge at the lotus feet of Lord Krishna will have no desire whatsoever  for a place in  Heaven, emperorship over the whole of earh,  a place in brahmaloka, lordship over Rasaatla, yogic powers or even liberation from the cycle of births and deaths. 

न वै जनो जातु कथञ्चनाव्रजेन्मुकुन्दसेव्यन्यवदंग संसृतिं।
स्मरन्मुकुन्दांघ्र्युपगूहनं पुनर्विहातुमिच्छेन्न रसग्रहो यतः ॥

Navai jano jaatu kathanchana-avrajen-mukundasevy-anyavadanga samsritim
Smaranmukundaanghryupagoohanam punarvihaatumichhhenna rasagraho yatah [1.5.19]

One who is a devotee of Mukunda will never again  return to the cycle of births and deaths like other persons. Remembering the embrace of the Lord’s lotus feet, he does not want to leave them where he experiences the highest form of bliss.

निरपेक्षं मुनिं शान्तं निर्वैरं समदर्शनं । अनुव्रजाम्यहं नित्यं पूयेयेत्यंघ्रिरेणुभिः॥
Nirapeksham munim shaantam nirvairam samadarshanam
Anuvrajaamyaham nityam pooyeyetyanghrirenubhih [11.14.16]

My devotees who do not want anything, who have control over their speech, who are tranquil and at peace, who have no enemies and who see the same divinity in all living beings – them I follow wherever they go  in the fond hope that I may be purified by the dust of their feet.


सालोक्यसार्ष्टिसामीप्यसारूप्यैकत्वमप्युत । दीयमानं न गृह्णन्ति विना मत्स्वेवनं जनाः॥

Saalokya-saarshti-saameepya-saaroopyaikatwamapyuta
Deeyamaanam na grihnanti vinaa matsevanam janaah [3.29.13]

My devotees are content with serving me with loving devotion;  they do not accept even saalokya ( staying in the same world as the Lord), sameepya (staying near the Lord), saaroopya (having the same form as the Lord), or saayujya (unity with the Lord) which are offered to them

अहं भक्तपराधीनो  अस्वतन्त्र इव द्विज । साधुभिर्ग्रस्तहृदयो भक्तैर्भक्तजनप्रियः ॥
Aham bhaktaparaadheeno hyaswatantra iva dwija
Saadhubhirgrastahridayo bhaktairbhaktajanapriyah [9.4.63]

These are the words of Lord Vishnu to Durvasa in Ambarishacharitam episode of Srimad Bhagavatam.

I am under the control of my devotees, it is as if I am not free. My devotees of saintly character have captured my heart. They are very dear to me.  

QUOTABLE QUOTES FROM VIDURA NEETI

QUOTABLE QUOTES FROM VIDURA NEETI (MAHABHARATA)
Vidura was a half-brother of Dhritaraashtra and Pandu.   Ambika and Ambalika were wives of King Vichitraveerya who died childless.  Vichitravirya’s mother Satyavati was anxious to ensure that the royal line was carried on.  Ambika gave birth to Dhritaraashtra and Ambalika to Pandu fathered by Vyasa at the behest  of his mother Satyvati.   Vidura was born of a handmaiden of Ambika by Sage Vyasa.  He was therefore half-brother to both Dhritaraashtra and Pandu.
Vidura is supposed to be the incarnation of Yama, the very embodiment of dharma.  He had to take birth as a human being because of a curse on him by sage Mandavya.  Yama had imposed punishment far in excess of the sin committed by the sage unwittingly as a boy. Hence the curse on Yama.
Vidura was raised and educated by Bhishma along with his half-brothers. He was known for speaking the truth and for his intelligence and depth of knowledge. He served his brothers as a minister. He was a friend of the Pandavas and a great devotee of Krishna.  In spite of being a royal minister he led a simple life. 
Vidura Neeti, mainly on the science of politics,  is narrated in the form of a conversation between Vidura and King Dhritraashtra in the great epic Mahabharata.  It is often cited as the precursor of the more famous Chanakya Neeti. 
The following is a selection of verses from Vidura Neeti with a free translation in English. 
Mark of a Pandita (wise man)

त्मज्ञानं समारम्भः तितिक्षा धर्मनित्यता 

यमर्थान्नापकर्षन्ति वै पण्डित उच्यते
Aatmajnaanam samaarambha stitikshaa dharmanityataa
Yamarthaannaapakarshanti sa vai pandita uchyate
1.20
That one is wise who does not deviate from the higher  goals of life  rooted as he is in  Self-knowledge,  Endeavour, forbearance and adherence to dharma.
 
यस्य कृत्यं विघ्नन्ति शीतमुष्णं भयं रतिः
समृद्धिरसमृद्धिर्वा वै पण्डित उच्यते
Yasya krityam na vighnanti sheetamushnam bhayam ratih
Samriddhirasamriddhir vaa sa vai pandita uchyate
1.24
That one is wise  whose actions  or endeavours are  not obstructed by cold, heat, fear, love, affluence or poverty. 
नाप्राप्यमभिवाञ्छन्ति नष्टं नेच्छन्ति शोचितुम् ।
आपत्सु च न मुह्यन्ति स वै पण्डित उच्यते ॥
Naapraapyamabhivaanjhanti nashtam nechchhanti shochitum
Aapatsu ch na muhyanti sa vai pandita uchyate
1.28
That one is wise who does not hanker after the unattainable,  who does not worry over what is lost and who faces calamities without losing his senses.
निश्चित्वा यः प्रक्रमते नान्तर्वसति कर्मणः
अवन्ध्यकालो वश्यात्मा वै पण्डित उच्यते
Nishchitwaa yah prakramate naantarvasati karmanah
Avandhyakaalo vashyaatmaa sa vai pandita uchyate
1.29
That one is wise whose endeavours are preceded by a firm commitment, who does not take long rests before the task is accomplished,  who does not waste his time and who has control over his mind.  
हृष्यत्यात्मसम्माने  नावमानेन तप्यते
गांगो ह्रद इवाक्षोभ्यो यः पण्डित उच्यते
Na hrishyatyaatmasammaane naavamaanena tapyate
Gaango hrada ivaakshobhyo yah sah pandita uchyate
1.31
That one is wise who does not rejoice when honoured,  does not become dejected when dishonoured  and is not swayed by  emotions under the most trying circumstances.
अर्थं महान्तमासाद्य विद्यामैश्वर्यमेव वा   ।
विचरत्यसमुन्नद्धो यः स पण्डित उच्यते  ॥
Artham mahaantamaasaadya vidyaamaishwaryameva vaa
Vicharatyasamunnaddho yah sah pandita uchyate
1.45
That one is wise who, even after acquiring great wealth, learning or control over others  goes about his job wihout being conceited in the least.
Mark of a fool
अमित्रं कुरुते मित्रं मित्रं द्वेष्टि हिनस्ति च
कर्मचारभते दुष्टं तमाहुर्मूढचेतसं ॥।
Amitram kurute mitram mitram dweshti hinasti cha
Karma chaarabhate dushtam tamaahurmooddha chetasam
1.38
That one is a fool who makes the enemy his friend,  hurts and kills his friend and always engages himself in wrongful activity.
सम्सारयति कृत्यानि सर्वत्र विचिकित्सते।
चिरम् करोति क्षिप्रार्थे स मूढो भरतर्षभ
Samsaarayati krityaani sarvatra vichikitsate
Chiram karoti kshipraathe sa mooddho bharatarshabha
1.39
That one is a fool who spreads out his actions,  entertains doubts about everything and takes a long time for actions which  should  be done with the utmost  urgency.
क्षिपत्यन्यान् हि दोषेण वर्तमान स्वयम् तथा।
यश्च क्रुद्धत्यनीशानः स च मूढतमो नरः॥
Kshipatyanyam hi doshena vartamaanah swayam tathaa
Yashcha krudhatyaneeshaanah sa cha mooddhatamo narah
2.43
That one is the greatest  fool who finds fault with others when he himself has such faults and who gets angry when he himself has no control over the one at whom the anger is directed.
न वैरमुद्दीपयति प्रशान्तं
न दर्पमारोहति नास्तमेति ।
न दुर्गतोऽस्मीति करोत्यकार्यं
तमार्यशीलं परमाहुरार्याः  ॥
Na vairamuddeepayati prashaantam
Na darpamaarohati naastameti
Na durgatosmeeti karotyakaaryam
Tamaaryasheelam paramaahuraaryaah
1.117
That one is of sterling conduct and character who does not inflame the enmity which has cooled down, is not conceited  and at the same time is not self-deprecating, does not engage in wrongful actions on the ground that he is passing through a difficult period.
एकश्चार्थान् न चिन्तयेत्
Ekashchaarthaan na chintayet
1.51
Alone one should not apply thought to a matter of substance.
क्षमागुणोह्यशक्तानां  शक्तानां भूषणं क्षमा ।
Kshamaa gunohyashaktaanaam shaktaanaam bhooshanam kshamaa
1.54
For the weak patience (forgiveness) is a quality; for the strong patience (forgiveness)  is an adornment.
द्वे कर्मणी नरः कुर्वन्नस्मिंल्लोके विरोचते।
अब्रुवं परुषं कश्चित् असतोऽनर्चयंस्तथा ॥
Dwe karmanee narah kurvannasminloke virochate
Abruvan parusham kashchit asatonarchayamstathaa
1.59
By doing two things, namely,  not speaking harsh words and not flattering or giving respect to  bad characters,  one would shine in this world.
अष्टा गुणा: पुरुषं दीपयन्ति
प्रज्ञा च कौल्यं च दमः श्रुतश्च ।
पराक्रमश्चाबहुभाषिता च
दानं यथाशक्ति कृतज्ञता च ॥
Ashtaa gunaah purusham deepayanti
Prajnaa cha kaulyam cha damah shrutam cha
Paraakramashchaabahubhaashitaa cha
Daanam yathaashakti kritajnataa cah
Intelligence, noble birth, control of the senses, learning, valour, control on speech (not being talkative), giving to others according to one’s capacity and gratefulness    –  these eight qualities adorn a person. 
वाक्संयमो हि नृपते सुदुष्करतमो मतः ।
अर्थवच्च विचित्रं च न शक्यो बहुभाषितुम् ॥
Vaaksamyamo hi nripate sudushkaratamo maatah
Arthavachcha vichitram cha na shakyam bahu bhaashitum
2.76
O King! Control on speech is considered to be one of the most difficult things to achieve.  In fact, one will not able to speak much that is pregnant with meaning and  is expressed in picturesque language.
Control of the senses
वश्येन्द्रियं जितात्मानं धृतदण्डं विकारिषु।
परीक्ष्यकारिणं  धीरं अत्यन्तं श्रीर्निषेवते ॥
Vashyendriyam Jitaatmaanam dhrutadandam vikaarishu
Pareekshyakaarinam dheeram atyantam shreernishevate
Goddess Lakshmi is always with people who keep their senses  and mind under control, who punish wrong-doers, whose actions are preceded by a thorough examination of its pros and cons and who is of great determination.
रथः शरीरं पुरुषस्य राजन् आत्मा नियन्तेन्द्रियाण्यस्य चाश्वाः
तैरप्रमत्तः कुशली सदश्वैर्दान्तैः सुखं याति रथीव धीरः
Rathah shareeram purushasya rajan aatmaa niyantendriyaanyasya chaashwaah
Tairapramattah kushaee sadashwairdaantaih sukham yaati ratheeva dheerah
This body is the chariot, buddhi (intellect)  is the charioteer and the senses are the horses. One who controls all these travels happily in this world like the charioteer who has controlled the horses of the chariot.
एतान्यनिगृहीतानि व्यापादयितुमप्यलं।
अविधेया इवादान्ताः हयाः पथि कुसारथिम् ॥
Etaanyanigriheetaani vyaapaadayitumapyalam
Avidheyaa ivaadaantaah hayaah pathi kusaarathim
Just like the uncontrolled horses will throw the unskilled charioteer to the ground, the seses which are not subdued and are not under contorl are capable of destroying a person.
धर्मार्थौ यः परितज्य स्यादिन्द्रिय वशानुगः।
श्रीप्राणधनदारेभ्यः क्षिप्रं स परिहीयते॥
Dahrmaarthau yah parityajya syaadindriya vashaanugah
Shreepraanadhanadaarebhyah kshipram sa pariheeyate
One who forsakes dharma  (virtue)  and artha (matrial things) and is always under the control of his senses will soon lose his charm,  his energy, his weath and  his wife. 
आत्मनात्मानमन्विच्छेत्  मनोबुद्धीन्द्रियैर्यतैः।
आत्माह्येवात्मनो बंधुः आत्मैव रिपुरात्मनः ॥
Aatmanaatmaanamanvichchhet mano buddheendriyairyataih
Aatmaa hyevaatmano bandhuraatmaiva ripuraatmanah
One should try to understand his real self by controlling his mind, intellect and the senses.  The controlled mind is the friend of the self and the uncontrolled mind in the enemy of the self.
पंचैव पूजयन् लोके यश: प्राप्नोति केवलं           ।
देवान्  पितॄन् मनुष्यांश्च भिक्षून् अतिथि पंचमान्    ॥      
Panchaiva poojayan loke yashah praapnoti kevalam
Devaan pitreen manushyaamshcha bhikshoon atithi panchamaan
By worshipping (serving) the five , namely, devas, departed souls of parents and ancestors, human beings, sanyaasis and guests one will achieve fame and recognition. 
पंच त्वाऽनुगमिष्यन्ति यत्र यत्र गमिष्यसि ।
मित्राण्यमित्रा मध्यस्था उपजीव्योपजीविनः ॥
Pancha twaanugamishyanti yatr yatra gamishyasi
Mitraanyamitraa madhyasthaa upajeevyopjeevinah
These five will follow you wherever you go meaning you will find them wherever you go – friends, enemies, those who are neutral, those on whom you depend and those who depend on you.
षट् दोषा: पुरुषेणेह  हातव्याः भूतिमिच्छता ।
निद्रा तन्द्रा भयं क्रोधः आलस्यं दीर्घसूत्रिता  ॥
Shat doshaah purusheneha haatavyaah bhootimichchhataa
Nidraa tandraa bhayam krodhah aalasyam deerghasootritaa
One who desires to be prosperous and happy should give up these six faults , namely, excessive sleep,  sluggishness, fear, anger, laziness and  procrastination in decision-making.
षडिमान् पुरुषो जह्यात् भिन्नं नावमिवार्णवे
अप्रवक्तारं आचार्यं अनध्यायिनम् ऋत्विजम् ।
आरक्षितारं राजानं भार्यां चाऽप्रियवादिनीं
ग्रामकामं च गोपालं वनकामं च नापितम्॥
Shadimaan purusho jahyaat bhinnam naavamivaarnave
Apravaktaaram aachaaryam  anadhyaayinam rithwijam
Arakshitaaram raajaanam bhaaryaam chaapriyavaadineem
Graama kaamam cha gopaalam vanakaamam cha naapitam
These six are to abandoned  by  a man like a broken vessel (boat or ship) in the sea – the achaarya who does not teach, the ritwik who does not repeat the vedas, the king who does not protect his subjects,  the wife who always says unpleasant things, the cowherd who does not want to go out of the village ( grama) (for grazing the cattle)  and the barber who wants to go out into the forest.
षडैव तु गुणाः पुंसा न हातव्या कदाचन ।
सत्यं दानं अनालस्यं अनसूया क्षमा धृतिः॥
Shadaiva tu gunaah pumsaa na haatavyaa kadaachana
Satyam daanam anaalasyam anasooyaa kshamaa dhritih
These six qualities should never be abandoned  – truthfulness, giving,  not being lazy, not finding fault even in something good, forgiveness and determination or courage.
अर्थागमो नित्यमरोगिता च
प्रिया च भार्य प्रियवादिनी च ।
वश्यश्च पुत्रोऽर्थकरी च विद्या
षट् जीवलोकस्य सुखानि राजन् ॥
Arthaagamo nityamarogitaa cha
Priyaa cha bhaaryaa priyavadinee cha
Vashyascha putro arthakaree cha vidyaa
Shat jeevalokasya sukhaani raajan
Having a steady inflow of money (income), an ever healthy body, a loving wife who always speaks what will cheer up the husband, an obedient son, skill or learning which enables one to earn a living –  these will make a man’s life happy and joyful.
षण्णामात्मनि नित्यानामैश्वर्यं योऽधिगच्छति।
न स पापैः कुतोऽनर्थः युज्यते विजितेन्द्रियः ॥
Shannaam aatmani nityaanaam aishwaryam yo adhigachchhati
Na sa paapaih kuto anarthaih yujyate vijitendriyah 
He who gains control on the six enemies who are ever present in a person,( namely kama (lust), krodha (anger), lobha (greed), moha (attachment), mada (arrogance), maatsyarya (jealousy)) and   who has conquered his senses –  sin will not touch that person, what to talk of misfortunes.
ईर्ष्यी घृणी असंतुष्टः क्रोधनो नित्यशंकितः ।
परभाग्योपजीवी च षडैते नित्य दु:खिताः   ॥
Eershyee  ghrinee asantushtah krodhano nityashankitah
Parabhaagyopajeevee cha shadaithe nitya dukhitaah
One who envies , one who hates, one who is not content, one who is always angry, one who is always suspicious  and one who lives on the fortunes of others – these six are always sad.
षडैते ह्यवमन्यन्ते नित्यं पूर्वोपकारिणां
आचार्यं शिक्षिताः शिष्याः कृतदाराश्च मातरं ।
नारीं विगतकामस्तु कृतार्थश्च प्रयोजकं
नावं निस्तीर्णकान्तारा अनातुराश्च चिकित्सितम् ॥
Shadete hyavamanyante nityam poorvopakaarinaam
Aachaaryam shikshitaah shishyaah kritadaaraashcha maataram
Naareem vigatakaamaastu krithaarthaashcha prayojakam
Navam nisteernakaantaaraa anaaturaashcha chikitsakam
The following six people show no respect to their benefactors once their need is fulfilled.  Students who have completed their studies to their teacher, the married man to his mother, one whose sex urge has been satisfied to the woman, one whose work has been satisfactorily accomplished to the person who did the job,  one who has crossed the river to the boatman and one who has recovered from his illness to the doctor. 
आरोग्यमानृण्यमविप्रवासः
सद्भिर्मनुष्यैस्सह संप्रयोगः।
स्वप्रत्यया वृत्तिरभीतवासः
षट् जीवलोकस्य सुखानि राजन् ॥
Aarogyamaanrinyamavipravaasah
Sadbhirmanushyaissaha samprayogah
Swapratyayaa vrittirabheetavaasah
Shat jeevalokasya sukhaani raajan
Good health, not to be in debt, not being forced to live  in an alien land, company of good people,  earning a livelihood by one’s own skill or knowledge and living without fear – these six things make one’s like happy and joyful.
The seven bad habits
सप्त दोषा सदा राजन् हातव्या व्यसनोदयाः
प्रायशो यैर्विनश्यन्ति कृतमूला अपीश्वराः।
स्त्रियोऽक्षाः मृगया पानं वाक्पारुष्यं च पंचमं
महच्च दण्डपारुष्यं अर्थदूषणमेव च ॥
Saptadoshaah sadaa raajnaa  haatavyaa vyasanodayaah
Praayasho yairvinashyanti kritamoola apeeshwaraah
Striyokshaah mrigayaa paanam vaakpaarushyam cha panchamam
Mahachcha dandapaarushyam arthadooshanameva cha
The following seven bad habits will lead to the downfall of even a well-established king.   Women, gambling, hunting, intoxicating drinks, use of harsh words, inflicting very harsh punishment for minor offences and misuse of the treasury.
नवद्वारमिदं वेश्म त्रिस्थूणं पंचशाखिकं
क्षेत्रज्ञाधिष्ठितं विद्वान् यो वेद स परः कविः॥
Navadwaaramidam veshma trishthoonam panchasaakshikam
Kshetrajnaadhishthhitam vidwaan yo veda sa parah kavih
He who knows that this body with its nine openings ( mouth, years, eyes, nose etc) three pillars ( vata, pitta and kapha) five witnesses (sensory organs) is the home of the Atman is the real Jnaani (knower)    
दश धर्मं न जानन्ति धृतराष्ट्र निबोध तान्।
मत्तः प्रमत्तः उन्मत्तः श्रान्तः क्रुद्धो बुभुक्षितः॥
त्वरमाणश्च लुब्धश्च भीतः कामी च ते दश।
तस्मादेतेषु सर्वेषु न प्रसज्जेत पण्डितः  ॥
Dasha dharmam na jaananti dhritaraashtra nibodha taan
Mattah pramattah unmattah shraantah kruddho bubhukshitah
Tvaramaanashcha lubdhashcha bheetah kaamee cha te dasha
Tasmaad etheshu sarveshu na prasajjeta panditah
One who is intoxicated, one who is not cautious or careful,  one who is insane, one who is overcome by fatigue,  one who is hungry, one who is in a hurry, one who is greedy, one who is full of fear  and one who is lustful  – these ten  do not know what is dharma   ( Their state of mind do not give them the capacity to distinguish between dharma and adharma.)  Therefore the wise should avoid the company of such people.
चिकीर्षितं विप्रकृतं च यस्य
नान्ये जनाः कर्म जानन्ति किञ्चित्।
मन्त्रे गुप्ते सम्यगनुष्ठिते च
नाल्पोऽप्यस्य च्यवते कश्चिदर्थः॥

Chikeershitam viprakritam cha yasya
Naanye janaah karma jaananti kinchit
Mantre gupte samyaganushthhite cha
Naalpopyasya chyavate kashchidarthaah
One should maintain secrecy abount what one wants to accomplish and what one wants to avoid so that no one else knows about them. The  plan of action arrived at after consultation should also be kept a secret and executed properly and efficiently. Then all  one’s efforts will bear fruit without any difficulty. 
प्राप्यापदं व्यथते न कदाचित्
उद्योगमन्विच्छति च अप्रमत्तः
दु:खं च काले सहते महात्मा
धुरंधरस्तस्य जिताः सपत्नाः
Praapyaapadam vyathate na kadaachid-
Udyogamanvichchhati cha apramattah
Dukham cha kaale sahate mahaatmaa
Dhuramdharastasya jitaah sapatnaah
One who does not lose heart even when facing difficulties but puts in efforts to overcome them, has the capacity to endure pain and suffering  and can shoulder responsibilities – for  such a person victory over his enemies is guaranteed.
न स्वे सुखे वै कुरुते प्रहर्षं
नान्यस्य दु:खे भवति प्रहृष्टः।
दत्वा न पश्चात् कुरुतेऽनुतापं
स कथ्यते सत्पुरुषार्यशील:॥
Na swe sukhe vai kurute praharsham
Naanyasya dukhe bhavati prahrishtah
Datwaa na pashchaat kurute anutaapam
Sa kathyate satpurushaarysheelah
One who is not overjoyed on his good fortune, does not enjoy the misfortune of others and having gifted a thing to someone later does not regrets his giving  – such a person is said to be of very exemplary conduct and character.
यदतप्तं प्रणमति न तत् सन्तापयन्त्यपि
यच्च स्वयं नतं दारु न तत् सन्नमयन्त्यपि॥
Yadataptam pranamati na tat santaapayantyapi
Yachcha swayam natam daaru  na tat sannamayantyapi
Metal which can bend without heating is not heated.  The branches of  a tree which are alreay bent and almost touching the ground  are not bent again.
सत्येन रक्ष्यते धर्मो विद्या योगेन रक्ष्यते ।
मृजया रक्ष्यते रूपं कुलं वृत्तेन रक्ष्यते ॥
Satyena rakshyate dharmo vidyaa yogena rakshyate
Mrijayaa rakshyate roopam kulam vrittena rakshyate
Dharma is protected by Truth,  Learning is protected by Yoga , beauty is protected by cleanliness and the clan or family is protected by good conduct.
यः ईर्षुः परवित्तेषु रूपे वापि कुलान्वये।
सुख सौभाग्य सत्कारे तस्य व्याधिरनन्तकः ॥
Yah eershuh  paravitteshu roope vaapi kulaanwaye
Sukha soubhaagya satkaare tasya vyaadhiranantakah

One who envies others’ wealth, beauty, family reputation, noble birth, happiness, fortune or respect in society  is really a sick person.  For him there is no cure.
सन्नियच्छति यो वेगं उत्थितं क्रोधहर्षयोः ।
स श्रियो भाजनं राजन् यश्चापत्सु न मुह्यति ॥
Sanniyachchhati yo vegam utthitam krodhaharshayoh
Sa shriyo bhaajanam raajan  yashchaapatsu na muhyati
O King! One who controls  anger and joy which arise in the mind with great force and does not lose his cool in calamities is a fit repository of wealth and fortune. (He deserves wealth and fortune).  
            
 

QUOTABLE QUOTES FROM MANUSMRITI

                                        

                                                            QUOTABLE QUOTES
                                                           
                                                                          FROM
                                                                      MANU SMRITI
  On attitude towards food
                                      
                                    
                      पूजयेदशनं नित्यं अद्याच्चैनमकुत्सयन् 
           दृष्ट्वा हृष्येत् प्रसीदेच्च प्रतिनन्देच्च सर्वश:
           पूजितं ह्यशनं नियं बलमूर्जं च यच्छति ।
           अपूजितं तु तद्भुक्तं उभयं नाशयेदिदं ॥   
                        अनारोग्यमनायुष्यं अस्वर्ग्यं चातिभोजनं ।
           अपुण्यं लोकविद्विष्टं तस्मात् तत्परिवर्जयेत् ॥
                       Poojaye-dashanam nityam
                       adyaachchaina-makutsayan  
                       drushtwaa  hrushyet praseedechcha
                       pratinandechcha   sarvashah  
                                 
                       Poojitam hyashanam nityam
                       balamoorjam cha yachchati
                       Apoojitam tu tadbhuktam
                       ubhayam naashayed idam
                
                       Anaarogyam anaayushyam
                       aswargyam cha atibhojanam
                       Apunyam lokavidvishtam
                       tasmaat tat parivarjayet                   
Food should always be worshipped and taken with the utmost reverence. The sight of food should delight one’s heart and fill it with joy.  It should always be  cherished  whatever the situation. Food thus honoured  gives one strength and energy.  Food taken irreverently destroys both strength and energy.  
Over-eating is unhealthy, shortens one’s life and  is an impediment to swarga  meaning it prevents you from ahieving higher levels of happiness and joy.  It is a sin and looked down upon by people. It is therefore good to abstain from over-eating.   
[Note: It is  scientifically accepted that a conducive frame of mind is essential for the proper digestion and assimilation of food.  The state of mind certainly influences hormonal secretions and the metabolism. There is also the vedic injunction ‘annam na nindyaat’ meaning food is not be despised]
On control of the senses
 इन्द्रियाणां विचरतां विषयेष्वपहारिषु ।
संयमे यत्नमातिष्ठेत्    विद्वान् यन्तेव वाजिनां॥ 
               
इन्द्रियाणां प्रसंगेन दोषमृच्छत्यसंशयं।
संनियम्य तु तानेव ततः सिद्धिं नियच्छति ॥
 न जातु कामाः कामानामुपभोगेन शाम्यति ।
 हविषा कृष्णवर्त्मेव भूय एवाभिवर्धते ॥
  वेदास्त्यागश्च यज्ञाश्च नियमाश्च तपांसि च ।

 न विप्रदुष्टभावस्य सिद्धिं यच्छन्ति कर्हिचित् ॥

                                       

       
                 Indriyaanaam vicharataam vishayeshwapahaarishu
                 samyame yatnamaatishthet vidwaan yanteva vaajinaam
                 Indriyaanaam prasamgena dosha-mruchchaty-asamshayam
                 Samniyamya tu taaneva tatah siddhim niyachchati
                 Na jaatu kaamah kaamaanaam-upabhogena shaamyati   
                 Havishaa krishnavartmeva bhooya eva abhivardhate
                 Vedaastyaagashcha yagnaashcha  niyamaamshcha tapaamsi cha
                  Na vipradushta bhaavasya siddhim yachchanti karhichit
The five senses chase the objects of their desire which powerfully attract them.  Wise men should endeavour to keep them under control like a horseman controls his horses.
There is no doubt that, ultimately, only something bad comes out of the attachment of the senses to their objects. By controlling the very same senses one is able to achieve the ultimate goal of one’s life.
Desire itself never subsides by enjoyment of the objects of desire.  It only flares up again like a fire into which ghee is poured while performing havan.   
Study of vedas, sacrifices, performance of yagnas, niyamas (ahimsa, truth in thought word and deed, non-stealing, non-acceptance of gifts etc) and penances cannot lead one to the ultimate goal of one’s life if the mind is polluted by uncontrolled desires.  
                                   
                                                                                                                                                  ]
On Vidya  (learning, more specifically vedic or  sacred knowledge)
  विद्या ब्रह्मणमेत्याह शेवधिस्तेऽस्मि रक्ष मां ।
 असूयकाय मां मा दास्तथा स्यां वीर्यवत्तमा॥
 यमेव तु शुचिं विद्या नियतब्रह्मचारिणं
 तस्मै मां ब्रूहि विप्राय निधिपाय अप्रमादिने  ॥ 
  Vidyaa brahmanametyaaha shevadhistesmi raksha maa
  Asooyakaaya maam maa daastathaa syaam veeryavattamaa
   Yameva tu shuchim vidyaa niyata brahmachaarinam
   Tasmai maam broohi vipraaya nidhipaaya apramaadine        
                   
Vidya (Learning personified) came to the Brahamana (Teacher) and said, “I am your treasure. Protect me. Do not give me to some one whose tendency is to find fault even in good things. (asooyaa  = doshaaropo guneshwapi – Amarakosam) . This way I will become more potent.
 Give me to one who, you know, is pure in body and mind,  has control over his senses,  is of a sattwic temperament, who will guard me as a treasure and who is always alert and careful
                                      
अभिवादनशीलस्य नित्यं वृद्धोपसेविनः ।
चत्वारि तस्य वर्द्धन्ते आयुर्विद्यायशोबलम् ॥
न हायनैर्न पलितैर्न वित्तेन न बन्धुभिः।
ऋषयश्चक्रिरे धर्मं योऽनूचानः स नो महान्॥
न तेन वृद्धो भवति येनास्य पलितं शिरः
यो वै युवाऽप्यधीयानः तं देवास्थविरं विदुः                            
  
   Abhivaadanasheelasya nityam vruddhopasevinah
   Chatwaari tasya vardhante ayurvidyaa yashobalam
   Na haayanair na palitair na vittena na bandhubhih
   Rushayah chakrire dharmam yo anoochanah sa no mahaan
   Na tena vruddho bhavati yenaasya palitam shirah
   Yo vai yuvaapyadheeyanah tam devaah sthaviram viduH
One who is respectful towards elders and wise men and who always serves the old will have longer life and increase in learning, fame and physical and mental strength.
It is not the number of years or the number of grey hairs on one’s head or one’s wealth and relations that make one great.
The rishis have laid down the dictum that only that one is great who is well-read and learned in the sacred texts.
One does not become a venerable  vruddha  simply because his hairs have turned white.  But one who is young and is well-read and still learning is really a sthavira  meaning a venerable person not by his age but by his knowledge. 
श्रद्दधान: शुभां विद्यां आददीताऽवरादपि
अन्त्यजादपि परं धर्मं स्त्रीरत्नं दुष्कुलादपि॥ 
स्त्रियो रत्नान्यथोविद्या धर्मः शौचं सुभाषितं।
विविधानि च शिल्पानि समादेयानि सर्वतः॥
Shraddadhaanah shubhaam vidyaam aadadeeta avaraadapi
 Antyajaadapi param dharmam stree ratnam dushkulaadapi
 Striyo ratnaanyatho vidyaa dharmah shaucham subhaashitam
 Vividhaani cha shilpaani samaadeyaani sarvatah
Auspicious knowledge shall be received with humble respect even from one who is inferior in age or status.  Virtues shall be imbibed even from one who is of an inferior social status.  A gem of a woman who is virtuous  shall be accepted even if she comes from an infamous clan.
Women, diamonds, knowledge, virtue, physical and mental purity, wise sayings and different arts and skills shall be gathered and accepted whatever their source.  
On treatment of women
   
 यत्र नार्यस्तु पूज्यन्ते रमन्ते तत्र देवताः ।
 यत्रैतास्तु न पूज्यन्ते सर्वास्तत्राफला क्रियाः ॥
 शोचन्ति जामयो यत्र विनश्यत्याशु तत्कुलं ।
 न शोचन्ति तु यत्रैता वर्धते तद्धि सर्वदा॥
  तस्मादेताः सदा पूज्या भूषणाच्छादनाशनैः ।
 भूतिकामैर्नरैर्नित्यं सत्कार्येषूत्सवेषु च ॥
  संतुष्टो भार्यया भर्ता भार्या भर्त्रा तथैव च ।
 यस्मिन्नेव कुले नित्यं कल्याणं तत्र वै ध्रुवं ॥
 Yatra naaryastu poojyante ramante tatra devataah
 Yatraitaastu na poojyante sarvaastatraaphalaa kriyaah
 Shochanti jaamayo yatra vinashyatyaashu tatkulam
 Na shochanti tu yatraitaa vardhate taddhi sarvadaa
Tasmaadetaah sadaa poojyaah bhooshana achchaadana ashanaih
Bhootikaamair narair nityam satkaaryeshu utsaveshu cha
Santushto bhaaryayaa bhartaa bhaaryaa bhartraa tathaiva cha
Yasminneva kule nityam kalyaanam tatra vai dhruvam
Where women are propitiated and respected there the devatas (celestials) abide happily. Where they are not honoured no sacrifices or rituals (kiriyaah) will bear fruit.
Those clans will perish whose women grieve and where they do not grieve such clans will prosper always.
Therefore one who wishes to prosper and accumulate wealth should please women of the household  by means of  ornaments, fine clothes and good food on auspicious occasions and during festivals.
Those clans will  definitely prosper and be full of joy where the husbands are content with their wives and the wives are content with their husbands.

                                       

                                     
                                  
                                                     

QUOTABLE QUOTES FROM SANSKRIT CLASSICS

Quotes from Sanskrit Classics

The classical period of Sanskrit literature dates back from the 3rd century BC right upto to the 8th century AD. One of the earliest known Sanskrit plays is the mrichakatika thought to have been composed by shudraka in the 2nd century BC. Bhasa and Kalidasa are major early poets and dramatists. Kālidāsa qualifies easily as the greatest poet and playwright in Sanskrit. His three famous plays are Vikarmorvashiyam, Malavikaagnimitram and Abhijnaanashaakuntalam. The last mentioned play is acknowledged as one the most beautiful plays not only in classical Sanskrit but also in world literature.
A few of the greatest works of poetry in this period are the following Mahākāvyas:

  • Kumarasambhavam by Kalidasa
  • Kiratarjuniyam by Bharavi
  • Sishupalavadham by Sri Magha
  • Naishadheeya Charitam by Sri Harsha

There is a sloka which says about these mahakavis:

उपमा कालिदासस्य भारवेरर्थगौरवम् ।
दण्डिनः पदलालित्यं माघे सन्ति त्रयो गुणाः ॥
Upamaa kaalidaasasya bharaverarthagauravam
Dandinah padalaalityam maaghe santi trayo gunaah

Kalidasa excels in the use of similes and metaphors in his poetry, Bharavi’s works are pregnant with meaning, Dandi’s language is simple and lilting and poet Magha combines in him all the three qualities mentioned above.

Sanskrit fairy tales and fables are chiefly characterized by ethical reflections and proverbial philosophy. The two most important collections are Panchatantra by Vishnu Sharma and Hitopadesha by Narayana Pandita. These were originally intended as manuals for the instruction of kings in domestic and foreign policy.

Somadeva’s Kathasaritsagara is a work of special importance. Composed in verse it is of very considerable length, containing more than 22,000 slokas.

Fable collections, serving as the handbooks of practical moral philosophy, provided an abundant reservoir of ethical maxims. They became so popular that works consisting exclusively of poetical aphorisms started to appear. The most important are the two collections by the highly-gifted Bhartruhari entitled respectively Nīti-śataka and Vairāgya-śataka.

Given below is selection of sayings from the Sanskrit classics. The selections are in the nature of what is called subhashitani , literally meaning ‘well said’, picturesque in expression and import, embedded as diamonds strewn . They throw light on human nature, on virtues like truthfulness, compassion, love, humility, charity, perseverance, human effort etc, code of conduct according to one’s role in the family or society and practical advice when faced with obstacles or difficulties. They also warn us against negative emotions like anger, jealousy, greed, conceit, fault-finding etc. It has to be pointed out here that the selections are not intended to bring out the poetic excellences or provide a critical appreciation of the works concerned

1. Raghuvamsam (Mahakavi Kalidasa)

हेम्नः संलक्ष्यते ह्यग्नौ विशुद्धि: श्यामिकाऽपि वा ।
Hemnah samlakshyate hyagnau vishuddhih shyaamikaapi va.

The purity or otherwise of gold can be tested only when it is put through the fire.

क्रिया हि वस्तूपहिता प्रसीदति ।
Kriyaa hi vastoopahutaa praseedati.

Knowledge imparted only to a fit recipient will yield the desired result.

पदं हि सर्वत्र गुणैर्निधीयते ।
Padam hi sarvatra gunairnidheeyat.

Good qualities put their footprints everywhere.

भिन्नरुचिर्हि लोकः ।
Bhinnaruchirhi lokah.

People have varied tastes, likes and dislikes.

मरणं प्रकृतिः शरीरिणां विकृतिर्जीवितमुच्यते बुधैः ।
क्षणमप्यवतिष्ठते श्वसन् यदि जन्तुर्ननु लाभवानसौ ॥
Maranam prakritih shareerinaam vikritirjeevitamuchyate budhaih.
Kshanamapyavatishthate shwasanyadi janturnanu laabhavaanasau..

Wise men say that death is a natural thing for the embodied soul whereas life is accidental. Even if one is able to breathe and be alive for a second, it should be considered as a gain.

स्वशरीरशरीरिणावपि श्रुत संयोग विपर्ययौ यदा ।
विरह्ः किमिवानुतापयेत् वद बाह्यैर्विषयैर्विपश्चिताम् ॥
Swashareerashareerinaavapi shruta samyoga viparyayau yadaa.
Virahah kimivaanutaapayedvada baahyairvishayaih vipashchitaam..

When the union and separation of the body (shareera ) and the indweller of the body (shareeree, Jiva) is common knowledge, how could the separation (viraha) from external entities cause grief to a wise person?

2. Kumarasambhavam (Mahakavi Kalidasa)

विकारहेतौ सति विक्रियन्ते येषां न चेतांसि त एव धीराः ।
Vikaarahetau sati vikriyante Yeshaam na chetaamsi ta eva dheeraah.

Only he can be considered a dheera ( a person of courage) whose mind is not disturbed or overcome by emotions even in the presence of objects of temptation.

प्रायेण सामग्र्यविधौ गुणानां
पराङ्‌मुखी विश्वसृजः प्रवृत्तिः॥
Praayena saamagryavidhau gunaanaam
Paraangmukhee vishwasrijah pravrittih

In most of the cases, the Creator Brahma is reluctant to assemble all the good qualities in one place (person). (The idea is even the best of men will have a few failings).

क ईप्सितार्थस्थिरनिश्चयं मनः
पयश्च निम्नाभिमुखं प्रतीपयेत्॥
Ka eepsitaartha sthiranishchayam manah
Payashcha nimnaabhimukham prateepayet

Who can reverse the course of two things, namely, the mind which is steadfastly clinging to the desired object and water which always flows from higher level to lower level?

शरीरमाद्यं खलु धर्मसाधनम्
Shareeramaadyam khalu dharmasaadhanam

The human body is the first instrument for treading the path of dharma

न रत्नमन्विष्यति मृग्यते हि तत्
Na ratnamanwishyati mrigyate hi tat

A valuable diamond does not seek, it is only sought after.

अलोकसामान्यमचिन्त्यहेतुकं
द्विषन्ति मन्दाश्चरितं महात्मनाम्
Alokasaamaanyam achintyahetukam
Dwishanti mandaashcharitam mahaatmanaam

Fools deride the character of great souls whose conduct and behaviour are different from those of ordinary mortals who cannot think of possible reasons for such difference.

प्रायः प्रत्ययमादत्ते स्वगुणेषूत्तमादरः
Praayah pratyayamaadatte swaguneshoottamaadaarh

Respect or recognition by men of noble character instills into one a belief in one’s own good qualities.

याच्ञा मोघा वरमधिगुणे नाधमे लब्धकामा
Yaachjnaa moghaa varamadhigune naadhame labdhakaamaa

Begging of a noble person and not getting what one wants is much better than begging of a mean person and getting what one wants.

रिक्तः सर्वे भवति हि लघुः पूर्णता गौरवाय
Riktah sarve bhavati hi laghuh poornata gauravaaya

Empty ( of wealth, knowledge, good qualities etc) one loses dignity and respect in society. Fullness ( of wealth, knowledge, good qualities etc.) , on the other hand, gives one dignity and respect in society.

आपन्नार्तिप्रशमनफलाः सम्पदो ह्युत्तमानाम्
Aapannaartiprashamanaphalaah sampado hyuttamaanaam

Noble souls use their wealth for the purpose of wiping out the misery and suffering of those overcome by misfortune.
 

कस्यात्यन्तं सुखमुपनतं दु:खमेकान्ततो वा
नीचैर्गच्छत्युपरि च दशा चक्रनेमिक्रमेण
Kasyaatyantam sukhamupanatam dukhamekaantato vaa
Neechairgachchhatyupari cha dashaa chakranemikramena

There is none who is always happy and comfortable and none who is always unhappy and miserable. Happiness and sorrow alternate like the rim of a wheel which goes up and down.

3. Abhijnaanashaakuntalam Natakam (Mahakavi Kalidasa)

किमिव हि मधुराणां मण्डनं नाकृतीनाम्
Kimivahi madhuraanaam mandanam naakriteenaam?

Which is not an adornment for a beautiful form? (Anything can add to the beauty if one has a beautiful form)

सतां हि सन्देहपदेषु वस्तुषु
प्रमाणमन्तकरण प्रवृत्तयः
Sataam hi sandehapadeshu vastushu
Pramaanam antahkarana pravruttayah

For people of character, when in a dilemma whether a particular conduct or deed is good or bad, their own inner voice or conscience is the final arbiter.

अर्थो हि कन्या परकीय एव
Artho hi kanyaa parakeeya eva

A girl child is another man’s property and she is held in trust by the parents.

औत्सुक्यमात्रमवसाययति प्रतिष्ठा
Autsukyamaatramavasaayayati pratishthaa

When one gets recognition, the enthusiasm which was there while endeavouring to get that recognition, cools down.

अनुभवति हि मूर्ध्ना पादपस्तीव्रमुष्णं ।
शमयति परितापं छायया संश्रितानाम् ॥
Anubhavati hi moordhnaa paadapasteevramushnam
Shamayati paritaapam chchhaayayaa samshritaanaam

The tree bears the intense heat on its head while it lessens the heat for those who take shelter under it.

भवन्ति नम्रास्तरव फलोद्गमैः
नवांबुभिर्भूमिविलंबिनो घनाः
अनुद्धताः सत्पुरुषा समृद्धिभिः
स्वभाव एवैष परोपकारिणाम्
Bhavanti namraastarava phalodgamaih
Navaambubhirbhoomivilambino ghanaah
Anuddhataah satpurushaah samriddhibhih
Swabhaava evaisha paropakaarinaam

Trees laden with fruits bend down so that people may pluck and enjoy the fruits. Clouds laden with water come down in the form of rain cooling the earth and watering plants and trees. In the same way noble men do not become conceited when fortune embraces them but use their wealth to help others. This is the nature of persons who are always eager to be of help to fellow humans.

स्रजमपि शिरस्यन्धः क्षिप्तं धुनोत्यहिशंकया
Srajamapi shirasyandhah kshiptaam dhunotyahishankayaa

One who is blind throws away even a garland of flower placed on his head, thinking it is a snake.

4. Vikramorvasheeyam Natakam (Mahakavi Kalidasa)

यदेवोपनतं दु:खात् सुखं तद्रसवत्तरं।
निर्वाणाय तरुच्छाया तप्तस्य हि विशेषतः ॥
Yadevopanatam dukhaat sukham tadrasavattaram
Nirvaanaaya taruchchhaayaa taptasya hi visheshatah

The happiness one gets after a period of grief is all the more enjoyable. One who is afflicted by the intense heat of the Sun better enjoys the shade given by a tree than one who is not exposed to the Sun’s rays.

परस्परविरोधिन्योरेकसंश्रयदुर्लभं ।
संगमं श्रीसरस्वत्योर्भूयादुद्भूतये सताम् ॥
Parasparavirodhinyorekasamshrayadurlabham
Sangamam shreesaraswatyorbhooyaadudbhootaye sataam

The conflicting attributes of wealth and learning rarely co-exist in one person. Let there be such a rare union of Goddess Lakshmi and Goddess Saraswati for the benefit of the good people.

सर्वस्तरतु दुर्गाणि सर्वे भद्राणि पश्यतु।
सर्वः कामानवाप्नोतु सर्वः सर्वत्र नन्दतु ॥
Sarvastaratu durgaani sarve bhadraani pashyatu
Sarvah kaamaanavaapnotu sarvah sarvatra nandatu

May all cross their difficulties. May all see good and auspicious things. May all get their wishes fulfilled. May everyone everywhere be happy.

छिन्नबन्धे मत्स्ये पलायिते निर्विण्णो।
धीवरो भणति धर्मो मे भवति ॥
Chchhinnabandhe matsye palaayite nirvinno
Dheevaro bhanati dharmo me bhavati

When the fishing net was torn and fish leaped into the water the fisherman becomes dejected and consoles himself saying that he will get merit (punya) (for allowing the fish to escape).

सर्वत्र खल्वात्मानुमानेन वर्तितुं युक्तम्
Sarvatra khalwaatmaanumaanena vartitum yuktam

It is best for every one to act in accordance with one’s status everywhere.

5. Malavikaagnimitram Natakam(Mahakavi Kalidasa)

पुराणमित्येव न साधु सर्वं
न चाऽपि काव्यं नवमित्यवद्यम्।
सन्तः परीक्ष्यान्यतरत् भजन्ते
मूढ्ः परप्रत्ययनेयबुद्धिः ॥
Puraanamityeva na saadhu sarvam
Na chaapi kaavyam navamityavadyam
Santah pareekshyaanyatarat bhajante
Moodhah parapratyayaneya buddhih

All kavyaas are not good only because they are old. All kaavyas are not bad because they are new. Good and wise people examine both and decide whether a kaavya is good or bad. Only a fool will be blindly led by what others say.

अर्थं सप्रतिबन्धं प्रभुरधिगन्तुं सहायवानेव ।
दृश्यं तमसि न पश्यन्ति दीपेन विना सचक्षुरपि ॥
Artham sapratibandham prabhuradhigantum sahaayavaaneva
Drishyam tamasi na pashyanti deepena vinaa sachakshurapi

Only one who has some one to help will be able to get hold of an object or achieve a goal when there are impediments or obstructions in the process. Even a person with eyes will be able to see an object in darkness only with the help of a lamp.

मन्दोऽप्यमन्दतामेति संसर्गेण विपश्चितः
पङ्कछिदः फलस्येव निकर्षेणाविलं पयः
Mando’pyamandataameti samsargena vipashchitah
Pankachchhidah phalasyeva nikashenaavilam payah

Even a fool becomes clever by association with the wise just as even muddy water becomes clear when it comes into contact with the fruits of the nirmalee tree (i.e. when the fruits are put in the water).

6. Kiraataarjuneeyam (Mahakavi Bharavi)

नहि प्रियं वक्तुमिच्छन्ति मृषा हितैषिणः
Nahi priyam vaktumichchhanti mrishaa hitaishinah

Those who mean well for others do not want to please them by false praise.

ननु वक्तृविशेष नि:स्पृहा गुणगृह्या वचने विपश्चितः
Nanu vaktrivishesha ni:sprihaa gunagrihyaa vachane vipashchitah

The wise are indifferent as to who uttered the words, they judge the words by their inherent quality.

निवसन्ति पराक्रमाश्रया न विषादेन समं समृद्धयः
Nivasanti paraakramaashrayaa na vishaadena samam samriddhayah

Abundance (affluence) co-exists with valour not with melancholy or absence of enthusiasm.

सहसा विदधीत न क्रियामविवेक: परमापदां पदम्।
वृणुते हि विमृश्यकारिणं गुणलुब्धाः स्वयमेव सम्पदः ॥

Sahasaa vidadheeta na kriyaamavivekah paramaapadaam padam
Vrinute hi vimrishyakaarinam gunalubdhaah swayameva sampadah

Do not embark on an endeavour on the spur of the moment without analysing its pros and cons. The absence of discrimination is the cause of great misfortune. Fortune, ever greedy for good qualities in men, embraces those who engage themselves in an endeavour after consultations and discussions with men of knowledge.

स्पृहणीयगुणैर्महात्मभिश्चरिते वर्त्मनि यच्छतां मनः
विधिहेतुर्हेतुरागसां विनिपातोऽपि समुन्नतेस्समः
Sprihaneeya gunairmahaatmabhih charite vartmani yachchhataam manah
Vidhiheturaheturaagasaam vinipaato’pi samunnateh samah

For those who follow in the footsteps of great men possessing highly desirable qualities, even a downfall on account of fate and not involving wrong doings is equal to rising higher in status.

यशोऽधिगन्तुं सुखलिप्सया वा मनुष्यसंख्यामतिवर्तितुं वा
निरुत्सुकानामभियोगभाजां समुत्सुकेवाङ्कमुपैति सिद्धिः
Yasho’dhigantum sukhalipsayaa vaa manushyasamkhyaamativartitum vaa
Nirutsukaanaamabhiyogabhaajaam samutsukevaankamupaiti siddhih

Achievement, it seems, is enthusiastic to sit on the lap of those who engage themselves diligently in an endeavour without caring for fame, happiness or rise in popularity.

किं वावसादकर आत्मवताम्
Kimivaavasaadakara aatmavataam

There is nothing which will tire out or disturb the mind of high-minded persons.

प्रेम पश्यति भयानपदेऽपि
Prema pashyati bhayaanapade’pi.

Love sees cause for fear even in the most unlikely places.

उपनतमवधीरयन्त्यभव्याः
Upanatamavadheerayantyabhavyaah

Unlucky persons disregard ( do not care about) what is already at hand.

शरदम्बुधरच्छाया जत्वर्यो यौवनश्रियः
आपातरम्याः विषयाः पर्यन्तपरितापिनः
Sharadambudharachchhaayaa jatwaryo yauvanashriyah
Aapaataramyaah vishayaah paryanta paritaapinah

Youth is fleeting like the clouds of autumn. The pleasures of the senses are sweet in the beginning but yield bitter results in the end.

तदा रम्याण्यरम्याणि प्रियः शल्यं तदासवः ।
तदेकाकी सबंधुस्सन् इष्टेन रहितो यदा ॥
Tadaa ramyaanyaramyaani priyah shalyam tadaasavah
Tadekaakee sabandhuh sannishtena rahito yadaa

when one’s loved one is absent, beautiful things seem ugly, what one likes including one’s own life becomes a pain, one feels lonely even in the midst of one’s relatives.

जीयन्तां दुर्जया देहे रिपवश्च्क्षुरादयः ।
जितेषु ननु लोकोऽयं तेषु कृत्स्नस्त्वया जितः॥
Jeeyantaam durjayaa dehe ripavashchakshuraadayah
Jiteshu nanu loko’yam teshu kritsnastwayaa jitah

The enemies resident in the body, namely the sense organs like the eyes, which are difficult to control, should be conquered. Once they are conquered, it is as good as the whole world has been conquered by you.

तावदाश्रयते लक्ष्म्या तावदस्य स्थिरं यशः ।
पुरुषस्तावदेवासौ यावन्मानान्न हीयते ॥
Taavadaashreeyate lakshmyaa taavadasya sthiram yashah
Purushastaavadevaasau yaavanmaanaanna heeyate

One can accumulate wealth, one’s fame remains stable and one is considered a man of substance only so long as one commands the respect of society.

प्रकृत्यमित्रा हि सतामसाधवः
Prakrityamitraa hi sataamasaadhavah

Evil men are natural enemies of the good ones.

7. Shishupaalavadham (Maagha kavi)

महीयांसः प्रकृत्या मितभषिणः
Maheeyamsah prakrityaa mitabhaashinah

Great men, by nature, do not talk much (they limit their speech to the essentials only)

संपदा सुस्थिरंमन्यो भवति स्वल्पयाऽपि यः ।
कृतकृत्यो विधिर्मन्ये न वर्धयति तस्य ताम् ॥
Sampadaa susthirammanyo bhavati swalpayaa’pi yah
Kritakrityo vidhirmanye na vardhayati tasya taam

In the case of one who is satisfied with a little wealth, even Fate (vidhih) thinks it has done its job and does not increase his wealth. (One should have enough ambition if he wants to accumulate lot of wealth and should not be content with what he has)

मा जीवन् यः परावज्ञादु:खदग्धोऽपि जीवति
Maa jeevan yah paraavajnaadukhadagdho’pi jeevati

One who lives, even after one has been scorched by the humiliation showered on him by others, is as good as dead.

सामान्याधिकरणं हि तेजस्तिमिरयोः कुतः
Saamaanyaadhikaranam hi tejastimirayo kutah?

Where is comparison between light and darkness ? There is no comparison at all.

आरभ्यन्तेऽल्पमेवाऽज्ञाः कामं व्यग्रा भवन्ति च
महारंभाः कृतधियः तिष्ठन्ति च निराकुला:
Aarabhante’lpamevaa’jjnaah kaamam vyagraa bhavanti cha
Mahaarambhaah kritadhiyastishthanti cha niraakulaah

Fools start an undertaking in a small way and they struggle to complete it. Great men start in a big way and accomplish the task remaining unruffled in spite of its magnitude.

उपायमास्थितस्यापि नश्यन्त्यर्थाः प्रमादतः
Upaayamaasthitasyaapi nashyantyarthaah pramaadatah

The undertakings of those who are careless and negligent never bear fruit though they have used proper means.

अयथाबलमारंभो निदानं क्षयसम्पदः
Ayathaabalamaarambho nidaanam kshayasampadah

Embarking on something which is beyond one’s capacity or strength is one of the causes for diminution in one’s wealth

बृहत्सहायाः कार्यान्तं क्षोदीयानपि गच्छति
Brihatsahaayah kaaryaantam kshodeeyanapi gachchhati

Even small people can get their work done with the help of the big people

क्षणे क्षणे यन्नवतामुपैति तदेव रूपं रमणीयतायाः
Kshane Kshane yannavataamupaiti tadeva roopam ramaneeyataayaah

Beauty is that which takes on a new form every minute (so that the one who looks at it is never tired or bored)

8. Naishadheeya Charitam (Sri Harsha)

अपां हि तृप्तस्य न वारिधारा स्वादुः सुगंधिः स्वदते तुषारा
Apaam hi triptaaya na vaaridhaara swaaduh sugandhih swadate tushaaraa

One who is satiated with water will not appreciate a pouring of cool water sweet in taste and smell.

पित्तेन दूने रसने सितापि तिक्तायते
Pittena doone rasane sitaapi tiktaayate

When the tongue is corrupted by pitta, even sugar tastes bitter.

आर्जवं हि कुटिलेषु न नीतिः
Aarjavam hi kutileshu na neetih

Straightforwardness is not the right policy when people of crooked mind are concerned.

मितं च सारं च वचो हि वाग्मिता
Mitam cha saaram cha vacho hi vaagmitaa

Oratory is speech which is measured (not verbose) and at the same time pregnant with meaning.

9. Mrichchhakatikam (Raja Sudraka)

शून्यमपुत्रस्य गृहं चिरशून्यं नास्ति यस्य सन्मित्रं।
मूर्खस्य दिशाः शून्याः सर्वं शून्यं दरिद्रस्य ॥
Shoonyamaputrasya griham chirashoonyam naasti yasya sanmitram
Moorkhasya dishaah shoonyaah sarvam shoonyam daridrasya

The house of a childless person is shoonya (void), for a person without a good friend it is forever void, the four quarters are void for the fool and for the poor everything is shoonya (void).

सुखं हि दु:खाननुभूय शोभते घनांधकारेष्विव दीपदर्शनम्
Sukham hi dukhaananubhooya shobhate ghanaandhakaareshwiwa deepadarshnam

Happiness is more appreciated after one experiences grief over a period in the same way as light is more appreciated by a person in pitch darkness.

सुखात्तु यो याति नरो दरिद्रतां धृतः शरीरेण मृतः स जीवति
Sukhaattu yo yaati naro daridrataam Dhritah shareerena mritah sa jeevati

One who has enjoyed prosperity is suddenly reduced to penury is as good as dead even while living.

दारिद्र्यान्मरणाद्वा मरणं मम रोचते न दारिद्र्यं ।
अल्पक्लेशं मरणं दारिद्र्यमनन्तकं दु:खम् ॥
Daaridryaanmaranaadwaa maranam mama rochate na daaridryam
Alpaklesham maranam daaridryamanantakam dukham

If I have to choose between death and penury I will choose death not penury. Death involves only a little distress but penury brings unending physical and mental agony.

दारिद्र्यात्पुरुषस्य बांधवजनो वाक्ये न संतिष्ठते
सुस्निग्धाः विमुखीभवन्ति सुहृदः स्फारीभवन्त्यापदः
सत्त्वं ह्रस्वमुपैति शीलशशिनः कान्ति परिम्लायते
पापम् कर्म च यत्परैरपि कृतं तत्तस्य सम्भाव्यते
Daaridryaatpurushasya baandhavajano vaakye na santishthate
Susnigdhaah vimukheebhavanti suhridah sphaareebhavantyaapadah
Sattwam hraasamupaiti sheelashashinah kaantih parimlaayate
Paapam karma cha yatparairapi kritam tattasya sambhaavyate

If one is poor, his relatives don’t heed his words, even loving friends neglect him, his misfortunes spread out, his physical and mental strength shrinks, the moon of his good conduct becomes pale and even the wrongs committed by others are foisted on to him.

गुणाः खलु अनुरागस्य कारणं न बलात्कारः
Gunaah khalu anuraagasya kaaranam na balaatkarah

It is because of one’s qualities one is loved not because of force.

साहसे श्रीः प्रतिवसति
Saahase shree prativasati

In adventure resides Goddess Lakshmi (Only those who are adventurous can amass wealth)

10. Uttararaamacharitam (Bhavabhuti) 

सतां सद्भिस्संगः क्थमपि हि पुण्येन भवति
Sataam sadbhih sangah kathamapi hi punyena bhavati

The meeting of good people with good people somehow happens only by punya (fruit of meritorious deeds done in the past)

प्रियप्राया वृत्तिः विनयमधुरो वाचि नियमः
प्रकृत्या कल्याणी मतिरनवगीतः परिचयः।
पुरो वा पश्चाद्वा तदिदमविपर्यासित रसं
रहस्यं साधूनामनुपदि विशुद्धं विजयते॥
Priyapraayaa vrittih vinayamadhuro vaachi niyamah
Prakrityaa kalyaanee matiranavageetah parichayah
Puro vaa pashchaadwaa tadidamaviparyaasita rasam
Rahasyam saadhoonaamanupadhi vishuddham vijayate

Loving, polite and pleasing interaction with others, controlled speech, a heart which only thinks of the good of others, introduction which is not boastful, Uniform behaviour before and after (when face to face or behand the back)– These are the secrets, pure and simple, of saintly souls.

वज्रादपि कठोराणि मृदूनि कुसुमादपि ।
लोकोत्तराणां चेतांसि को नो विज्ञातुमर्हति॥
Vajraadapi kathhoraani mridooni kusumaadapi
Lokottaraanaam chetaamsi ko nu vijnaatumarhati.

The hearts of the best of men who are a cut above the ordinary people are harder than diamond (when facing obstacles or enemies ) and softer than flowers (towards the less privileged and the miserable). Who can understand the hearts of such men?

न किञ्चिदपि कुर्वाणः सौख्यैर्दु:खान्यपोहति।
तत्तस्य किमपि द्रव्यं यो हि यस्य प्रियो जनः
Na kinchidapi kurvaanah saukhyairdukhaanyapohati
Tattasya kimapi dravyam yo hi yasya priyo janah

Without doing anything, if one converts the sorrows of another person into joy and happiness, then the first one, who is the object of love for the second one, is a valuable thing for the latter.

अन्तःकरणतत्त्वस्य दम्पत्योः स्नेह्संश्रयात्।
आनन्दग्रन्थिरेकोऽयं अपत्यमिति बध्यते ॥
Antahkaranatattwasya dampatyoh snehasamshrayaat
Aanandagranthireko’yam apatyamiti badhyate

The concrete manifestation of the joy arising out of the union of the minds of the husband and the wife is called apatyam (progeny) on which converges the love of both of them.

एको रसः करुण एव निमित्तभेदात्
भिन्नः पृथक्पृथगिवाश्रयते विवर्तान् ।
आवर्त बुद्बुद तरंगमयान् विकारान्
अंभो यथा सलिलमेव तु तत्समस्तम् ॥।
Eko rasah karuna eva nimittabhedaa-
dbhinnah pruthakprithagivaashrayate vivartaan
Aavarta budbuda taranga mayaan vikaaraan
Ambho yathaa salilameva tu tatsamastam

Karuna(pathetic) rasa (emotion) is the only one which manifests in the form of other emotions like sringara (love) etc. depending on the underlying circumstances which give rise to the emotion in the same way as bubbles, waves, swell etc are only different forms that water takes. The basic substance is water only.

गुणाः पूजास्थानं
गुणिषु न च लिङ्गं न च वयः
Gunaah poojaasthaanam
Gunishu n cha lingam na cha vayah

Good qualities are appreciated in whomsoever they are found. The sex or the age of the person is not taken into consideration.

ऋषयो राक्षसीमाहुः वाचमुन्मत्तदृप्तयोः
सा योनिः सर्चवैराणां स हि लोकस्य निऋतिः
Rishayo raakshaseemaahurvaachamunmattadriptayoh
Saa yonih sarva vairaanaam saa hi lokasya nirritih

The speech of intoxicated and conceited persons is termed as raakshasee (demoniac) by the rishis. Such speech is the root cause of all enmities and that is hell in this world.

कामं दुग्धे विप्रकृष्यत्यलक्ष्मीं
कीर्तिं सूते दुष्कृतं या हिनस्ति ।
तां चाप्येतां मातरं मंगलानां
धेनुं धीराः सूनृतां वाचमाहुः ॥
Kaamam dugdhe viprakarshatyalakshmeem
Keertim soote dushkritam yaa hinasti
Taam chaapyetaam maataram mangalaanaam
Dhenum dheeraah soonritaam vaachamaahuh

Speech that is embellished by truth and love yields all one’s wishes, drives away poverty, builds a reputation, prevents wrong doings in the same way as the Cow Mother which yields all auspicious things.

व्यतिषजति पदार्थानान्तर: कोऽपि हेतु-
र्न खलु बहिरुपाधीन् प्रीतयः संश्रयन्ते ।
विकसति हि पतंगस्योदये पुण्डरीकं
द्रवति च हिमरश्मावुद्गते चन्द्रकान्तः ॥
Vyatishajati padaarthaanaantarah ko’pi hetu-
rna khalu bahirupaadheeen preetayah samshrayante
Vikasati hi patangasyodaye pundareekam’
Dravati cha himarashmavudgate chandrakaantah

It is some internal cause which brings together people. Love does not depend upon external attributes. The lotus blossoms when the sun rises (though the lotus is delicate and the sun’s rays are hot), the moon stone starts melting when exposed to moonlight (though moonlight is soft and the moon stone is hard).

प्रियानाशे कृत्स्नं किल जगदरण्यं हि भवति
Priyaanaashe kritsnam kila jagadaranyam hi bhavati

When the woman one loves is lost the whole world turns into a dense jungle for the one who loves.

स्नेहच्च निमित्तसव्यपेक्षश्चेति विप्रतिषिद्धमेतत्
Snehachcha nimittasavyapekshashcheti vipratishiddhametat

Love and existence of a cause for such love, these two are mutually contradictory

11. Mudraaraakshasam Nataka (Vishakhadatta)

न युक्तं प्राकृतमपि रिपुं अवज्ञातुम्
Na yuktam praakritamapi ripumavajnaatum

It is not proper to disregard or neglect even an ordinary enemy.

कीदृशस्तृणानां अग्निना सह विरोध: ?
Keedrishastrinaanaam agninaa saha virodhah?

What kind of enmity the grass has towards fire ? (there is no enmity, it is the nature of fire to burn anything whatsoever)

हिमवति दिव्यौषधयः शीर्षे सर्पः समाविष्ट:
Himavati divyaushadhayah sheershe sarpah samaavishtah

There are divine medicinal plants in the Himalayas. But on top of it are serpents

परायत्तः प्रीतेः कथमिव रसं वेत्ति पुरुष:?
Paraayattah preeteh kathamiva rasam vetti purushah?

How does a man who is under the control of another know the joy of love.

इह विरचयन् साध्वीं शिष्यः क्रियां न निवार्यते
त्यजति तु यदा मार्गं मोहात्तदा गुरुरङ्कुशः
Iha virachayan saadhweem shishyah kriyaam na nivaaryate
Tyajati tu yadaa maargam mohaattadaa gururankushah

Here the disciple is not prevented from doing anything good. But when he deviates from the right path guru will act as ankusha (weapon used to control an elephant), meaning he will be controlled and brought back to the correct path.

12. Dashakumaaracharitam (Dandi)

जलबुद्बुदसमाना विराजमाना सम्पत् तडिल्लेखेव सहसोदेति नश्यति च
Jalabudbudasamaanaa viraajamaanaa sampat tadillekheva sahasodeti nashyati cha

The glittering wealth is like the bubbles on water. Like lightning it rises suddenly and perishes with the same speed.

इह जगति हि न निरीहदेहिनं श्रियः संश्रयन्ते
Iha jagati hi na nireehadehinam shriyah samshrayante

In this world one who does not put in effort (i.e. one who is inactive) does not acquire wealth

श्रेयांसि च सकलान्यनलसानां हस्ते नित्यसान्निद्ध्यानि
Shreyaamsi cha sakalaanyanalasaanaam haste nityasaannidhyaani

All prosperity and welfare is always in the hands of those who are always active, who do not know laziness

13. Harshacharitam (Baana)

अतिरोषणश्चक्षुष्मानप्यन्ध एव
Atiroshanashchakshushmaanapyandha eva janah

The angry person, though possessing eyes, is blind.

न सन्त्येव ते येषां सतामपि न विद्यन्ते मित्रोदासीनशत्रवः
Na santyeva te yeshaam sataamapi sataam na vidyante mitrodaaseenashatravah

There are no such persons who do not have friends, enemies or neutrals even though such persons possess good qualities.

उपयोगं तु न प्रीतिर्विचारयति
Upayogam tu na preetirvichaarayati

Love does not consider use or benefit.

14. Kaadambari (Baana)

सर्वथा न कञ्चन न स्पृशति शरीरधर्माणमुपतापाः
Sarvathaa na kanchana na sprishati shareeradharmaanamupataapaah

It is not possible that one, who is subject to the vagaries of a body, will not ever suffer any disease or discomfort

सुखमुपदिश्यते परस्य
Sukhamupadishyate parasya

It is easy to preach to others

बहुभाषिणो न श्रद्दधति लोकः
Bahubhashino na shraddadhaati lokah

People do not listen to one who talks too much.

मिथ्यापि तत्तथा यथा गृहीतं लोकेन
Mithyaapi tattathaa yathaa griheeetam lokena

Untruth takes the same form as the one given to it by people.

15. Kaavyameemaamsaa (Kaviraja Rajashekharah)

प्रायः प्राणभृतां प्रेमाणमन्तरेण नान्यद्बन्धनमस्ति
Praayah praanabhritaam premaanamantarena naanyadbandhanamasti

Generally, for the living, there is no bondage except love.

पक्षपातो हि गुणदोषौ विपर्यासयति
Pakshapaato hi gunadoshau viparyaasayati

It is only partiality that interchanges good and bad (i.e. good is considered as bad and bad is considered as good)

परैश्च परीक्षयेत् यदुदासीनः पश्यति न तदनुष्ठातेति प्रायो वादः
Paraishcha pareekshayet. Yadudaaseenah pashyati na tadanushthaateti praayo vaadah

The plan should be got examined by outsiders. The argument is, what the neutral person sees, the one who executes may not see most of the time.

अनियतकालाः प्रवृत्तयो विप्लवन्ते
Aniyatakaalaah pravrittayo viplavante

Actions not done at the appropriate time do not yield the desired result

सम्यक्स्वापो वपुषः परमारोग्याय
Samyakswaapo vapushah paramaarogyaaya

The right kind of sleep is good for a very healthy body.

मतिदर्पणे कवीनां विश्वं प्रतिफलति
Matidarpane kaveenaam vishwam pratiphalati

In the mirror of the poet’s mind there is the reflection of the world.

16. Kathaasaritsaagaram (Somadeva)

अप्राप्यं नाम नेहास्ति धीरस्य व्यवसायिनः
Apraapyam naama nehaasti dheerasya vyavasaayinah

There is nothing unattainable to the one who has courage and who works hard.

अश्नुते स हि कल्याणं व्यसने यो न मुह्यति
Ashnute sa hi kalyaanam vyasane yo na muhyati

Only one who does not lose his cool in adversity will enjoy prosperity

एकचित्ते द्वयोरेव किमसाध्यं भवेदिति
Ekachitte dwayoreva kimasaadhyam bhavediti

When two people think alike then what is it that is impossible?

करुणार्द्रा हि सर्वस्य सन्तोऽकारणबान्धवाः
Karunaardraa hi sarvasya santo’kaaranabaandhavaah

Good people whose heart is full of sympathy and kindness become, without selfish motives, the friends or relatives of all.

कामं व्यसनवृक्षस्य मूलं दुर्जनसंगतिः
Kaamam vyasana vrikshasya moolam durjana sangatih

The root cause of sorrow is the company of bad people.

त्यजन्त्युत्तमसत्वा हि प्राणानपि न सत्पथं
Tyajantyuttamasatwaa hi praanaanapi na satpatham

Those of good nature may give up their life but not the righteous path.

पङ्को हि नभसि क्षिप्तः क्षेप्तुः पतति मूर्धनि
Panko hi nabhasi kshiptah ksheptuh patati moordhani

Mud, thrown at the sky, falls on the head of the person who throws it (If one does something bad it recoils on him)

17. Panchatantra (Vishnu Sharma)

न स्वल्पस्य कृते भूरि नाशयेन्मतिमान्नरः
Na swalpasya krite bhoori naashayenmatimaannarah

The wise man should not incur a big loss for the sake of a little gain.

प्राकाश्यं स्वगुणोदयेन गुणिनो गच्छन्ति किं जन्मना
Praakaashyam swagunodayena gunino gachchhanti kim janmanaa

Good people are noticed by their good qualities, not by birth.

पैशुन्याद्भिद्यते स्नेहः
Paishunyaadbhidyate snehah

Love and friendship are broken by backbiting.

यस्य बुद्धिर्बलं तस्य निर्बुद्धेस्तु कुतो बलम्
Yasya buddhirbalam tasya nirbuddhestu kuto balam?

He who has brains has strength (power), where is power in a fool?

सेवाधर्मः परम गहनो योगिनामप्यगम्यः
Sevaadharmah parama gahano yoginaamapyagamyah

To be in the service of another is a difficult job which even a yogi may not be able to fulfill.

मृदुना सलिलेन खन्यमानान्यवघर्षन्ति गिरेरपि स्थलानि
Mridunaa salilena khanyamaanaanyavaghrishyanti girerapi sthalani

Eroded by the soft water incessantly, even the hard stones of the mountain wear away over time.

दीर्घो बुद्धिमतो बाहू
Deergho buddhimato baahoo

The hands of the one with brains are long indeed. ( Using his brains he can do many things with hands which less brainy fellows cannot do)

यद्भविष्यो विनश्यति
Yadbhavishyo vinashyati

One will face adversity if one does not take precautions to counteract anticipated difficulties or problems

बहूनामप्यसाराणां समवायो हि दुर्जयः
Bahoonaamapyasaaraanaam samavayoo hi durjayah.

If a large number of people unite for a purpose they become invincible, though each one, by himself is weak.

अत्यादरः शङ्कनीयः
Atyaadarah shankaneeyah

One should be circumspect with regard to those who show more than the usual respect or regard.

संपत्तौ च विपत्तौ च महतामेकरूपता
Sampattau cha vipattau cha mahataamekaroopataa

In prosperity and adversity the great do not lose their equilibrium.

कः परः प्रियवादिनाम्
Kah parah priyavaadinaam?

Who is not one’s own for people of soft and soothing speech.

नक्रः स्वस्थानमासाद्य गजेन्द्रमपि कर्षति
Nakrah swasthaanamaasaadya gajendramapi karshati

The crocodile, in his own habitat, can drag even an elephant into the water.

कृशे कस्यास्ति सौहृदम्?
Krishe kasyaasti sauhridam?

Who will make friends with a lean (down and out) person?

आत्मनः प्रतिकूलानि परेषां न समाचरेत्
Aaatmanah pratikoolaani pareshaam na samaacharet

That which is hurting oneself should not be done to others.

अनागतं यः कुरुते स शोभते
स शोच्यते यो न करोत्यनागतम्
Anaagatam yah kurute sa shobhate,
Sa shochyate yo na karotyanaagatam.

One who takes precautions before misfortune strikes will prosper. One who does not take action when misfortune is anticipated, will come to grief.

संतापयन्ति कथमपथ्यभुजं न रोगाः
Santapayanti kamapathyabhujam na rogaah

How can one be unaffected by diseases if one eats food not conducive to one’s health ?

सर्वनाशे समुत्पन्ने अर्धं त्यजति पण्डितः
Sarvanaashe samutpanne ardham tyajati panditah

When everything is at stake the wise give up half of it to save the other half.

उदारचरितानां तु वसुधैव कुटुंबकम्
Udaaracharitaanaam tu vasudhaiva kutumbakam

To those of generous character( disposition) the whole world is one family.

यादृशी भावना यस्य सिद्धिर्भवति तादृशी
Yadrishee bhaavanaa yasya siddhirbhavati taadrishee

Whatever one dreams or imagines the outcome will be similar.

18. Hitopadesha (Narayana Panditah)

उद्यमेन हि सिद्ध्यन्ति कार्याणि न मनोरथैः
Udyamena hi siddhyanti kaaryaani na manorathaih

One’s goal is achieved by industry (hard work) and not by building castles in the air.

ज्ञानं भारः क्रियां विना
Jnaanam bhaarah kriyaam vinaa

Without action knowledge is a burden (knowledge, not put into practice, is sheer waste)

QUOTES FROM YOGA VAASISHTAM

QUOTABLE QUOTES FROM YOGAVAASISHTHA
Yogavaasishtha is a philosophical treatise written by the great Sanskrit poet and scholar Vaalmiki. The original treatise comprises of 30,000 slokas. It is written in the form of a dialogue between sixteen year old Raama and the great sage Vasishtha. The book is one of the best discourses on monism, propounding that everything in the universe is a projection or manifestation of a singular consciousness. It is also a beautiful book even only in terms of its poetic charm.
Given below is a small selection of quotes from this great work.
उभाभ्यामेव पक्षाभ्यां यथा खे पक्षिणां गतिः।
तथैव ज्ञानकर्माभ्यां जायते परमं पदम्
Ubhaabhyaameva pakshaabhyaam yathaa khe pakshinaam gatih
Tathaiva jnaanakarmaabhyaam jaayate paramam padam
1.1.7
Just as birds require both their wings to fly in the sky, similarly man needs both Jnaana (knowledge) and Karma (action without attachment to the fruits thereof ) to attain the highest goal of his life 
क्षणमानन्दितामेति क्षणमेति विषादितां ।
क्षणं सौम्यत्वमायाति सर्वस्मिन्नटवन्मनः॥
Kshanamaananditaameti kshanameti vishaaditaam
Kshanam saumyatwamaayaati sarvasmin natavanmanah
1.28.38
The mind of a person is full of joy one moment, sad the next moment, and calm after another moment like the person acting out a character in a play manifesting different emotions in quick succession.
द्वे हुडाविव युध्येते पुरुषार्थौ समासमौ ।
प्राक्तनश्चैहिकश्चैव शाम्यत्यत्राऽल्पवीर्यवान्॥
Dwe hudaaviva yudhyete purushaarthau samaasamau
Praaktanashchaihikashchaiva shaamyatyatraalpaveeryavaan
2.5.5
There is a conflict going on between two unequal entities, namely, the result of actions in a previous birth and the result of actions during this birth.  The fight between these two is like the fight between two fierce birds or animals.  In this fight, the one which is weak will surrender to the one which is strong.
परं पौरुषमाश्रित्य दन्तैर्दन्तान् विचूर्णयन् ।
शुभेनाशुभमुद्युक्तं प्राक्तनं पौरुषं जयेत्॥
Param paurushamaashritya dantairdantaan vichoornayan
Shubhenaashubhamudyuktam praaktanam paurusham jayet
2.5.9
One should, by Herculean effort and gnashing one’s teeth, gain victory over the bad effects of the past karma by the good karma done during this birth.

मूढैः प्रकल्पितं दैवं तत्परास्ते क्षयं गताः।
प्राज्ञास्तु पौरषार्थेन पदमुत्तमतां गताः॥
Moodhaih prakalpitam daivam tatparaaste kshayam gataah
Praajnaastu paurushaarthena padamuttamataam gataah
2.8.16
Daivam or destiny is a figment of the imagination of the fool.  Putting their faith in destiny they go from bad to worse.  The wise men, by Herculean effort, attain the highest position or state.
अपि पौरुषमादेयं शास्त्रं चेद्युक्तिबोधकं।
अन्यत्वार्षमपि त्याज्यं भाव्यं न्यायैकसेविना॥
Api paurushamaadeyam shaastram chedyuktibodhakam
Anyatwaarshamapi tyaajyam bhaavyam nyaayaikasevina
2.18.2
Knowledge, even if it comes from an ordinary person, is to be accepted if it stands  the test of reason.  Any thing which cannot stand the test of reason is to be rejected.  One should always go by logical reasoning.
युक्तियुक्तमुपादेयं वचनं बालकादपि ।
अन्यत्तृणवत्त्याज्यं अप्युक्तं पद्मजन्मना॥
Yuktiyuktamupaadeyam vachanam baalakaadapti
Anyattrinamiva tyaajyam apyuktam padmajanmanaa
2.18.3
On should accept the words of even a child if what he says is logical and stands to reason.  Anything other than this should be rejected as a bundle of grass even if it is said by Brahma himself
तपसैव महोग्रेण यद्दुरापं तदाप्यते
Tapasaiva mahogrena yadduraapam tadaapyate
3.68.14
Only by the most severe tapasya (penance) one can attain what is normally unattainable.
सर्वः संकल्पवशात् लघु भवति वा गुरु।
Sarvah samkalpavashaat laghu bhavati vaa guruh
3.70.30
Whether one is respected(guru) or not respected (laghu) depends entirely on what one determines or decides in his mind.
यथाऽवध्यवधात् पापं वध्यत्यागात् तथैव हि ।
Yathaavadhyavadhaat paapam vadhyatyaagat tathaiva hi
3.90.3
The sin of letting off a person who deserves death is the same as the sin of putting to death one who does not deserve death.
न किञ्चित् दीर्घसूत्राणां सिध्यत्यात्मक्षयादृते ।
Na kinchit deerghasootraanaam siddhyatyaatmakshayaadrite
3.78.8
The one who plans interminably and never comes to a conclusion will achieve nothing except one’s own downfall.
अनुद्वेग श्रियो मूलम्
Anudwega shriyo moolam
3.111.22
Not getting easily agitated is the root cause of wealth.
न तदस्ति प्रिथिव्यां वा दिवि देवेषु वा क्वचित्।
पौरेषेण प्रयत्नेन यन्नाप्नोति गुणान्वितः॥
Na tadasti prithivyaam va divi deveshu vaa kwachit
Paurushena prayatnena yannaapnoti gunaanwitah
4.62.19
There is nothing in this world or in heaven that a person of character cannot achieve by sheer human effort
अपूर्वाह्लाददायिन्य उच्चैस्तरपदाश्रयाः     ।
अतिमोहापहारिण्यः सूक्तयो हि महीयसाम्  ॥
Apoorvaahlaadadaayinya uchchaistarapadaashrayaah
Atimohaapahaarinyah sooktayo hi maheeyasaam
5.4.5
The sayings of great men delight our hearts as never before, contain words of great import and effect and dispel all our delusions and misconceptions.
न कालमतिवर्तन्ते महान्तः स्वेषु कर्मसु
Na kaalamativartante mahaantah sweshu karmasu
5.10.9
Great men do not procrastinate in carrying out their actions.
भविष्यं नानुसन्धत्ते नातीतं चिन्तयत्यसौ ।
वर्तमाननिमेषं तु हसन्नेवानुवर्तते  ॥
Bhavishyam naanusandhatte naateetam chintayatyasau
Vartamaana nimesham tu hasannevaanuvartate
5.12.14
Great men do not ponder over the future or think of what is buried in the past but focus on the present moment, accepting it cheerfully. 
चिन्तनेनैधते चिन्ता त्विन्धनेनेव पावकः।
नश्यत्यचिन्तनेनैव विनेन्धनमिवानलः॥
Chintanenaidhate chintaa twindhaneneva paavakah
Nashyatyachintanenaiva vinendhanamivaanalah
5.21.6
One’s worry becomes magnified the more one’s thoughts dwell on the cause of the worry just like fire burns brightly with fuel. Once you leave thinking of the cause of worries, the worry automatically dies down as fire devoid of fuel.
न स्वधैर्यादृते कश्चिदभ्युद्धरति संकटात् ।
Na swadhairyaadrite kashchidabhyuddharati sangkataat
5.29.10
One cannot extricate oneself from difficulties without courage in oneself
अन्तस्तृष्णोपतप्तानां दावादाहमयं जगत् ।
भवत्यखिलजन्तूनां यदन्तस्तद्बहिःस्थितम्॥
Antastrishnopataptaanaam daavadaahamayam jagat
Bhavatyakhila jantoonaam yadantastadbahih sthhitam
5.56.34
For those whose insides are burning with trishna (greed or intense desire)  the whole world is like a wild fire.  For all beings what is inside is reflected in the outside also, meaning the external world is perceived according to the state of the internal world.
अर्धं सज्जनसंपर्कात् अविद्याया विनश्यति ।
चतुर्भागस्तु शास्त्रार्थे चतुर्भाग स्वयत्नतः ॥
Ardham sajjanasamparkaat avidyaayaa vinashyati
Chaturbhaagastu shaastraarthhe chaturbhaaga swayatnatah
Half of one’s ignorance is destroyed by the company of wise men, one-fourth by reading and discussing the shastras with others and the remaining one-fourth by own effort.
व्याचष्टे यः पठति च शास्त्रं भोगाय शिल्पिवत्।
यतते नत्वनुष्ठाने ज्ञानबन्धुः स उच्यते ॥
Vyaachashte yah pathhati cha shaastram bhogaaya shilpivat
Yatate natwanushtthaane jnaanabandhuh sa uchyate
One who reads the Sastras and expounds them to others only for material gain like a sculptor but does not practice what he preaches is the worst kind of jnaani (knower)
 अज्ञोऽपि तज्ञतामेति  शनैः शैलोऽपि चूर्ण्यते ।
बाणॊऽप्येति महालक्ष्यं पश्याभ्यास विजृंभितम् ॥
Ajnopi tatjnataameti shanaih shailopi choornyate
Baanopyeti mahaalakshyam pashyaabhyaasa vijrimbhitam
The power of practice is such that even an ignorant person becomes a knowledgeable one slowly and steadily, even a hill becomes completely powdered and an archer’s arrow strikes the bull’s eye (reaches its ultimate destination)
अबन्धुर्बन्धुतामेति नैकट्याभ्यासयोगतः।
यात्यनभ्यासतो दूरात् स्नेहो बन्धुषु तानवम्॥
Abandhuhrbandhutaameti naikatyaabhyaasayogatah
Yaatyanabhyaasato dooraat sneho bandhushu taanavam
One who is not a friend becomes one’s friend when there is existence (practice) of proximity between the two.  The affection between friends diminishes when there is no practice of affection because of the distance separating them. 
यो यादृक् क्लेशमाधातुं समर्थस्तादृगेव सः।
अवश्यं फलमाप्नोति प्रबुद्धोस्त्वज्ञ एव वा ॥
Yo yaadrik kleshamaadhaatum samarthastaadrigeva sah
Avashyam phalamaapnoti prabuddhostwajna eva vaa
The more effort one can put in, the more will be one’s achievement which  will also be commensurate to the effort.  One will certainly achieve his goal whether he is ignorant or knowledgeable.
 ना यथा यतते नित्यं यद्भावयति यन्मयः ।
यादृगिच्छेच्च भवितुं तादृग्भवति नान्यथा ॥
Naa yatthaa yatate nityam yadbhaavayati yanmayah
Yaadrigichchhechcha bhavitum taadrigbhavati naanyathhaa
(naa=narah)  What one puts in  one’s efforts for ,  what one thinks, what one identifies oneself  with and what one  wants to become – these will determine what one will become ultimately. 
अद्यैव कुरु यच्छ्रेयो वृद्धः सन् किं करिष्यति।
स्वगात्राण्यपि भाराय भवन्ति हि विपर्यये॥
Adyaiva kuru yachchhreyo vriddhah san kim karishyati
Swagaatraanyapi bhaaraaya bhavanti hi viparyaye
Do good things today itself; If otherwise what will one do after one becomes old when even one’s own physical body becomes a load on oneself
तातस्यकूपमिति ब्रुवाणाः क्षारं जलं कापुरुषाः पिबन्ति ।
Tatasya koopoyamiti bruvaanaah
Kshaaram jalam kaapurushaah pibanti
Inferior men drink salty water from the well saying the well was dug by their father. (They are too lazy to dig a new well for getting sweet water but cover up their laziness by showing false respect to their father) 
आयुषः क्षण एकोऽपि सर्वरत्नैर्न लभ्यते।
नीयते तत् वृथा येन प्रमादः सुमहानहो ॥
Aayushah kshana ekopi sarvaratnairna labhyate
Neeyate tat vrithhaa yena pramaadah sumahaanaho
Even a minute of your life you cannot get by giving all the diamonds in the world.  If one wastes that precious minute he is committing a big blunder.

VAIRAGYA SHATAKAM – BHARTHRUHARI

QUOTES FROM SUBHAASHITA TRISHATEE OF RAJA BHARTRIHARI
Vairagya Shakatam    
The great philosopher-poet, Bharthruhari, was the King of Ujjain.  He was the elder step brother of the renowned Vikramaaditya. His life presents to us a living account of a person’s transformation from a pleasure-loving king to an ascetic. It was he who gave us the immortal Subhashita Trishati  consisting the trilogy of Neeti Sataka, Sringara Sataka and Vairagya Sataka which truly reflect his life expeiences as a king, as a lover and as an ascetic.
    
Given below is selection of verses from the Vairaagya Shatakam, one of the shatakams of the trilogy mentioned above.
चूडोत्तंसितचन्द्रचारुकलिका चञ्चच्छिखाभास्वरो
लीलादग्धविलोलकामशलभः श्रेयो दिशाग्रे स्फुरन् ।
अन्तस्फूर्जदपारमोहतिमिरप्राग्भारमुच्चाटयन्
चेतस्सद्मनि योगिनां विजयते ज्ञानप्रदीपो हरः ॥।
Choodothamsita-chandrachaarukalikaa-chanchachchhikhaabhaaswaro
Leelaadagdha-vilola-kaamashalabhah shreyo dishaagre sphuran
Antahsphoorjad-apaara-mohatimira-praagbhaaram-uchchaatayan
Chetah sadmani yoginaam vijayate jnaanapradeepo harah     [1]
With the crescent moon adorning his locks,  (the fire from his third eye) burning Cupid playfully like a butterfly ( in the fire of a lamp), His fame  spreading in all directions, Lord Shiva abides in the hearts of Yogis as the light of knowledge dispelling the dense darkness of ignorance.
उत्खातं निधिशङ्कया क्षितितलं ध्माता गिरेर्धातवो
निस्तीर्णस्सरितांपतिर्नृपतयो यत्नेन संभाविताः ।
मन्त्राराधनतत्परेण मनसा नीताः श्मशाने निशाः
प्राप्तः काणवराटकोऽपि न मया तृष्णेऽधुना मुञ्च माम् ॥
Utkhaatam nidhishankayaa kshititalam dhmaataa girerdhaatavo
Nisteernah saritampatirnripatayo yatnena santoshitaah
Mantraaraadhanatatparena manasaa neetaah shmashaane nishaah
Praaptah kaanavaraatako’pi na mayaa trishne ‘dhunaa muncha maam [4]
In search of treasures the earth was  dug up, the minerals in the mountains were smelted,  the vast oceans were crossed,   kings were propitiated with great effort, nights were spent in the cemetery chanting mantras – all these I did for the sake of satisfying the greed for wealth.  But not even a penny came out of these efforts. O Greed! Please leave me now. 
भ्रान्तं देशमनेकदुर्गविषमं प्राप्तं न किञ्चित्फलं
त्यक्त्वा जातिकुलाभिमानमखिलं सेवा कृता निष्फला ।
भुक्तं मानविवर्जितं परगृहेष्वाशंकया काकवत्
तृष्णे जृंभसि पापकर्मनिरते नाद्यापि संतुष्यसि
Bhraantam desamanekadurgavishamam praaptam na kinchitphalam
Tyaktwaa jaatikulaabhimaanamakhilam seva kritaa nishphalaa
Bhuktam maanavivarjitam paragriheshwaashankaya kaakavat
Trishne jrimbhasi paapakarmanirate naadyaapi santushyasi          [5]  
 I wandered through many countries, often inaccessible and difficult to traverse, without gaining anything.  Service to kings and rich persons, setting aside caste and family dignity, also proved futile.   Food was taken in the houses of others without shame like a crow looking askance for fear of being caught. O Greed! You have made me do all these wrong things; still you are far from being satisfied.
आदित्यस्य गतागतैरहरहस्संक्षीयते जीवितं
व्यापारैर्बहुकार्यभारगुरुभि: कालोऽपि न ज्ञायते।
दृष्ट्वा जन्मजराविपत्तिमरणं त्रासश्च नोत्पद्यते
पीत्वा मोहमयीं प्रमादमदिरां उन्मत्तभूतं जगत् ॥
Aadityasya gataagatairaharahah samksheeyate jeevitam
Vyaapaarairbahukaaryabhaaragurubhih kaalo’pi na jnaayate
Drishtwaa janma jaraavipattimaranam traasashcha notpadyate
Peetwaa mohamayeem pramaadamadiraam unmattabhootam jagat [7]
Every day, as the Sun rises and sets, there is erosion in life, each day bringing one nearer to death.  Because of the burden of worldly activities in which human beings are immersed, they are unaware of the inexorable efflux of time. In spite of seeing, before one’s eyes, birth, old age, disease and death, there is no sense of fear.  The whole world, because of its indifference and carelessness about these facts of life, has lost its senses intoxicated by the delusion  (that every thing would be fine). 
हिंसाशून्यमयत्नलभ्यमशनं धात्रा मरुत्कल्पितं
व्यालानां पशवः तृणांकुरभुजः सृष्टा स्थलीशायिनः।
संसारार्णवलंघनक्षमधियां वृत्तिः कृता सा नृणाम्
यामन्वेषयतां प्रयान्ति सततं सर्वे समाप्तिं गुणाः॥
Himsaashoonyamayatnalabhyamashanam  dhaatraa marutkalpitam
Vyaalaanaam pashavah trinaankurabhujah srishtaah sthaleeshaayinah
Samsaaraarnavalamghanakshamadhiyaam vrittih kritaa saa nrinaam
Yaamanweshayataam prayaanti satatam sarve samaaptim gunaah  [10]
The Creator Brahmaa has made such an arrangement that snakes get air, which is their food, without hurting any other being and without making any special effort to get it.  Similarly, cattle live on green grass and sleep on the bare earth (and they don’t have to do anything to get these things).  For humans, who have the capacity and intelligence enough to cross this ocean of samsara, the means of living created are such that, in seeking them out, all of their good qualities come to an end (meaning they have to compromise on their innate good qualities or they have to use up all their good qualities for the sake of making a living). 
भोगा न भुक्ताः वयमेव भुक्ता: तपो न तप्तं व्यमेव तप्ताः
कालो न यातो वयमेव यातास्तृष्णा न जीर्णा व्यमेव जीर्णाः 
Bhogaa na bhuktaa vayameva bhuktaastapo na taptam vayameva taptaah
Kalo na yaato vayameva yaataastrishnaa na jeernaa vayameva jeernaah  [12]
We never did consume (enjoyed) the objects of enjoyment; on the contrary we ourselves were consumed (eaten, weakened).  We never did any tapas (penance, literally heat); on the contrary we ourselves were heated (subjected to physical suffering).  For us Time never passed; we ourselves passed into Time (our life span was reduced day by day).  Our greed did not become old (weak); on the contrary we only became old (aged).    
[Note: Here the poet has made of use words which can be applied in two different meanings]
क्षान्तं न क्षमया गृहोचितसुखं त्यक्तं न सन्तोषतः
सॊढाः दुस्सहशीतवाततपनक्लेशा: न तप्तं तपः।
ध्यातं वित्तमहर्निशं नियमितप्राणैर्न शंभो: पदं
तत्तत्कर्म कृतं यदेव मुनिभिस्तैस्तैः फलैर्वञ्चिताः॥।
Kshaantam na kshamayaa grihochitasukham tyaktam na santoshatah
Soddhaah dussahasheetavaatatapanakleshaah  na taptam tapah
Dhyaatam vittamaharnisham niyamitapraanairna shambhoh padam
Tattatkarma kritam yadeva munibhistaistaih phalairvanchitaah     [13]
We forgave others not out of an attitude of forgiveness (but because we were powerless to do anything else).  We renounced worldly things not willingly (but because we could not afford it or could not enjoy it).  We endured extremes of cold, heat and wind but we did not do any tapas (penance). We thought of wealth day and night but we never meditated, controlling our breath, on the lotus-feet of Lord Shiva.  We practiced all those things which the saints practice (kshama, renunciation, tapas and dhyaana) but we could not achieve the result (liberation) which the saints achieve by these means.  
अवश्यं यातारश्चिरतरमुषित्वापि विषयाः
वियोगे कोभेदस्त्यजति न मनो यत्स्वयममून् ।
व्रजन्तः स्वातन्त्र्यादतुलपरितापाय मनसः
स्वयं त्यक्त्वाह्येते शमसुखमनन्तं विदधति॥
Avashyam yaataarah chirataramushitwaapi vishayaah
Viyoge ko bhedastyajati na mano yatswayamamoon
Vrajantah swaatantryaadatulaparitaapaaya manasah
Swayam tyaktwaa hyete shamasukhamanantam vidadhati [16]
Pleasures of the senses will certainly go away, though after staying with us for a long time.  What difference does it make if this separation is voluntary?  But our mind does not want to leave these pleasures voluntarily.   When these pleasures leave us themselves, our mind becomes stricken with grief.  On the other hand, if they are voluntarily forsaken, it produces infinite peace and tranquility of mind.
भिक्षाशनं तदपि नीरसमेकवारं
शय्या च भू: परिजनो निजदेहमात्रं ।
वस्त्रं विशीर्णशतखण्डमयी च कन्था
हा हा तथापि विषया न परित्यजन्ति ॥
Bhikshaashanam tadapi neerasamekavaaram
Shayyaa cha bhooh parijano nijadehamaatram
Vastram visheernashatakhandamayee cha kanthaa
Ha ha tathaapi vishayaa na parityajanti  [18]
A person eats food, dry and devoid of any taste, once a day by begging.  He sleeps on the bare earth.  His only servant is his own body. His clothing is very old and tattered.  In spite of all this, the desire for the pleasures of the senses does not leave him. It is a pity indeed!
अजानन्दाहात्म्यं पततु शलभो दीपदहने
स मीनोऽप्यज्ञानात् बडिशयुतमश्नातु पिशितं ।
विजानन्तोऽप्येते वयमिह विपज्जालजटिलान्
न मुञ्चामः कामानहह गहनो मोहमहिमा ॥
Ajaanan daahaatmyam patatu shalabho deepadahane
Sa meeno’pyajnaanaat badishayutamashnaatu pishitam
Vijaananto’pyete vayamiha vipajjaalajatilaan
Na munchaamah kaamaanahaha gahano mohamahimaa [20]
The butterfly, without knowing that fire will burn, leaps into the flame of the lamp and gets burnt. Fish, because of their ignorance, bite into the meat tied to the angle of the fishing rod and get pierced.  But we, knowing well that these pleasures will ultimately lead to sorrow and suffering, cling to these  pleasures and do not leave them.  Great indeed is the power of illusion. 
मृत्पिण्डो जलरेखया वलयितः सर्वोप्ययं नन्वणु
भागीकृत्य एव संयुगशतैः राज्ञां गणैर्भुज्यते
ते दद्युः ददतोऽथवा किमपरं क्षुद्रा दरिद्रा भृशं
धिक् धिक् तान् पुरुषाधमान् धनकणान् वाञ्छन्ति तेभ्योऽपि ये
Mritpindo jalarekhayaa valayitah sarvopyayam nanvanu
Bhaageekritya sa eva samyugashataih raajnaam ganairbhujyate
Te dadyuh dadato’thavaa kimaparam kshudraa daridraa bhrisham
Dhikdhik taanpurushaadhamaan dhanakanaan vaanchchhanti tebhyo’pi ye [25]
The kings have divided a ball of earth, surrounded by water and composed of atoms, into small portions and have taken possession of these portions after fighting with each other.  Such being the case, what these kings, mean and poor (stingy), can give to others?  Fie on those worst of men who want to get from these very kings little bits of money.
पुरा विद्वत्तासीदुपशमवतां क्लेशहतये
गता कालेनासौ विषयसुखसिद्ध्यै विषयिणां ।
इदानीम् संप्रेक्ष्य क्षितितलभुजः शास्त्रविमुखा
नहो कष्टं साऽपि प्रतिदिनमधोधः प्रविशति ॥
Puraa vidwattaaseedupashamavataam kleshahataye
Gataa kaalenaasau vishayasukhasiddhyai vishayinaam
Idaaneem samprekshya kshititalabhujah shaastravimukhaa-
naho kashtam saa’pi pratidinamadhodhah pravishati  [27]
In the olden days learning and scholarship was used by people, who had withdrawn themselves from the pleasures of the senses, to gladden the mind and drive away sorrow.  By the passage of time learning was used by pleasure-loving people as an instrument to acquire objects of pleasure.  Now, seeing that the kings have turned their faces away from the shaastraas, it is sad to see that learning and scholarship is sliding down more and more.
माने म्लायिनि खण्डिते वसुनि व्यर्थं प्रयातेऽर्थिनि
क्षीणे बन्धुजने गते परिजने नष्टे शनैर्यौवने
युक्तं केवलमेतदेव सुधियां यज्जह्नुकन्यापयः पूतग्रावगिरीन्द्रकन्दरदरीकुञ्जे निवासः क्वचित्॥
Maane mlaayini khandite cha vasuni vyartham prayaate’rthini
Ksheene bandhujane gate parijane nashte shanairyauvane
Yuktam kevalametadeva sudhiyaam yajjanhukanyaapayah
Poota-graava-gireendra-kandara-daree-kunje nivaasah kwachit  [30]
There comes in the life a person a time when his reputation fades, wealth diminishes or is lost, supplicants for alms or money   go away disappointed,  relatives become rare, servants leave and old age starts creeping in.  When that time comes, the only proper thing to do is to retire into one of the caves of a mountain washed by the holy waters of the river Gaga.   
भोगे रोगभयं कुले च्युतिभयं वित्ते नृपालाद्भयं
मौने दैन्यभयं बले रिपुभयं रूपे जराया भयं
शास्त्रे वादिभयं गुणे खलभयं काये कृतान्तात् भयं
सर्वं वस्तु भयान्वितं भुवितले वैराग्यमेवाभयम्
Bhoge rogabhayam kule chyutibhayam vitte cripaalaadbhayam
Moune dainyabhayam bale ripubhayam rupe jaraayaa bhayam
Shaastre vaadibhayam gune khalabhayam kaaye kritaantaat bhayam
Sarvam vastu bhayaanwitam bhuvitale vairaagyamevaabhayam [32]
There is fear of disease in the enjoyment of pleasures.  There is fear of fall in status for a reputed dynasty. There is fear from the king for the wealthy.  In silence there is fear of weakness.  In strength there is fear of enemies. In beauty there is fear from old age.  For those proficient in shaastraas there is fear from debaters.  For good qualities there is fear from evil men. There is fear from death for the body.   Everything in this world has fear from some or other source. Only Vairagyaa (non-attachment to pleasures) has no fears.
सा रम्या नगरी महान् स नृपतिः सामन्तचक्रं च तत्
पार्श्वे तस्य स विदग्ध परिषत् ताश्चन्द्रबिम्बाननाः ।
उद्रिक्तः स च राजपुत्रनिवहः ते बन्दिनस्ताः कथाः
सर्वं यस्य वशादगात् स्मृतिपथं कालाय तस्मै नमः
Saa ramyaa nagaree mahaan sa nripatih saamantachakram cha tat
Paarshwe tasya sa vidagdhaparishat taashchandrabimbaananaah
Udriktah sa cha raajaputranivahah  te bandinastaah kathaah
Sarvam yasya vashaadagaat smritipatham kaalaaya tasmai namah [34]
That beautiful city, that great king, that circle of subordinate kings, that assembly of intelligent ministers and those moon-faced (beautiful) women by his side, those enthusiastic princes, those minstrels who sang his praises and  those stories they narrated  – all these became mere memories by the power of kaala ( Time). I offer my humble obeisance to Kaala
गंगातीरे हिमगिरिशिलाबद्धपद्मासनस्य
ब्रह्मध्यानाभ्यसन विधिना योगनिद्रां गतस्य।
किं तैर्भाव्यं मम सुदिवसैर्यत्र ते निर्विशंका:
संप्राप्स्यन्ते जरठहरिणा: शृंगकण्डूविनोदम्॥
Gangaateere himigirishilaabaddhapadmaasanasya
Brahmadhyaanaabhyasana vidhinaa  yoganidraam gatasya
Kim tairbhaavyam mamasudivasairyatra te nirvishankaah
Sampraapsyante jarathaharinaah shringakandoovinodam [38]
The poet visualizes himself as seated in the lotus pose on the rock of a mountain washed by the holy waters of the Ganga and, meditating on the Brahman, slips into yogic sleep.   While he is in this yoganidraa the old deer in the forest, without any apprehension, come near him and derive the pleasure of scratching their horns on his body.  The poet wonders whether this vision of his will ever be realized and such good days will actually come in his life.  
स्फुरत्स्फारज्योत्स्नाधवलिततले क्वापि पुलिने
सुखासीन:: शान्तध्वनिषु रजनीषु द्युसरितः।
भवभोगोद्विग्नः शिव शिव शिवेत्यादिवचसा
कदा स्यामानन्दोद्गतबहुलबाष्पाप्लुतदृशः
Sphuratsphaarajyotsnaadhavalitatale kwaapi puline
Sukhaaseenaah shaantadhwanishu rajaneeshu dyusaritah
Bhava bhogodwignah shiva shiva shivetyaadivachasaa
Kadaa syaamaanandodgata-bahula-baashpaapluta-drishah  [39]
Tossed about mentally by this samsaara, the poet visualizes himself seated comfortably on the sandy river bed of the Ganges bathed in the milky whiteness of moonlight, uttering the names of Shiva and his eyes filled with copious tears of joy (on meditating on the beautiful form of the Lord).  He wonders whether he will ever have such a beautiful experience. 
महादेवो देवः सरिदपि सैषा सुरसरित्
गुहा एवागारं वसनमपि ता एव हरितः ।
सुहृद्वा कालोऽयं व्रतमिदमदैन्य व्रतमिदं
कियद्वा वक्ष्यामो वटविटप एवास्तु दयिता॥।
Mahaadevodevah saridapi cha saishaa surasarit
Guhaa evaagaaram vasanamapi taa eva haritah
Suhridwaa kaalo’yam vratamidamadainya vratamidam
Kiyadwaa vakshyaamo vatavitapa evastu dayitaa [40]
Shiva is the God.  Ganga is the holy river.  Cave is the shelter. The four quarters are the clothes.  Kala (Death) is the friend.  Vow is courage.  What else is to be said?  Let the banyan tree which provides the shelter be the loved one.
[Note: The poet here visualizes the simple and uncomplicated life of a person who has renounced the world]
एकाकी निस्पृहश्शान्तः पाणिपात्रो दिगंबरः ।
कदा शंभो भविष्यामि कर्मनिर्मूलनक्षमः ॥
Ekaakee nisprihah shaantah paanipaatro digambarah
Kadaa shambho bhavishyaami karmanirmoolanakshamah[41]
The poet says “O Lord!  Alone and without desires, tranquil and having nothing other than my palms for receiving alms, having only the four quarters as my clothes, when shall I be capable of destroying the results of my actions?”
आशानामनदी मनोरथजला तृष्णातरंगाकुला
रागग्राहवती  वितर्कविहगा धैर्यद्रुमध्वंसिनी ।
मोहावर्तसुदुस्तरातिगहना प्रोत्तुंगचिन्तातटी
तस्याः पारगताः विशुद्धमनसो नन्दन्ति योगीश्वराः॥
Aashaa naama nadee manorathajalaa trishnaatarangaakulaa
Raagagraahavatee vitarkavihagaa dhairyadrumadhwamsinee
Mohaavartasudustaraatigahana prottungachintaatatee
Tasyaah paaragataah vishuddhamanaso nandanti yogeeshwaraah [42]
The river desire has imagination as water, greed as its waves, and attachment as crocodiles and debate as the birds.  This river sweeps away the tree of courage.  It is difficult to cross because of the whirls of delusion and its depth.  Its high banks are thoughts (worries).  Only the yogis of pure mind who cross this river will attain real happiness.
विद्यानाधिगता कलंकरहिता वित्तं च नोपार्जितं
शुश्रूषापि समाहितेन मनसा पित्रोर्न संपादिता ।
आलोलायतलोचना युवतयः स्वप्नेऽपि नालिंगिताः
कालोऽयं परपिण्डलोलुपतया काकैरिव प्रेर्यते॥
Vidyaanaadhigataa kalankarahitaa vittam cha nopaarjitam
Shushrooshaa’pi samaahitenamanasaa pitrorna sampaaditaa
Aalolaayatalochanaa yuvatayah swapne’pi naalingitaah
Kaalo’yam  parapindalolupatayaa kaakairiva preryate [45]
The poet reflects on the life of persons who go through it without any aim. They go through life without acquiring unblemished learning or wealth. They do not take care of their parents with devotion. They do not have the company of beautiful women even in their dreams.   This means they do not attain dharma, artha or kaama which are the first three purushaarthas.  Such people go through life as parasites feeding on the food offered by others, like crows.  
वयमिह परितुष्टाः वल्कलैस्त्वं दुकूलैः
सम इह परितोषो निर्विशेषो विशेष: ।
स तु भवतु दरिद्रो यस्य तृष्णा विशाला
मनसि च परितुष्टे कोऽर्थवान् को दरिद्रः॥
Vayamiha paritushtaa valkalaistwam dukoolaih
Sama iha paritosho nirvishesho visheshah
Sa tu bhavatu daridro yasya trishnaa vishaalaa
Manasi cha paritushte ko’rthavaan ko daridrah  [47]
One who has renounced the world speaks to the King thus:
We are happy with our clothes made of tree barks. You are happy with silken clothes.  The happiness of both is equal; one is not greater than the other. The one who is extremely greedy is the real poor man.  When one is mentally content with what one has who is rich and who is poor?
चण्डालः किमयं द्विजातिरथवा शूद्रोऽथ किं तापसः
किम् वा तत्त्वविवेकपेशलमतिर्योगीश्वरकोऽपि वा ।
इत्युत्पन्न विकल्पजल्पमुख्ररैः संभाष्यमाणा जनैः
न क्रुद्धाः पथि नैव तुष्टमनसो यान्ति स्वयं योगिनः॥
Chandaalah kimayam dwijaatirathavaa shoodro’tha kim taapasah
Kim va tattwavivekapeshalamatiryogeeshwara ko’pi kim
Ityutpanna vikalpajalpamukharaih sambhaashyamaanaa janai-
rnakruddhaah pathi naiva tushtamanaso yaanti swayam yoginah [51]
When a group of yogis is passing through a village, people have doubts about their identities.  One may be a chandala, a brahmin, a shoodra, an ascetic, one who has known the highest truth, or a yogi. They talk among themselves loudly.  But the yogis hear their comments calmly; they are neither angry nor happy, they move on with their tranquility undisturbed by the loud noises made by the crowd.
मोहं मार्जय तामुपार्जय रतिं चन्द्रार्धचूडामणौ
चेतः स्वर्गतरंगिणी तटभुवामासंगमंगीकुरु ।
को वा वीचिषु बुद्बुदेषु च तटिल्लेखासु च स्त्रीषु च
ज्वालाग्रेषु च पन्नगेषु च सरिद्वेगेषु च प्रत्ययः ॥
Moham maarjaya taamupaarjaya ratim chandraardha-choodaamanau
Chetah swarga-taranginee-tatabhuvaam-aasangam-angeekuru
Ko va veechishu budbudeshu cha tadillekhaasu cah streeshu cha
Jwaalaagreshu cha pannageshu cha saridwegeshu cha pratyayah [53]
Wipe out your illusions, develop love for Lord Shiva who sports the half-moon on his locks and set your heart on the banks of the celestial river Ganga.  How can you trust waves, bubbles, flashes of lightning, women, volcanoes, snakes and flow of the rivers? (All things material are ever-changing, evanescent.)   
अग्रे गीतं सरसकवयः पर्श्वतो दाक्षिणात्याः
पृष्ठे लीलावलयरणितं चामरग्राहिणीनां ।
यद्यस्त्येवं कुरु भवरसास्वादने लम्पटत्वं
नो चेच्चेतः प्रविश सहसा निर्विकल्पे समाधौ ॥
Agre geetam sarasakavayah paarshwato daakshinaatyaah
Prishthe leelaavalayaranitam chaamaragraahineenaam
Yadyaastyevam kuru bhavarasaaswaadane lampatatwam
No chechchetah pravisha sahasaa nirvikalpe samaadhau [55]
The poet tells his mind: “O Mind! If there is music in front, witty poets from the South on the sides,  the tinkling sound of bracelets of the playful damsels who wave the chamaaras (fans)  from behind, then settle down to enjoy these worldly things.  If otherwise, O mind! enter without delay into nirvikalpa samadhi ( the state wherein all plurality ends and the Ultimate Truth only remains).   
विरमत बुधाः योषित्संगात् क्षणभंगुरात्
कुरुत करुणामैत्रीप्रज्ञावधूजनसंगमं ।
न खलु नरके हाराक्रांतं घनस्तनमण्डलं
शरणमथवा श्रॊणीबिंबं रणन्मणिमेखलं॥
Viramata budhaah yoshitsangaat kshanabhanguraat
Kuruta karunaa-maitree-prajnaa-vadhoojana-sangamam
Na khalu narake haaraakraantam ghanastanamandalam
Sharanamathavaa shroneebimbam rananmanimekhalam [56]
O wise men! avoid the company of women which is extremely fleeting.    Kindness, friendship, knowledge – these are the brides whose company you should keep.  Full breasts of damsels adorned with necklaces or the hips adorned with diamond- studded tinkling waistbands will not come to your rescue when you are in hell (as punishment for the wrongs you have done)
मातर्लक्ष्मि भजस्व कंचिदपरं मत्काङ्क्षिणी मा स्म भूः
भोगेषु स्पृहयालवो नहि वयं का निस्पृहानामसि ।
सद्यस्स्यूत पलाशपत्रपुटिका पात्रे पवित्रीकृतै
र्भिक्षासक्तुभिरेव संप्रति वयं वृत्तिं समीहामहे ॥
Maatarlakshmi bhajaswa kanchidaparam matkaangkshinee ma sma bhoo-
rbhogeshu sprihayaalavo nahi vayam ka nisprihaanaamasi
Sadyasyoota palaashapatraputikaa paatre pavitreekritai-
rbhikshaasaktubhireva samprati vayam vrittim sameehaamahe [57]
O mother Lakshmi! You please go to some one else.  Do not become attached to me.  We have no desire for the pleasures of the senses. What are you for people who are not without any desire?  We live by begging daily for a handful of powdered grains in a bowl made by stitching together a few fresh leaves of the palasa tree and consecrating it by offering it to the Lord before we partake of it.
गंगातरंगहिमशीकरशीतलानि
विद्याधराध्युषित चारुशिलातलानि ।
स्थानानि किं हिमवतः प्रलयं गतानि
यत्सावमानपरपिण्डरता: मनुष्याः ॥
Gangaatarangahimasheekarasheetalaani
Vidyaadharaadhyushitachaarushilaatalaani
Sthaanaani kim himavatah pralayam gataani
Yatsaavamaana parapindarataah manushyaah [59]
Have those spots of the Himalayas vanished which are cooled by the water droplets from the waves of the Ganga or the beautiful rocky places occupied by vidyaadharaas ?  If not why are people depending on the food provided by others suffering indignities in the process (They should retire to those natural places of the Himalayas and seek their liberation from the cycle of births and deaths)
मही रम्या शय्या विपुलमुपधानं भुजलता
वितानं चाकाशं व्यजनमनुकूलोऽयमनिलः।
स्फुरद्दीपश्चन्द्रो विरतिवनितासंगमुदितः
सुखं शान्तः शेते मुनिरतनुभूतिर्नृप इव॥
Mahee ramyaa shayyaa vipulamupadhaanam bhujalataa,
Vitaanam chaakaasham vyajanamanukooloyamanilah
Sphuraddeepashchandro virativanitaasangamuditah
Sukham shaantah shete muniratanubhootirnripa iva [67]
The earth is a beautiful bed, the hand folded at the elbow serves as a pillow, the canopy is the sky, the cool breeze is like a fan, and the moon serves the purpose of a lamp, the damsel virati (non-attachment, renunciation) provides company – in this environment the saint sleeps happily like a king.
किं वेदैः स्मृतिभिः पुराणपठनैः शास्त्रैर्महाविस्तरैः
स्वर्गग्रामकुटीनिवासफलदैः कर्मक्रियाविभ्रमैः
मुक्त्वैकं भवबन्धदुखरचनाविध्वस्तकालानलं स्वात्मानन्दपदप्रवेशकलनं शेषाः वणिग्वृत्तयः
Kim vedaih smritibhih puraanapathanaih shaastrairmahaavistaraih
Swargagraamakutee nivaasaphaladaih karmkriyaavibhramaih
Muktwaikam bhavabandhadukharachanaavidhwastakaalaanalam
Swaatmaanandapadapraveshakalanam sheshaa vanigvrittayah [69]
What is the use of studying and performing the complex rituals expounded in the Vedas, smritis, puraanaas and sastras, the only fruit of which is living in a small house in a small village in Heaven?  Except the effort which will burn all the sorrows and miseries of the samsaaraa and enable one to attain the bliss of the Self, other things are simply trading, giving something in exchange for something else.
मातर्मेदिनि तात मारुत सखे तेजः सुबन्धो जल
भ्रातर्व्योम निबद्ध एव भवतामेष प्रणामाञ्जलिः ।
युष्मत्संगवशोपजातसुकृतोद्रेकस्फुरन्निर्मल ज्ञानापास्तसमस्तमोहमहिमा लीये परे ब्रह्मणि॥
Maatarmedini taata maruta sakhe tejah subandho jala
Bhraatarvyoma nibaddha eva bhavataamesha pranaamaanjalih
Yushmat-sangavashopajaata-sukritodreka-sphurannirmala-
Jnaanaapaasta-samasta-mohamahimaa leeye pare brahmani [73]
O mother Earth!  father Air! friend Fire! relative Water! brother Space! I offer Salutations to you all by joining the palms of my hands.  With your help I have done meritorious deeds and thus purified I have attained to true knowledge which has dispelled my delusions and now I merge my self in the Brahman.
यावत्स्वस्थमिदं शरीरमरुजं यावच्च दूरे जरा यावच्चेन्द्रियशक्तिरप्रतिहता यावत्क्षयोनायुषः ।
आत्मश्रेयसि तावदेव वपुषा कार्यप्रयत्नो महान्
संदीप्ते भवने तु कूपखननं प्रत्युद्यमः कीदृशः
Yaavatswasthamidam shareeramarujam yaavachcha doore jaraa
Yavachchendriyashaktirapratihataa yaavatkshayonaayushah
Aatmashreyasi taavadeva vapushaa kaarya prayatno mahaan
Sandeepte bhavane tu koopa khananam pratyudyamah keedrishah  [74]
When the body is still healthy, when old age is far away, when all the senses are working with peak efficiency, when there are still many more years to live,  one should endeavour intensely, using this body, to elevate the self to the highest state. Trying to do this when one is at the fag end of one’s life is like starting to dig a well when the house is already on fire.
तृष्णा शुष्यत्यास्ये पिबति सलिलं शीतमधुरं
क्षुधार्तः शाल्यन्नं कबलयति मांसादिकलितं ।
प्रदीप्ते कामाग्नौ सुदृढतरमालिंगति वधूं
प्रतीकारं व्याधेः सुखमिति विपर्यस्यति जनः ॥
Trishaa shushyatyaasye pibati salilam sheetamadhuram
Kshudhaartah shaalyannam kabalayati maamsaadikalitam
Pradeepte kaamaagnau sudridhataramaalingati vadhoom
Prateekaaram vyaadheh sukhamiti viparyasyati janah [ 78]
When the mouth is dry because of thirst one drinks cool, sweet water. When one is afflicted with hunger, one  eats cooked rice mixed with pieces of meat.  When one is afflicted by lust one seeks union with one’s wife.  What is remedy for thirst, hunger and lust people wrongly think as pleasure.
धन्यानां गिरिकन्दरेषुवसतां ज्योतिः परं ध्यायतां  आनन्दाश्रुकणान् पिबन्ति शकुनाः निश्शंकमंगेशया:।
अस्माकं तु मनोरथाविरचित प्रासाद वापीतट -क्रीडाकाननकेलिकौतुकजुषां आयुः परं क्षीयते ॥
  
Dhanyaanaam girikandareshu vasataam jyotih param dhyaayataam
Aanandaashrukanaan pibanti shakunaah nihshankamankeshayaah
Asmaakam tu manorathaavirachita praasaada-vaapeetata-
Kreedakaanana-kelikautukajushaam aayuh param ksheeyate [84]
Those realized souls who live in the caves of mountains and meditate upon the Supreme self shed tears of joy which the birds of the wild drink sitting on their laps without fear or apprehension.  For us who build castles, lagoons and gardens in our  imagination and entertain ourselves in a dream-like state, only the ayuh  (life span) goes on diminishing; no higher goal is achieved.   
आक्रान्तं मरणेन जन्म जरसा विद्युच्चलं यौवनं
सन्तोषो धनलिप्सया शमसुखं प्रौढांगनाविभ्रमैः ।
लोकैर्मत्सरिभिर्गुणाः वन भुवो व्यालैर्नृपा दुर्जनै
रस्थैर्येन विभूतयोऽप्युपहता ग्रस्तं न किं केन वा ॥
Aaakraantam maraanena janma jarasaa vidyuchchalam yauvanam
Santosho dhanalipsayaa shamasukham praudhaanganaavibhramaih
Lokairmatsaribhirgunaah vana bhuvo vyaalair-nripaa durjanai-
rasthairyena  vibhootayo’pyupahataa grastam na kim kena vaa [85]
Birth is invaded by death,  youth which is fleeting as the lightning by agedness (senility), contentment by greed for wealth, tranquility by the flirtations of women, good qualities by jealous persons, forests by snakes, kings by evil men and abundance of riches by instability.  There is nothing in this world which is not adversely affected by something or other.
आयुर्वर्षशतं नृणां परिमितं रात्रौ तदर्धं गतं तस्यार्धस्यपरस्यचार्धमपरं बालत्व वृद्धत्वयोः
शेषं व्याधिवियोगदु:खसहितं सेवादिभिर्नीयते
जीवे वारितरंगचञ्चलतरे सौख्यं कुतः प्राणिनाम्
Aayurvarshashatam nrinaam parimitam raatrau tadardham gatam
Tasyaardhasya parasyachaardhamaparam baalatwa vriddhatwayoh
Shesham vyadhiviyogadukhasahitam sevaadibhirneeyate
Jeeve vaaritarangachanchalatare saukhyam kutah praaninaam [88]
The lifetime of a person is limited to one hindered years.  Half of this is wasted in the night.  One half of the remaining half is spent in childhood and old age.  The balance period is somehow lived  by service or other occupations undergoing sufferings by disease, separation from loved ones and grief from misfortunes.  Where is happiness in this life which is as transient  as the waves in the ocean? 
व्याघ्रीव तिष्ठति जरा परितर्जयन्ती
रोगाश्च शत्रव इव प्रविशन्ति देहं।
आयुः परिस्रवति भिन्नघटादिवांभः
लोकस्तथाप्यहितमाचरतीति चित्रं॥
Vyaaghreeva tishthati jaraa paritarjayantee
Rogaashcha shatrava iva praharanti deham
Aayuh parisravati bhinnaghataadivaambho
Lokastathaapyahitamaacharateeti chitram [90]
Senility stands threatening like a tigress, diseases attack the body like enemies, life is ebbing out of the body as water from a pot with holes;  in spite of all this it is amusing to see people engage themselves in undesirable activities.     
स्नात्वा गांगैः पयोभिः शुचिकुसुमफलैरर्चयित्वा विभो त्वां

ध्येये ध्यानं नियोज्य क्षितिधरकुहरग्रावपर्यंकमूले ।
आत्मारामः फलाशी गुरुवचनरतस्त्वत्प्रसादात्स्मरारे दु:खान्मोक्ष्ये कदाऽहं तव चरणरतो ध्यानमार्गैकनिष्ठः
Snaatwaa gaangaih payobhih shuchikusumphhalairarchayitwaa vibho twaa,
Dhyeye dhyaanam niyojya kshitidhara-kuhara-graava-paryanka-moole
Aaatmaaraamah phalaashee guruvachanaratastwatprasaadaatsmaraare,
Dukhaanmokshye kadaa’ham tava charanarato dhyaanamaargaikanishthah [91]
Bathing in the sacred waters of the Ganga,   worshipping You, O Lord!, with fresh flowers and fruits, meditating on your beautiful form seated on a rock in a Himalayan cave, experiencing the bliss of the self, living only on fruits, following the advice of the guru, heart set on your lotus feet and establishing myself in dhyaanayoga, when shall I, by Your grace, be liberated from the miseries of this samsaara ?
गात्रं संकुचितं गतिर्विगलिता भ्रष्टा च दन्तावलिः
दृष्टिर्नश्यति वर्धते बधिरता वक्त्रं च लालायते
वाक्यं नाद्रियते च बांधवजनो भार्या न शुश्रूषते
हा कष्टं पुरुषस्य  जीर्णवयसः पुत्रोऽप्यमित्रायते
Gaatram samkuchitam gatirvigalitaa bhrashtaa cha dantaavalih
Drishtirnashyati vardhate badhirataa vaktram cha laalaayate
Vaakyam naadriyate cha bandhavajano bhaaryaa na shushrooshate
Ha kashtam purushasya jeernavayasah putropyamitraayate [95]
The body has shrunk, the walk is tottering, the teeth have fallen, the sight has dimmed, hearing is diminished, saliva drips from the mouth, relatives do not heed the words, the wife also does not render service, even the son has become an enemy. O ! the misery of an aged person.
अहौ वा हारे वा बलवति रिपौ वा सुहृदि वा
मणौ वा लोष्टे वा कुसुमशयने वा दृषदि वा ।
तृणे वा स्त्रैणे वा मम समदृशो यान्ति दिवसाः क्वचित्पुण्येऽरण्ये शिवशिवशिवेति प्रलपतः ॥
Ahau vaa haare vaa balavati ripau vaa suhridi vaa,
Manau vaa loshte va kusumashayane vaa drishadi vaa
Trine vaa straine vaa mama samadrisho yaanti divasaah
Kwachitpunye’ranye shivashivashiveti pralapatah [98]
My days are passed in a sacred forest chanting the name of Shiva and having the same equal vision whether it is a snake or a garland, an enemy or a friend, a diamond or a lump of clay, a bed of flowers or of stone,  a bundle of grass or a group of women.
चला लक्ष्मीश्चला प्राणाश्चलं जीवितयौवनं
चलाचले च संसारे धर्म एको हि निश्तितः
Chalaa lakshmeeshchalaa praanaashchalam jeevitayauvanam
Chalaachale cha samsaare dharma eko hi nishchalah  [100]
Wealth is fleeting, breath is fleeting, life is fleeting and youth is fleeting.  In this world of moveable and immoveable life 
forms only dharma is stable, permanent.



PEARLS FROM THE UPANISHADS

Pearls from the Upanishads
The Upanishads are treasure houses of ancient Hindu thought of philosophy.  They are among the great seminal books of the world.  They are also known as Vedanta since they come at the end of their respective Vedas after the Mantra, Brahmana and the Aranyaka portions. They have influenced countless generations of men and have given rise to a vast literature in a hundred different languages.
The etymological meaning of the word upanishad  is ‘sitting(sad), close by (upa) with devotion (ni)’.  Since the Upanishadic doctrine is not for the masses, it was given to the eligible pupil in seclusion.  Hence ‘Upanishad’ came to mean secret doctrine. 
 The central teaching of the Upanishads may be said to contain in the following verse from the Kathopanishad:
      
     एको वशी सर्वभूतान्तरात्मा एकं रूपं बहुधा यः करोति
   तमात्मस्थं ये नु पश्यन्ति धीराः तेषाम् सुखं शाश्वतं नेतराणाम् 
 
       Eko vashee sarvabhootaantaraatmaa
       Ekam roopam bahudhaa yah karoti
      Tamaatmastham yenupashyanti dheeraah
      Teshaam sukham shaashwatam netareshaam 
“The one Controller, the inner self of all  beings who makes his one form manifold;  the wise who perceive him as existing within themselves – for them there is eternal happines; not for others.
Here we have in a nutshell the deepest intuition of the Rishis of yore.   We have here, by implication, the absoluteness of God, his immanence and transendence and his creative evolution as well as the brotherhood of all created things, their inherent divinity, their blindness, sin and suffering and their final emancipation. 
The whole aim of the Upanishads is to show that God, man and nature are bound together in mystic bonds, that the self of man and the self of all other beings in the world are, at bottom, the same as the universal Self. Our highest happiness consists in realising this unity in diversity and acting accordingly.  A man who realises this identity not simply as an intellectual proposition or scriptural statement, but as a fact of immediate experience,  transcends all limitations, feels perfectly at home everywhere in the universe and thus reaches the highest state.  
The goal of man, according to the Upanishadic teaching, is realisation of the self as Brahman, the universal Self.  As means thereto are taught an attitude of detachment, the spirit of renunciation, cultivation of cardinal virtues, devotion to the Deity, a passion for enquiry and knowledge of the Absolute.  It is this knowledge that removes all sorrow and delusion; for as the Isavasya says, there can be no sorrow and no delusion for one who has seen the unity of the self in all beings.
 Among the Indologists and philosophers of the West,  Max Muller has this to say about the Upanishads (Vedanta):
“ The Upanishads are the sources of the Vedanta Philosophy, a system in which human speculation seems to me to have reached its very acme…. I spend my happiest hours in reading Vedantic books.  They are to me like the light of the morning, like the pure air of the mountains, so simple, so true, if once understood.”
 The great German philosopher Schopenhauer says:
“From every sentence (of the Upanishads of Vedanta) deep, original and sublime thoughts arise, and the whole is pervaded by a high and holy and earnest spirit…. In the whole world there is no study so beneficial and so elevating as that of the Upanishads (the Vedanta)…(They) are products of the highest wisdom…It is destined sooner or later to become the faith of the people.”       
From the vast ocean of Upanishadic literature, a few pearls are presented here wiith the Sanskrit text in Roman script and a rendering of the meaning in English.  It should, however,  be understood that the translation in English cannot bring out the full import, connotation, brevity and beauty of the original.  An attempt has, however, been  made to bring out the broad meaning of the original text for the benefit of those who cannot take advantage of the original text in Sanskrit.     
Ishopanishad
पूर्णमदः पूर्णमिदं पूर्णात् पूर्णमुदच्यते
पूर्णस्य पूर्णमादाय पूर्णमेवावशिष्यते
Poornamadah poornamidam poornaat poornamudachyate
Poornasya Poornamaadaaya Poornamevaavashishyate
On Shantih Shantih Shantih    (Shanti paathah)
That ( Brahman)  is full; this ( World)  is full.  The full comes out of the full.  Taking the full from the full, the full itself remains.  Om, peace, peace, Peace.
ईशावास्यमिदं सर्वं यत्किंच जगत्यां जगत्
तेन त्यक्तेन भुंजीथा: मा गृधः कस्यस्विद्धनम्
Eeshaa vaasyamidam sarvam yatkincha jagatyaam jagat
Tena tyaktena Bhunjeethaa maa gridhah kasyaswiddhanam [1]
By the Lord is encompassed all this, whatsoever changing there is in this changing (World).  Through the renunciation of this  (world) mayest thou enjoy; covet not anyone’s riches.
यस्तुसर्वाणि भूतानि आत्मन्येवानुपश्यति
सर्वभूतेषु चात्मानं ततो न विजुगुप्सते
Yastu sarvaani bhootani aatmanyevaanupashyati
Sarvabhooteshu chaatmaanam tato na vijugupsate    [6]
One who perceives all beings in the Self and the Self in all beings will not despise or hate because he sees the same atmatattwa  in all beings.
अन्धं तमः प्रविशन्ति ते येऽविद्यामुपासते
ततो भूय इव ते तमो य उ विद्यायां रताः
अन्यदेवाहुर्विद्याया अन्यदाहुरविद्यया
इति शुश्रुम धीराणां ये नस्तद्व्याचचक्षिरे
विद्याम् चाऽविद्यां च यत्तत्वेदोभयं सह
अविद्यया मृत्युं तीर्त्वा विद्ययाऽमृतमश्नुते
Andham tamah pravishanti  ye’vidyaamupaasate
Tato bhooya iva  te tamo ya  u vidyaayaam rataah
Anyadevaahurvidyaayaa anyadaahuravidyayaa
Iti shushruma dheeraanaam ye nastadvyaachachakshire
Vidyaam chaa’vidyaam cha yattat vedobhayam saha
Avidyayaa mrityum teertwaa vidyayaa’mritamashnute  [9 – 11]
By vidyaa   the reference is to knowledge and by avidyaa the reference is to action (karma).  Those who follow only  the path of karma  end up in the darkness of ignorance (ajnaana).  Those who follow only the path of knowledge ( jnaana) seem to  end up in greater darkness.
The fruit of vidyaa (knowledge) is different and the fruit of avidyaa ( karma, action) is also different. The great souls who have realised this truth have explained and interpreted this to us.
One who knows vidya (knowledge)  and avidyaa (action)  simultaneously and understands that each complements the other, conquers mrityu  ( that is, the lower nature that causes the downfall  of atman) and, by vidya (knowledge)  experiences his real nature of amritatwa (eternity, blissfulness).
आग्ने! नय सुपथा राये अस्मान्
विश्वानि देव वयुनानि विद्वान्
युयोध्यस्मज्जुहुराणमेनो
भूयिष्ठां ते नम उक्तिं विधेम
Agne ! naya supathaa raaye asmaan
Vishwaani deva vayunaani vidwaan
Yuyodhyasmajjuhuraanameno
Bhooyishthaam te nama uktim vidhema [18]
O Agni! Lead us on to prosperity along the auspicious  path, knowing, god, all our deeds! Keep away from us deceitful sin! We shall offer unto thee words of obeisance again and again.
Kenopanishad
माहं ब्रह्म निराकुर्यां मा मा ब्रह्म निराकरोत्
अनिराकरणमस्त्वनिराकरणमस्तु
Maaham brahma niraakuryaam maa maa brahma niraakarot
Aniraakaranamastwaniraakarnamastu (shanti paathah)
May I never discard  Brahman!  May not Brahman discard me! May there be no discarding ! May there be no discarding !
[Note: This  prayer is for the  realisation of the unity of the  individual self with Universal Self.]
इहचेदवेदीदथ सत्यमस्ति
न चेदिहावेदीन्महती विनष्टिः
Ihachedavedeedatha satyamasti
Na chedihaavedeenmahatee vinashtih  [2.5]
If one realises and experiences the truth of the unity of the aatman  and  the paramata n (individual self and the Universal Self) in this birth itself it is good.  If one does not realize this in this birth it is a great loss.
तस्यै तपो दमः कर्मेति प्रतिष्ठा,  वेदाः सर्वांगानि, सत्यमायतनम्
Tasyai tapo damah karmeti pratishthaa, vedaah sarvaangaani, satyamaayatanam [4.8]
Penance, restraint, sacrificial rites, these are its (Upanishad’s) support.  The Vedas are all its limbs.  Truth is its abode.
Kathopanishad
न वित्तेन तर्पणीयो मनुष्यः
Na vittena tarpaneeyo manushyah  [1.1.27]
Man cannot be propitiated with wealth
अन्यच्छ्रेयोऽन्यदुतैव  प्रेयः
ते उभे नानार्थे पुरुषं सिनीतः
तयोः श्रेय आदधानस्य साधु भवति
हीयतेऽर्थात् य उ प्रेयो वृणीते
Anyachchhreyo’nyadutaiva preyah
Te ubhe naanaarthe purusham sineetah
Tayoh shreya aadadaanasya saadhu bhavati
Heeyate’rthaat ya u preyo vrineete [1.2.1]
Different is the good, and different,  indeed,  is the pleasing.  These two having different purposes, bind man.  It becomes well with him who accepts the good.  But he who chooses the pleasing falls away from the purpose.   
न जायते म्रियते वा विपश्चि-
न्नायं कुतश्चिन्न बभूव कश्चित्
अजो नित्यः शाश्वतोऽयम् पुराणो
न हन्यते हन्यमाने शरीरे
Na jaayate mriyate vaa vipashchin-
Naayam kutashchinna babhoova kashchit
Ajo nityah shaashwato’yam puraano
Na hanyate hanyamaane shareere  [1.2.18]
The knowing self is not born; nor does he die.  He sprang from nothing and nothing sprang (from him).  He is unborn, eternal, everlasting and ancient.  He is not slain when the body is slain.
नाविरतो दुश्चरितात्
नाशान्तो नासमाहितः
नाशान्तोमनसो वाऽपि
प्रज्ञानेनैनमाप्नुयात्
Naavirato dushcharitaat
Naashaanto naasamaahitah
Naashantamanaso vaa’pi
Prajnaanenainamaapnuyaat  [1.2.24]
One who has not abandoned his bad habits,  whose mind is not under control, who does not have concentration or whose mind is disturbed cannot realise this atman  by mere intellectual reasoning.
अणोरणीयान्महतो महीयान्
आत्मास्यजन्तोर्निहितं गुहायां
तमक्रतुः पश्यति वीतशोको
धातुः प्रसादात् महिमानमात्मनः
Anoraneeyaan mahatomaheeyaa-
Naatmaa’sya jantornihitam guhaayaam
Tamakratuh pashyati veetashoko
Dhatuh prasaadaat mahimaanamaatmanah
Subtler than the subtle, grosser than the gross, the self is concealed in the heart-cave of this creature.  He who is free from desire and free from sorrow perceives the glory of the self through the purity of the mind and the senses.
आत्मानं रथिनं विद्धि शरीरं रथमेव तु
बुद्धिं तु सारथिं विद्धि मनः प्रग्रहमेव च
इन्द्रियाणि हयान्याहु: विषयांस्तेषु गोचरान्
आत्मेन्द्रियमनोयुक्तं भोक्तेत्याहुर्मनीषिणः
यस्त्वविज्ञानवान् भवत्ययुक्तेन मनसा सदा
तस्येन्द्रियाण्यवश्यानि दुष्टाश्वा इव सारथे:
यस्तु विज्ञानवान् भवति युक्तेन मनसा सदा
तस्येन्द्रियाणि वश्यानि सदश्वा इव सारथे:
विज्ञानसारथिर्यस्तु मनप्रग्रहवान् नरः
सोऽध्वन परमाप्नोति तद्विष्णो: परमं पदं
Aatmaanam rathinam viddhi shareeram rathameva tu
Buddhim tu saarathim viddhi manah pragrahameva cha
Indriyaani hayaanyaahurvishayaamsteshu gocharaan
Aatmendriyamanoyuktam bhoktetyaahurmaneeshinah
Yastwavijnaanavaan bhavatyayuktena manasaa sadaa
Tasyendriyaanyavashyaani dushtaaswaa iva saaratheh
Yastu vijnaanavaan bhavati yuktena manasaa sadaa
Tasyendriyaani vashyaani sadashwaa iva  saaratheh
Vijnaanasaarthiryastu manah pragrahavaan narah
So’dhwanah paramaapnoti tadwishnoh paramam padam [1.3.3,4,5,6,9]
Know the self as the lord of the chariot,  the body as the chariot,  the intellect as the charioteer and the mind as the reins. The senses are said to be the horses and the sense-objects the spheres for them.  Wise men say that (the individual self) as associated with body, the senses and the mind, is the enjoyer.  Whoever becomes devoid of knowledge because of mind ever unyoked, for him the senses are uncontrollable, as wild horses are for a charioteer.  But whoever becomes endowed with knowledge because of mind ever yoked,  for him the senses are controllable, as trained horses are for a charioteer.  One who has discriminating intellect as the charioteer and the mind as the reins reaches the end of the path and attains the highest goal of life.
उत्तिष्ठत जाग्रत प्राप्य वरान्निबोधत
क्षुरस्य धारा निशिता दुरत्यया
दुर्गं पथस्तत् कवयो वदन्ति
Uthishthatha jaagrata praapya varaannibodhata
Kshurasya dhaaraa nishitaa duratyayaa
Durgam pathastat kavayo vadanti [1.3.14]
(Those who are immersed in ignorance!)  Arise, awake, approach the great souls for enlightenment.  The sharp edge of a sword is hard to tread.  So also the path to self-knowledge (aatma jnaana), the wise declare, is hard to travel.
पराञ्चि खानि व्यतृणत् स्वयंभू-
स्तस्मात् पराङ्पश्यति नान्तरात्मन्
कश्चिद्धीर: प्रत्यगात्मानमैक्ष-
दावर्तचक्षुरमृतत्वमिच्छन् 
Paraanchi khaani vytrinat swayambhoo-
stasmaat paraang pashyati naantaraatman
Kashchiddheerah pratyagaatmaanamaiksha-
Daavrittachakshuramritatwamichchhan  [2.1.1]
Swaymabhoo (the self-born) Brahma forced the senses outward;  hence one sees outward and not the inner self.  Some one who is wise, desiring immortality, sees the inner self, by turning the eyes inward. 
पराञ्च: कामाननुयन्ति बाला-
स्ते मृत्योर्यान्तिविततस्य पाशम्
अथ धीराः अमृतत्वं विदित्वा
ध्रुवमध्रुवेष्विह न प्रार्थयन्ते
Paraanchah kaamaananuyanti baalaa-
ste mrityoryanti vitatasya paasham
Atha dheeraah amritatwam viditwaa
Dhruvamadhruveshwiha na praarthayante [2.1.2]
The immature pursue outward pleasures; they are caught in the far-flung snare of death.  But the wise, knowing immortality to be permanent, do not pray for anything here amidst what are transitory.
अग्निर्यथैको भुवनं प्रविष्टो
रूपं रूपं प्रतिरूपो बभूव
एकस्तथा सर्वभूतान्तरात्मा
रूपं रूपं प्रतिरूपो बहिश्च
Agniryathaiko bhuvanam pravishto
Roopam roopam pratiroopo babhoova
Ekastathaa sarvabhootaantaraatmaa
Roopam roopam pratiroopo bahishcha
As Agni (Fire), which is one, entering this world becomes varied in form according to the respective forms (of objects it burns), so also the one inner self of all beings becomes varied in form according to the respective forms of beings it inhabits and also (exists) outside.
सूर्यो यथा सर्वलोकस्य चक्षु:
न लिप्यते चाक्षुषैर्बाह्यदोषै:
एकस्तथा सर्वभूतान्तरात्मा
न लिप्यते लोकदुखेन बाह्य:
Sooryo yathaa sarvalokasyachakshu-
rna lipyate chaakshushairbaahyadoshaih
Ekastathaa sarvabhootaantaraatmaa
Na lipyate lokadukhena baahyah
As the sun who is the eye of all beings is not stained by the external defects pertaining to the eyes, so also the inner self of all beings is not stained by the misery of beings (though) external.  
Mundakopanishad
द्वा सुपर्णौ सयुजौ सखयौ
समानं वृक्षं परिषस्वजाते
तयोरन्यः पिप्पलं स्वाद्यत्ति
अनश्नन्नन्योऽभिचाकशीति
Dwaa suparna sayujaa sakhaayaa
samaanam vriksham parishaswajaate
Tayoranyah pippalam swaadyathi
Anashnannanyo’bhichaakasheeti
Two birds, ever united companions, cling to the self-same tree.  Of these two, one eats the sweet berry (is immersed in the joys and and sorrows of this world) .  The other one looks on without eating (He remains as the witness only ).
 समाने वृक्षे पुरुषो निमग्नो ऽनीशया शोचतिमुह्यमानः
जुष्टं यदा पश्यत्यन्यमीशमस्य महिमानमिति वीतशोकः
Samaane vrikshe purusho nimagno-
‘neeshayaa shochati muhyamaanah
Jushtam yadaa pashyatyanyameesha-
masya mahimaanamiti veetashokah
On the self-same tree, a person immersed ( in the sorrows of the world) is deluded and grieves on account of his want of strength.  But he becomes free from sorrow, when he sees the other who is worshipped (by many) and who is the Lord, and also his greatness. 
सत्येन लभ्यस्तपसा ह्येष आत्मा
सम्यग्ज्ञानेन ब्रह्मचर्येण नित्यम्
अन्त: शरीरे ज्योतिर्मयो हि शुभ्रो
यम् पश्यन्ति यतयः क्षीणदोषा:
Satyena labhyastapasaa hyesha aatmaa
Samyagjnaanena brahmacharyena nityam
Antah shareere jyotirmayo hi shubhro
Yam pashyanti ytayah ksheenadoshaah  [3.1.5]
This Atman, luminous and pure, whom the blemishless yogis perceive inside this body can be attained only by Truth, tapas (endurance of suffering), true knowledge and  brahmacharya.
सत्यमेव जयते नाऽनृतम्
सत्येन पन्था विततो देवयानः
येनाक्रमन्ति ऋषयो ह्याप्तकामा
यत्र तत्सत्यस्यपरं निधानम्
Satyameva jayate naanritam
Satyena panthaa vitato devayaanah
Yenaakramantyrishayo hyaaptakaamaa
Yatra tatsatyasyaparam nidhaanam [3.3.6]
Truth alone reigns supreme not untruth.  By truth is laid out the road (known as) the path of the gods, by which the sages,  who have their desires (fully) realised, proceed to where that supreme seat of truth is. 
यम् यम् लोकं मनसा संविभाति
विशुद्धसत्व: कामयते यांश्च कामान्
तम् तम् लोकं जायते तांश्च कामां-
स्तस्मादात्मज्ञं ह्यर्चयेद्भूतिकामः
Yam yam lokam manasaa samvibhaati
Vishuddhasatwah kaamayate yaamshcha kaamaan
Tam tam lokam jayate taamshcha kaamaam-
stasmaadaatmajnam hyarchayedbhootikaamah [3.1.10]
Whatever world a man of purified nature thinks of in his mind and whatever desires he desires, all those worlds and all those desires he attains.  Therefore he who desires prosperity should worship the knower of the self. `
नायमात्मा बलहीनेन लभ्यः
न च प्रमादात्तपसो वाप्यलिंगात्
एतैरुपायैर्यतते यस्तु विद्वां
स्तस्यैष आत्मा विशते ब्रह्म धाम
Naayamaatmaa balaheenena labhyo
Na cha pramaadaattapaso vaapyalingaat
Etairupaayairyatate yastu vidwaam-
stasyaisha aatmaa vishate brahama dhaama
This self is not to be attained by one who is devoid of strength, nor through delusion nor even by penance without an aim. But the wise man who makes the attempt with these means – this self of his enters the Brahman- abode.
वेदान्तविज्ञानसुनिश्चितार्था:
संन्यासयोगाद्यतय: शुद्धसत्त्वा:
ते ब्रह्मलोकेषु परान्तकाले
परामृता: परिमुच्यन्ति सर्वे
Vedaantavijnaanasunishchitaarthaah
Sanyaasayogaadyatayah shuddhasattwaah
Te brahmalokeshu paraantakaale
Paraamritaah parimuchyanti sarve
The ascetics who have ascertained well the import of the Vedanta-knowledge and who have purified their natures through the path of renunciation – all of them, the supreme immortals, are liberated at the end of time in the worlds of Brahman.
Taittireeya Upanishad
वेदमनूच्याचार्योऽन्तेवासिनमनुशास्ति। सत्यं वद । धर्मं चर। स्वाध्यायान्मा प्रमद:।
आचार्याय प्रियंधनमाहृत्य प्रजातन्तुं मा व्यवच्छेत्सी:॥
Vedamanoochyaachaaryo’ntevaasinamanushaasti |  satyam vada| dharmam chara | swaadhyaanmaa pramadah | Achaaryaaya priyam dhanamaahritya prajaatantum maa vyavachchhetseeh ||
After expounding the Vedas, the teacher enjoins the disciple  thus:  Speak the truth.  Practice virtue.  Do not neglect the Veda that has been studied.  Having brought to the teacher the wealth that is pleasing to him, do not cut off the line of progeny.
सत्यान्न प्रमदितव्यम् । धर्मान्न प्रमदितव्यम्।कुशलान्न प्रमदितव्यम् । भूत्यै न प्रमदितव्यम्। स्वाध्यायप्रवचनाभ्यां न प्रमदितव्यम् ॥
Satyaanna pramaditavyam | dharmaanna pramaditavyam | kushalaannapramaditavyam | bhootyai na pramaditavyam |
Swaadhyaayapravachanaabhyaam na pramaditavyam ||
Let there be no neglect of truth.  Let there be no neglect of virtue.  Let there be no neglect of welfare.  Let there be no neglect of prosperity.  Let there be no neglect of the Veda that has been studied and its teaching.
देवपितृकार्याभ्यां न प्रमदितव्यम् । मातृदेवो भव । पितृदेवो भव। आचार्यदेवो भव। अतिथिदेवो भव॥
Deva pitrikaaryaabhyaam na pramaditavyam | Matrudevo bhava | pitrudevo bhava |  Aachaaryadevo bhava |
Atithidevo bhava | |
Let there be no neglect of what is due to gods and to departed forefathers.  Be one to whom mother is a god; be one to whom father is a god; be one to whom teacher is a god; be one to whom guest is a god. 
यान्यनवद्यानि कर्माणि तानि सेवितव्यानि । नो इतराणि । यान्यस्माकं सुचरितानि तानि त्वयोपास्यानि नो इतराणि ॥
Yaanyanavadyaani karmaani taani sevitavyaani| No itaraani | yaanyasmaakam sucharitaani taanitwayopaasyaani | No itaraani||
Whatever deeds are blameless, be devoted to them; to no others.  Whatever good customs there are among us, they have to be adopted by you, no others.
ये के चास्मच्छ्रेयांसो ब्राह्मणा तेषां त्वयासनेन प्रश्वसितव्यम् । श्रद्धया देयम् ।।अश्रद्धयाऽदेयम् । श्रिया देयम्। ह्रिया देयम्।
भिया देयम् । संविदा देयम्।
Ye ke chaasmachchhreyaamso braahmanaa teshaam twayaasanena prashwasitavyam | shraddhayaa deyam | ashraddhayaa’deyam | shriyaa deyam | hriyaa deyam | bhiyaa devyam | samvidaa deyam ||
Whatever Braahmanas there may be who are superior to us, they should be comforted by you by giving them a seat.  Gifts should be given with faith; should not be given without faith;  should be given in plenty; should be given with modesty; should be given with fear; should be given with sympathy
अथ यदि ते कर्मविचिकित्सा वा वृत्तविचिकित्सा वा स्यात् ये तत्र ब्राह्मणा: सम्मर्शिनो युक्ता आयुक्ता अलूक्षा धर्मकामा स्युर्यथा ते तत्र वर्तेरन् तथा तत्र वर्तेथा:
Atha yadi te karmavichikitsaa vaa vritta vichikitsaa vaa syat ye tatra braahmanaah sammarshino yuktaa aayuktaa alookshaa dharmakaamaa syuryathaa te tatra varteran tathaa tatra vartethaah
Then, if there is in you any doubt regarding rites and any doubt regarding conduct, you should conduct yourself in those cases in such a way in which those Brahmanas  who may be living there, who are competent to judge, dedicated (to good deeds), not led by others, not cruel and are lovers of virtue, conduct themselves in these cases.
अथाभ्याख्यातेषु ये तत्र ब्राह्मणा: सम्मर्शिनो युक्ता आयुक्ता अलूक्षा धर्मकामा स्युर्यथा ते तत्र वर्तेरन् तथा तत्र वर्तेथा:
Athaabhyaakhyaateshu ye tatra braahmanaah sammarshino yuktaa aayuktaa alookshaa dharmakaamaa syuryathaa te tatra varteran tathaa tatra vartethaah
Then in respect of persons who are accused of (sin), you should conduct yourself in such a way in which those Brahmanas  who may be living there, who are competent to judge, dedicated (to good deeds), not led by others, not cruel and are lovers of virtue, conduct themselves in respect of such persons.
एश आदेश: । एष उपदेश: । एषा वेदोपनिशद् । एतदनुशासनम्। एवमुपास्तव्यम् । एवमुचैतदुपास्यम्
Esha aadeshah | Esah upadeshah | Eshaa Vedopanishad | Etadanushaasanam | Evamupaasitavyam |
evamuchaitadupaasyam ||
This is the command .  This is the teaching.  This is the secret meaning of the Vedas.  This is the instruction.  Thus should one worship.  Thus indeed should one  worship this.
रसो वै सः। रसम् ह्येवायं लब्ध्वाऽऽनन्दी भवति । को ह्येवान्यात् कः प्राण्यात् ? यदेष आकाश आनन्दो न स्यात् एष ह्येवानन्दयति ॥
Raso vai sah | rasam hyevaayam labdhwaanandee bhavati| ko hyevaanyaat kah praanyaat? Yadesha aakaasha aanando na syaat Esha hyewanandayati  [2.7]
Brahman is of the nature of infinite bliss.  All beings experience joy from an infinitesimal part of this bliss of Brahman. Without this bliss of brahman pervading all of space, how can anyone find joy in living involving such acts as breathing, eating  and excreting.   It is the same Ultimate Reality which is the source of joy for every living being 
      
आनन्दं ब्रह्मणो विद्वान् न बिभेति कश्चन
Aanandam brahmano vidwaan na bibheti kushchana [2.9]
He who has experienced the bliss of Brahman will never again fear from anthing.
य़तो वा इमानि भूतानि जायन्ते ।  येन जातानि जीवन्ति । यत् प्रयन्त्यभिसंविशन्ति।  तद्विजिज्ञासस्व तद्ब्रह्म – इति ॥
Yato vaa imaani bhootaani jaayante  yena jaataani jeevanti yat prayantyabhisamvishanti  tadvijijnaasaswa| Tadbrahma – iti ||
That, verily, from which these beings are born, that by which the beings live, that into which, when departing, they enter, seek to know that.  That is Brahman.
Chchhaandogyopanishad
त्रयो धर्मस्कन्धा: – यज्ञोऽध्ययनम् दानमिति प्रथम:, तप एव द्वितीयः, ब्रह्मचार्याचार्यकुलवासी त्रितीयोऽत्यन्तमात्मानमाचार्यकुलेऽवसादयन्
Trayo dharma skandhaah – yajno’dhyayanam daanamiti prathamah,  tapa eva dwiteeyah, brahmachaaryaachaaryakulavaasee triteeyo’tyantamaatmaanamaachaaryakule’vasaadayan [2.23.1]
There are three supports for dharma.  The first is sacrifices, study of vedas and gifting.  The second is tapas .  The third is brahmachari living in the gurukula  physically exhausting himself in the service of the guru  and gurukula.
यो वै भूमा तत्सुखम् नाल्पे सुखमस्ति
Yo vai bhoomaa tatsukham
Naalpe sukhamasti
भूमैव सुखम् । भूमा त्वेव विजिज्ञासितव्यः
Bhoomaiva sukham | bhoomaa tweva vijijnaasitavyah[7.2.1]
What is great is bliss.  There is no bliss in the small.  The great itself is bliss.  The great itself is what is to be desired to be known. 
 यो वै भूमा तदमृतं । अथ यदल्पं तन्मर्त्यं
Yo vai bhoomaa tadamritam | Atha yadalpam tanmartyam [7.24.1]
What is great is immortal.  Then, what is small that is transient.
आहारशुद्धौ सत्त्वशुद्धि: सत्त्वशुद्धौ ध्रुवा स्मृतिः स्मृतिलाभे सर्वग्रन्थीनां विप्रमोक्षः
Aaahaara shuddhau  sattwashuddhih | Sattava suddhau dhruvaa smritih |
Smritilaabhe sarvagrantheenaam vipramokshah
When the food taken is pure, the inner mind of the person becomes pure.  When the mind is pure, the memory is stable. With the help of this stable memory all the internal knots are untied.
Brihadaaranyakopanishad
असतो मा सद्गमय  तमसो मा ज्योतिर्गमय मृत्योर्माऽमृतम् गमय
Asato maa sad gamaya
Tamaso maa jyotirgamaya
Mrityormaa’mritam gamaya
From the unreal lead me to the real.  From darkness lead me to light.  From death lead me to immortality.
अमृतत्त्वस्य नाशास्ति वित्तेनेति
Amritattwasya naashaasti vitteneti
There is no hope of attaining immortality through vitta (wealth, material means)
न वा अरे पत्युः कामाय पति: प्रियो भवति
आत्मनस्तु कामाय पति: प्रियो भवति
न वा अरे सर्वस्यकामाय सर्वं प्रियं भवति
आत्मनस्तु कामाय सर्वं प्रियं भवति
आत्मा वा अरे द्रष्टव्य: श्रोतव्यो मन्तव्यो निदिध्यासितव्यो मैत्रेयि
आत्मनो वा दर्शनेन श्रवणेन मत्या विज्ञानेनेदं सर्वं विदितम्
Na vaa are patyuh kamaaya patih priyo bhavati
Aatmanastu kaamaaya patih priyo bhavati
Na vaa are sarvasyakaamaaya sarvam priyam bhavati|
Aatmanastu kaamaaya sarvam priyam bhavati
Aatmaa vaa are drashtavyah shrotavyo mantavyo nididhyaasitavyo maitreyi !|
Aatmano vaa are darshanena shravanena matyaa vijnaanenedam sarvam viditam ||
Not indeed for the love of a husband is the husband dear.  But, for the love of the self is the husband dear.
Not indeed for the love of all is all dear.  But, for the love of the self is all dear.
It is, indeed, the self that is to be seen, that is to be heard of, that is to be thought about, that is to be meditated on.  Lo, Maitreyi, indeed by the sight of the self, by its being heard of, by its being thought about, by its being known, all this becomes known. 
Shwetaashwataropanishad
यदा चर्मवदाकाशं वेष्टयिष्यन्ति मानवाः
तदा देवमविज्ञाय दुखस्यान्तो भविष्यति
Yadaa charmavadaakaasham veshtayishyanti maanavaah
Tadaa  devamavijnaaya dukhasyaanto bhavishyati
When men can wrap the sky (space) around themselves as a piece of skin then, without knowing the one God,  there will be  end of all sorrow (meaning there can be no end of sorrow without knowing the one God).  
एको देवः सर्वभूतेषु गूढ:
सर्वव्यापी सर्वभूतान्तरात्मा
कर्माध्यक्षः सर्वभूताधिवासः
साक्षी चेता केवलो निर्गुणश्च
Eko devah sarvabhooteshu gooDhah
Sarvavyaapee sarvabhootaantaraatmaa
Karmaadhyakshah sarvabhootaadhivaasah
Sakshee chetaa kevalo nirgunashcha
He is the one God, hidden in all beings, pervading all, the inner self of all, the perceiver of all deeds, the presider of all beings, the witness, the knower, the sole one, and devoid of qualities.
यो ब्रह्माणं विदधाति पूर्वम्
यो वै वेदांश्च प्रहिणोति तस्मै
तं ह देवमात्मबुद्धिप्रकाशं
मुमुक्षुर्वै शरणमहं प्रपद्यॆ
Yo brahmaanam vidadhaati poorvam
Yo vai vedaamshcha prahinoti tasmai
Tam ha devamaatmabuddhiprakaasham
Mumukshurvai sharanamaham prapadye
He who of old created Brahma, and who verily imparted the Vedas to him, that God who manifests in his own intellect, I, in my eargerness for release, approach as a refuge.
Muktikopanishad
शुभाशुभाभ्यां मार्गाभ्यां वहन्ती वासनासरित्
पौरुषेण प्रयत्नेन योजनीया शुभे पथि
हस्तं हस्तेन संपीड्य दन्तैर्दन्तान् विचूर्णयन्
अंगान्यंगैः समाक्रम्य जयेदादौ स्वकं मनः
Shubhaashubhaabhyaam maargaabhyaam vahantee vaasanaa sarit
Paurushena prayatnena yojaneeyaa shubhe pathi
Hastam hastena sampeedya dantairdantaan vichoornayan
Angaanyangai samaakramya jayedaadau swakam manah
The innate tendencies of man accumulated in countless births flows in two channels.  The first one yields good and happiness and the other one yields evil and sorrow. By a herculean effort one should divert the vasanas into the first channel which leads one to the ultimate goal of life.
Firmly locking together one’s both hands,  grinding one’s teeth together and  pitting the limbs of the body against one another  (meaning using a herculean effort) one should conquner one’s mind as the first thing ( for further advancement in the spiritual path). 

NEETI SHATAKAM OF BHARTHRUHARI

QUOTES FROM SUBHAASHITA TRISHATEE OF RAJA BHARTRIHARI

Neeti Shakatam

The great philosopher-poet, Bharthruhari, was the King of Ujjain. He was the elder step brother of the renowned Vikramaaditya. His life presents to us a living account of a person’s transformation from a pleasure-loving king to an ascetic. It was he who gave us the immortal Subhashita Trishati consisting the trilogy of Neeti Sataka, Sringara Sataka and Vairagya Sataka which truly reflect his life expeiences as a king, as a lover and as an ascetic.

Students of Sanskrit are sure to have read selections from Subhashita Trishati which encompasses almost every experience known to man and pours them forth in beautiful poetry. It provides philosophy to those interested in it. It provides metrical delight to lovers of poetry by the use of common meters such as Indravajra, Upendravajra, Vasantatilaka, Malini, Sikharini, Mandakranta, Sardulavikridita, Sragdhara etc. It teaches morality to those who would llike lead a moral life. It has some thing in it for every one who delves into its pages.

Criticism of fools (moorkhanindaa)
अज्ञः सुखमाराध्यः
सुखतरमाराध्य्ते विशेषज्ञ: ।
ज्ञानलवदुर्विदग्धं
ब्रह्मापि नरं न रञ्जयति ॥
Ajjnah sukhamaaraadhyah
sukhataramaaraadhyate visheshajjnah.
Jnaanalavadurvidagdham
brahmaapi naram na ranjayati 1.2.

The ignorant one is easily convinced. It is easier to convince a really knowledgeable person. But even the Creator himself will not be able to convince a fool who, with his half-baked knowledge, thinks that he is the wisest person in the world.

स्वायत्तमेकान्तगुणं विधात्रा
विनिर्मितं छादनमज्ञतायाः ।
विशेषतः सर्वविदां समाजे
विभूषणं मौनमपण्डितानाम् ॥
Swaayattamekaantagunam vidhaatraa
vinirmitam chchhaadanamajjnataayaah.
Visheshatah sarvavidaam samaaje
vibhooshanam maunamapanditaanaam 1.6.

Brahma has created a unique quality, which is available to any one, for covering one’s ignorance. This quality is silence. Especially in an assembly of all-knowing wise men, silence becomes the adornment of fools since it keeps their ignorance from coming to light.

यदा किञ्चिज्ञोऽहं द्विप इव मदान्धः समभवं
तदा सर्वज्ञोऽस्मीत्यभवदवलिप्तं मम मनः ।
यदा किञ्चित् किञ्चित् बुधजनसकाशादवगतं
तदा मूर्खोऽस्मीति ज्वर इव मदो मे व्यपगतः ॥

Yadaa kimchijjno’ham dwipa iva madaandhah samabhavam
Tadaa sarvajno’smeetyabhavadavaliptam mama manah
Yadaa kimchit kimchit budhajanasakaashaadavagatam,
Tadaa moorkho’smeeti jwara iva mado me vyapagatah 1.7

When I had a little knowledge I was blind with conceit like a rutty elephant. I thought I was all-knowing and my vanity was great. Then, gradually, by virtue of my association with wise men, it dawned on me that knowledge was a vast ocean. My intoxication vanished like a fever and I realized that I was really a fool.

शक्यो वारयितुं जलेन हुतभुक् छत्रेण सूर्यातपो
नागेन्द्रोनिशितांकुशेन समदो दण्डेन गौर्गर्दभः ।
व्याधिर्भेषजसंग्रहैश्च विविधैः मन्त्रप्रयोगैर्विषं
सर्वस्यौषधमस्ति शास्त्रविहितं मूर्खस्य नास्त्यौषधम् ॥
shakyo vaarayitum jalena hutabhuk chchhatrena sooryaatapo
Naagendro nishitaankushena samado dandena gourgardabhah
Vyaadhirbheshajasangrahaishcha vividhaih mantraprayogairvisham
Sarvasyaushadhamasti shaastravihitam moorkhasya naastyaushadham 1.10

Fire can be put out by water. An umbrella can be used as protection from the sun. The rutty elephant can be controlled with an ankush (a weapon with a sharp hook at one end used by a mahout). A cow or donkey can be herded with a stick. A disease can be treated with medicines. Poison can be counteracted by chanting mantras. There is a remedy for everything prescribed in the shaastras. But there is no remedy for the fool.

Praise of the learned and the wise (vidwatprashamsaa)
हर्तुर्याति न गोचरं किमपि शं पुष्णातियस्सर्वदा-
ह्यर्थिभ्यः प्रतिपाद्यमानमनिशं प्राप्नोति वृद्धिं परां ।
कल्पान्तेष्वपि न प्रयाति निधनं विद्याख्यमन्तर्धनं
येषां तान् प्रति मानमुञ्झत नृपाः कस्तैस्सह स्पर्धते ॥
Harturyaati na gocharam kimapi sham pushnaati yatsarvadaa
Hyarthibhyah pratipaadyamaanamanisham praapnoti vriddhim paraam
Kalpaanteshwapi na prayaati nidhanam vidyaakhyamantardhanam
Yeshaam taan prati maanamujjhatha nripaah kastaissaha spardhate 1.14

It is not visible to the thief. It always bestows on the possessor joy and happiness. The more it is imparted to those who want it the more it increases. Even after ages it never perishes. It is vidya (learning, knowledge) which is an internal wealth. O Kings! Do not pride yourselves before those who possess such wealth of knowledge. Who can compete with them?

केयूराणि न भूषयन्ति पुरुषं हारा न चंद्रोज्ज्वला
न स्नानं न विलेपनं न कुसुमं नालंकृताः मूर्धजाः ।
वाण्येका समलंकरोति पुरुषं या संस्कृता धार्यते
क्षीयन्तेऽखिलभूषणानि सततं वाग्भूषणं भूषणम् ॥
Keyooraani na bhooshayanti purusham haaraa na chandrojjwalaa
Na snaanam na vilepanam na kusumam naalamkritaa moordhajaah
Vaanyekaa samalankaroti purusham yaa samskritaa dhaaryate
Ksheeyante’khila bhooshanaani satatam vagbhooshanam bhooshanam 1.18

Glittering gold and diamond ornaments, bathing, sandal wood paste for the body, flowers and adornments for the head do not really embellish a person. The greatest adornment of a person is refined and soft speech. All other articles of adornment pale into insignificance before such speech.

क्षान्तिश्चेत्कवचेनकिं? किमरिभिः क्रोधोऽस्तिचेद्देहिनां
ज्ञातिश्चेदनलेन किं? यदि सुहृत् दिव्यौषधैः किं फलम् ?।
किं सर्पैर्यदिदुर्ज्जनाः किमु धनैर्विद्यानवद्या यदि
व्रीडा चेत्किमुभूषणैः सुकविता यद्यस्ति राज्येन किं ?
Kshaantishchet kavachena kim? Kimaribhih krodhosticheddehinaam
Jnaatishchedanalena kim? Yadi suhrit divyaushadhaih kim phalam
Kim sarpairyadi durjanaah kimu dhanairvidyaanavadyaa yadi
Vreedaa chetkimu bhooshanaih sukaviataa yadyasti raajyena kim 1.20

If one has patience (endurance) what is the use of a shield? If one has anger what if enemies are there, anger being the greatest enemy. If a person has relatives he should not worry about fire because the relatives will generate enough heat for him. If one has a friend that friend will do the work of highly effective medicines. If one is in the company of evil men, such evil men will do the work of a poisonous snake. If one has unblemished learning there is no use of wealth as learning is inexhaustible wealth. If one has shyness (modesty) gold and diamond adornments are of no use. If one has beautiful and ennobling poems and literature, the resultant happiness is more than having a kingdom.

Praise of self-respect and valour (maanashaurya prashamsaa)
दाक्षिण्यं स्वजने दया परिजने शाठ्यं सदा दुर्जने
प्रीतिस्साधुजने नयो नृपजने विद्वज्जनेष्वार्जवम् ।
शौर्यं शत्रुजने क्षमा गुरुजने कान्ताजनॆ धृष्टता
ये चैवं पुरुषाः कलासु कुशलाः तेष्वेव लोकस्थितिः ॥
Daakshinyam swajane dayaa parijane shaathyam sadaa durjane
Preetih saadhujane nayo nripajane vidwajjaneshwaarjavam
Shauryam shatrujane kshamaa gurujane kaantaajane dhrishtataa
Ye chaivam purushaah kalaasu kushalaasteshweva lokasthitih 1.21

Those who are skilled in the art of interpersonal relationships show generosity towards relatives, kindness to servants, severity to evil men, devotion to saintly persons, diplomacy towards kings, straightforwardness where learned persons are concerned, valour towards enemies, patience towards elders and tactfulness with women. The world depends on the skill of such people.

प्रारभ्यते न खलु विघ्नभयेन नीचैः
प्रारभ्य विघ्नविहता विरमन्ति मध्याः ।
विघ्नैः पुनः पुनरपि प्रतिहन्यमानाः
प्रारब्धमुत्तमगुणा न परित्यजन्ति ॥
Prarabhyate na khalu vighnabhayena neechaih
Praarabhya vighnavihataa viramanti madhyaah
Vighnaih punah punarapi pratihanyamaanaah
Prarabdhamuttama janaah na parityajanti 1.26

There are three categories of persons who contemplate an undertaking. At the lowest level are those who never start off for fear of encountering obstacles. Those at the middle level start the project but, at the first sign of obstacles, withdraw themselves from the endeavour. At the top level are those who, in spite of repeated obstacles, persist in their endeavour until they take the undertaking to a successful conclusion.

क्षुत्क्षामोऽपि जराकृशोऽपि शिथिलप्रायोऽपि कष्टांदशा-
मापन्नोऽपि विपन्न दीधितिरपि प्राणेषु नश्यत्स्वपि ।
मत्तेभेन्द्र विभिन्न कुंभ कवळ ग्रासैक बद्धस्पुह:
किं जीर्णं तृणमत्ति मानमहतामग्रेसर केसरी ॥
Kshutkshaamo’pi jaraakrisho’pi shithilapraayo’pi kashtaamdashaa-
Maapanno’pi vipannadeedhitirapi praaneshu nashyatswapi
Mattebhendra-vibhinna-kumbha-kavala-graasaika-baddha-sprihah
Kim jeernam trinamatti maanamahataamagresara kesaree 1.28

The Lion, King of the forest, who breaks the head of the elephant and bites into its flesh to satisfy his hunger, will never stoop to the level of eating dry grass. He may be famished by hunger and weakened by old age. His limbs may have lost their flexibility and his condition may be miserable and even his life may be ebbing out of his body. But he will never do anything which is beneath his dignity and majesty as the King of the forest. Similar is the nature of men of substance and majesty.

स्वल्पस्नायु वसावसेकमलिनं निर्मांसमप्यस्थिकं
श्वा लब्ध्वा परितोषमेति न तु तत्तस्य क्षुधा शान्तये।
सिंहो जम्बुकमंगमागतमपि त्यक्त्वा निहन्ति द्विपं
सर्वः कृच्छ्रगतोऽपि वाञ्झति जनः सत्वानुरूपं फलम् ॥
Swalpa-snaayu-vasaavaseka-malinam nirmamsamapyasthikam
Shwaa labdhwaa paritoshameti na tu tattasya kshudhaa shaantaye
Simho jambukamankamaagatamapi tyaktwaa nihanti dwipam
Sarvah krichchhragato’pi vaajnchchhati janah satwaanuroopam phalam 1.29

The dog is satisfied with a piece of bare bone which is dirty with a little blood and fatty substance on it though it is not sufficient to satisfy its hunger. The lion, on the other hand, ignores the jackal within its reach and kills a mighty elephant for his meal. Men of majesty, though passing through a difficult period of their life, do not want to compromise their dignity and will accept only something befitting their dignity and strength.

परिवर्तिनि संसारे मृतः को वा न जायते।
स जातो येन जातेन याति वंशः समुन्नतिम् ॥
Parivartini samsaare mritah ko vaa na jaayate
Sa jaato yena jaatena yaati vamshah samunnatim 1.31

In this world of constant change who does not take birth after one dies ? But one who takes his clan to greater heights is the one really born.

सिंहश्शिशुरपि निपतति मदमलिनकपोलभित्तिषु गजेषु ।
प्रकृतिरियं सत्त्ववतां न खलु वयस्तेजसो हेतुः॥
Simhashshishurapi nipatati madamalinakapolabhittishu gajeshu
Prakritiriyam sattwavataam na khalu vayastejaso hetuh 1.36

Even a lion cub attacks a rutty elephant and breaks its head. This is the nature of men of strength and majesty. Age does not affect their prowess.

Praise of wealth (Dravya prashamsaa)
जातिर्यातु रसातलं गुणगणास्तस्याप्यधो गच्छतां
शीलं शैलतटात्पतत्वभिजनो संदह्यतां वह्निना ।
शौर्ये वैरिणि वज्रमाशुनिपतत्वर्थोऽस्तु नः केवलं
येनैकेन विना गुणास्तृणलवप्रायास्समस्ता इमे ॥
Jaatiryaatu rasaatalam gunaganastasyaapyadho gachchhataam
Sheelam shailatataatpatatwabhijanaah sandahyataam vahninaa
Shourye vairini vajramaashu nipatatwarthostu na kevalam
Yenaikena vinaa gunaastrinalavapraayaah samastaah ime 1.38

Let the jaati (caste, occupation) sink to the nether world. Let all good qualities go down deeper still. Let good conduct fall from the top of a hill. Let all relatives be burnt in a fire. Let valour against the enemy be struck by thunderbolt. Let us have only wealth (money). Without money all good qualities are nothing more than a bundle of grass.

यस्यास्ति वित्तं स नरः कुलीनः
स पण्डितः स श्रुतवान् गुणज्ञः।
स एव वक्ता स च दर्शनीयः
सर्वेगुणाः काञ्चनमाश्रयन्ति॥
Yasyaasti vittam sa narah kuleenah sa panditah sa shrutavaan gunajnah
Sa eva vaktaa sa cha darshaneeyah, sarve gunaah kaanchanamaashrayanti 1.40

If one has wealth he is considered born of a good family. He is learned, he recognizes good qualities, he is an orator, he is handsome etc. All these qualities are attributed to a man possessing wealth whether or not these qualities actually reside in him.

दानं भोगो नाशस्तिस्रोगतयो भवन्ति वित्तस्य ।
यो न ददाति न भुङ्क्ते तस्य तृतीया गतिर्भवति ॥
Daanam bhogo naashastisrogatayo bhavanti vittasya
Yo na dadaati na bhungkte tasya triteeyaa gatirbhavati. 1.42

Giving to others, enjoying oneself or losing it – these are the only ways for utilising wealth. If one does not give to others or enjoy himself, it will result in the third course i.e. loss of wealth (either by theft, deceit, fire or squandering).

राजन् दुधुक्षसि यदि क्षितिधेनुमेनां
तेनाद्यवत्समिव लोकममुं पुषाण ।
तस्मिंश्च सम्यगनिशं परिपुष्यमाणे
नाना फलं फलति कल्पलतेव भूमिः ॥
Raajan dudhukshasi yadi kshitidhenumenaam,
Tenaadya vatsamiva lokamamum pushaana
Tasmishcha samyaganisham paripushyamaane
Naanaaphalam phalati kalpalateva bhoomih 1.44

O King! The earth (land) over which you rule is like a cow. If you want to milk the cow you should nourish the calf, your subjects, with the milk of the cow. If you do this always diligently the earth will yield you all its resources in abundance like a wish-yielding creeper (kalpalataa)

आज्ञा कीर्तिः पालनं ब्राह्मणानां
दानं भोगो मित्रसंरक्षणम् च ।
येषामेते षड्गुणाः न प्रवृत्ता:
कोऽर्थस्तेषां पार्थिवोपाश्रयेण ॥
Aajnaa keertih paalanam brahmanaanaam
Daanam bhogo mitrasamrakshanam cha
Yeshaamete shadgunaah na pravruttaah
Ko’rthasteshaam paarthivopaashrayena 1.47

Power, fame, care of brahmins, charity, enjoyment of the fruits of wealth and protection of one’s friends – if these six are not in a person serving the king, then what is the use of being in the service of the king?

रे रे चातक! सावधानमनसा मित्र क्षणं श्रूयतां
अंभोदा बहवो हि सन्ति गगने सर्वेऽपि नैतादृशाः ।
केचिद्वृष्टिभिरार्द्रयन्ति वसुधां गर्जन्ति केचित् वृथा
यं यं पश्यसि तस्य तस्य पुरतो मा ब्रूहि दीनं वच: ॥
Re re chataka saavadhaanamanasaa mitra kshanam shrooyataam
Ambhodaa bahavo hi santi gagane sarve’pi naitaadrushaah
Kechit vrishtibhiraardrayanti vasudhaam garjanti kechit vruthaa
Yam yam pashyasi tasya tasya purato maa broohi deenam vachah 1.50

O Friend chaataka! Listen carefully to what I am saying. There are so many clouds in the sky but all of them are not of the same character. Some of them drench the earth with precious rain. Some others do nothing but thundering. They do not yield a drop of water. Therefore do not beg for water before every cloud you seen in the sky.

[ Note: The legenday bird chataka is supposed to quench its thirst only from water from the clouds. Here clouds are the kings. And the chataka birds are those who want to make a living by serving the king. Here is advice to such persons that they should not approach all and sundry. Only a few kings are generous, others only boast of themselves but are stingy.]
Criticism of evil men (durjana Nindaa )
अकरुणत्वमकारणविग्रहः परधने परयोषिति च स्पृहा ।
स्वजबन्धुजनेष्वसहिष्णुता प्रकृतिसिद्धमिदं हि दुरात्मनाम् ॥
Akarunatwamakaaranavigrahah paradhane parayoshiti cha sprihaa
Swajana bandhujaneshwasahishnutaa Prakritisiddhamidam hi duraatmanaam 1.51

Cruelty, fighting with others for no reason whatsoever, desire for others’ wealth and women, jealousy at the prosperity of relatives and other family members – men of evil mind are naturally endowed with these bad qualities.

दुर्जनः परिहर्तव्यो विद्ययाऽलंकृतोऽपि सन् ।
मणिना भूषितः सर्पः किमसौ न भयंकरः ॥
Durjanah parihartavyo vidyayaa’lamkrito’pi san
Maninaa bhooshitah sarpah kimasau na bhayamkarah? 1.52

Evil men should be avoided though they may be learned. Is a serpent adorned with a jewel (naaga maanikya) less frightening? [Note: Legend has it that good serpents have a luminous stone (maanikya) on top of their hood]

लोभश्चेदगुणेन किं पिशुनता यद्यस्ति किं पातकैः
सत्यं चेत्तपसा च किं शुचिमनो यद्यस्ति तीर्थेन किम्।
सौजन्यं यदि किं जनैः सुमहिमा यद्यस्ति किं मण्डनैः
सद्विद्या यदि किं धनैरपयशो यद्यस्ति किं मृत्युना ॥
Lobhashchedagunena kim pishunataa yadyasti kim paatakaih
Satyam chettapasaa cha kim shuchimano ydyasti teerthena kim
Saujanyam yadi kim janaih sumahimaa yadyasti kim mandanaih
Sadvidyaa yadi kim dhanairapayasho yadyasti kim mrityunaa 1.54

If one has greed what is the need for other bad qualities? If one is a backbiter what is the need for evil deeds? If one has Truth what is the need for tapas? If one is pure of mind what is the need for teertha (holy rivers, lakes, sea etc.)? If one is of good conduct what is the need for friends ? If one has fame what is the use of ornaments? If one has right learning why does he need wealth? If one is infamous why does he need death? [ Note: The idea is that for one possessing the quality listed first, the quality listed second is redundant. The first quality is adequate without the second.]

मौनान्मूकः प्रवचनपटुः वाचको जल्पको वा
धृष्टः पार्श्वे वसति च तथा दूरतश्चाप्रगल्भः ।
क्षान्त्या भीरुर्यदि न सहते प्रायशो नाभिजात:
सेवाधर्म परमगहनो योगिनामप्यगम्यः ॥
Maunaanmookah pravachanapatuh vaachako jalpako vaa
Dhrushtah paarshwe vasati cha tathaa dooratashchaapragalbhah
Kshaantyaa bheeruryadi na sahate praayasho naabhijaatah
Sevaadharma paramagahano yoginaamapyagamyah 1.57

Here the poet lists the difficulty of serving the King or other wealthy person. If the person serving is silent he is considered dumb. If he is a good orator he is dubbed a chatterbox or a babbler. If he stays near he is termed impudent. If he stays away he is called a fool. If he forgives he is timid. If he cannot endure he does not come from a good family. The duties of a servant are such that even yogis may find difficult to approach.

आरंभगुर्वी क्षयिणी क्रमेण
लघ्वी पुरा दीर्घमुपैति पश्चात् ।
दिनस्य पूर्वार्धपरार्ध भिन्ना
छायेवे मौत्री खलसज्जनानाम् ॥
Aaarambha gurvee kshayinee kramena
Laghwee puraa deerghamupaiti pashchaat
Dinasya poorvaardha paraardha bhinnaa
Chchhaayeva maitree khalasajjanaanaam 1.59

In the forenoon the shadow of a person is long as the Sun rises. It gradually becomes shorter until the Sun is at the zenith. In the afternoon the shadow is short to begin with but becomes gradually longer until the Sun sets. The friendship of evil men, like the shadow of the forenoon, is long to start with but gradually fizzles out. On the other hand, the friendship of good men is like the shadow of the afternoon. It is short to start with and gradually becomes longer(closer) over a period.

मृगमीनसज्जनानां
तृणजलसंतोष विहित वृत्तीनां ।
लुब्धक धीवर पिशुना
निष्कारणमेव वैरिणो जगति ॥
Mrigameenasajjanaanaam trinajalasantoshavihitavritteenaam
Lubdhaka dheevara pishunaa nishkaaranameva vairino jagati 1.60

Deer, fish and good men live on grass, water and contentment respectively. But the hunter, the fisherman and the backbiter, respectively, are their enemies without any reason. This is the nature of evil men.

Praise of good men (sujanaprashamsa)
संपत्सु महतां चित्तं
भवत्युत्पलकोमलं ।
आपत्सु च महाशैल-
शिलासंघात कर्कशम् ॥
Sampatsu mahataam chittam bhavatyutpalakomalam
Aapatsu cha mahaashaila shilaasanghaata karkasham 1.61

In good times the heart of great men is soft as the petals of the lotus flower. In bad times, however, it becomes as hard as the rocks of the mountain.

वाञ्झा सज्जनसंगतौ परगुणे प्रीतिर्गुरौ नम्रता
विद्यायां व्यसनं स्वयोषिति रतिः लोकापवादात् भयम्।
भक्तिः शूलिनि शक्तिरात्मदमने संसर्गमुक्तिः खले-
ष्वेते येषु वसन्ति निर्मलगुणास्तेभ्यो महद्भ्यो नमः ॥
Vaajnjhaa sajjanasangatau paragune preetirgurau namrataa
Vidyaayaam vyasanam swayoshiti ratih lokaapavaadaat bhayam
Bhaktih shoolini shaktiraatmadamane samsargamuktih khale-
shwete yeshu vasanti nirmalagunaastebhyo mahadbhyo namah 1.62

salutations to those great men in whom reside such sterling qualities as the desire for friendship with the good, appreciation of good qualities in others, humility before the guru, thirst for knowledge, find conjugal pleasure in one’s own wife, fear of scandals about one’s character, devotion to Lord Shiva, power to control one’s mind and avoiding the company of evil men.

विपदिधैर्यमथाभ्युदये क्षमा
सदसि वाक्पटुता युधि विक्रमः ।
यशसिचाभिरुचिर्व्यसनं श्रुतौ
प्रकृतिसिद्धमिदं हि महात्मनाम् ॥
Vipadi dhairyamathaabhyudaye kshamaa
Sadasi vaakpatutaa yudhi vikramah
Yashasi chaabhiruchirvyasanam shrutau
Prakriti siddhamidam hi mahaatmanaam 1.63

Great men are naturally endowed with such qualities as courage in times of misfortune, patience when the times are good, oratory skills in an assembly, valour in battle, desire to earn fame and addiction to acquisition of knowledge.

संतप्तायसि संस्थितस्य पयसो नामापि न श्रूयते
मुक्ताकारतया तदेव नलिनीपत्रस्थितं राजते ।
मध्ये सागरशुक्तिमध्यपतितं तन्मौक्तिकं जायते
प्रायेणाधम मध्यमोत्तमगुनाः संसर्गतो देहिनाम् ॥
Santaptaayasi samsthitasya payaso naamaapi na shrooyate
Muktaakaaratayaa tadeva nalineepatrasthitam raajate
Madhye saagarashuktimadhyapatitam tanmouktikam jaayate
Praayenaadhama madhyamottamagunaah samsargato dehinaam 1.66

A drop of water in contact with hot iron evaporates in no time and is lost. The same drop of water on a lotus leaf shines taking the shape of a pearl. If the drop of water gets into a pearl oyster it becomes pearl itself. This analogy can be applied to humans. The qualities one acquires depend on the quality of the person with whom one associates. The three illustrations given relate to association with people with levels of low, medium and high quality

प्रीणाति यस्सुचरितैः पितरं स पुत्रो
यद्भर्तुरेव हितमिच्छति तत्कलत्रम् ।
तन्मित्रमापदि सुखे च समक्रियं यत्
एतत्त्रयं जगति पुण्यकृतो लभन्ते ॥
Preenaati yah sucharitaih pitaram sa putro
Yadbhartureva hitamichchhati tatkalatram
Tanmitramaapadi sukhe cha samakriyam yat
Etattrayam jagati punyakrito labhante 1.67

A son is one who, by his good conduct and character, pleases one’s father. A wife is one who always thinks of her husband’s good. A friend is one whose behaviour remains constant in misfortune and good fortune. Only people who have earned merit (punya) by doing good deeds will be blessed with such a son, wife and friend.

Praise of helping others (paropakaara stuti)
भवन्ति नम्रास्तरव फलोद्गमैः
नवांबुभिर्भूमिविलंबिनो घनाः ।
अनुद्धता सत्पुरुषाः समृद्धिभिः
स्वभाव एवैष परोपकारिणाम् ॥
Bhavanti namraastarava phalodgamaih
Navaambubhirbhoomivilambino ghanaah
Anuddhataah satpurushaah samriddhibhih
Swabhaava evaisha paropakaarinaam 1.70

Tress laden with fruits bend down (so that people may enjoy the fruits). Clouds laden with water come down (in the form of rain cooling the earth and watering plants and trees). In the same way noble men do not become conceited when fortune embraces them but use their wealth to help others. This is the nature of persons who are always eager to be of help to fellow humans.

पापान्निवारयति योजयते हिताय
गुह्यं निगूहति गुणान् प्रकटीकरोति ।
आपद्गतं च न जहाति ददाति काले
सन्मित्रलक्षणमिदं प्रवदन्ति सन्तः ॥
Paapaannivaarayati yojayate hitaaya
Guhyam nigoohati gunaan prakateekaroti
Aapadgatam cha na jahaati dadaati kaale
Sanmitralakshanamidam pravadanti santah 1.72

Saintly persons say that the mark of a true friend is preventing one from committing sinful actions, putting one on the path that will lead to good only, keeping one’s secrets, bringing out the innate qualities in one, not forsaking when one is in trouble and giving one whatever is required at the appropriate time.

एते सत्पुरुषाः परार्थघटकाः स्वार्थान् परित्यज्य ये
सामान्यास्तु परार्थमुद्यमभृतः स्वार्थाविरोधेन ये ।
तेऽमी मानुषराक्षसा: परहितं स्वार्थाय निघ्नन्ति ये
ये तु घ्नन्ति निरर्थकं परहितं ते के न जानीमहे ॥

Ete satpurushaah pararthaghatakaah swaarthan parityajya ye
Saamaanyaastu paraarthamudyamabhritah swaarthaavirodhena ye
Te’mee maanusha raakshasaah parahitam swaarthaaya nighnanti ye
Ye tu ghnanti nirarthakam parahitam te ke na jaaneemahe 1.74

Those are the greatest souls who, for the sake of helping others, forsake their own interests or comforts. Those are among the ordinary run of people who, without compromising their own interests, engage themselves in helping others. Those are verily demons in the shape of men who, for the sake of their selfish ends, put obstacles in the way of others and spoil their endeavours. What can be said about those who, without any purpose, come in the way of others’ welfare? We do not know.

क्षीरेणात्मगतोदकाय हि गुणाः दत्ताः पुरा तेऽखिलाः
क्षीरोत्तापमवेक्ष्य तेन पयसा स्वात्मा कृशानौ हुतः ।
गन्तुं पावकमुन्मनस्तदभवत् दृष्ट्वा तु मित्रापदं
युक्तं तेन जलेन शाम्यति सतां मैत्री पुनस्त्वीदृशी ॥
Ksheerenaatmagatodakaaya hi gunaah dattaah puraa te’khilaah
Ksheerottapamavekshya tena payasaa swaatmaa krishaanau hutah
Gantum paavakamunmanastadabhavat drishtwaa tu mitraapadam
Yuktam tena jalena shaamyati sataam maitree punastweedrishee 1.77

Milk gave all its qualities to water that was mixed with it. When milk was being heated on a fire water, unable to bear the suffering of its friend, sacrificed itself in the fire (i.e. water in the milk evaporated). Milk, in turn, finding water in trouble, itself comes up in the boiling pot to offer itself to the fire. But, mixed with water again, it settle downs to the previous level. The friendship of good people is like this. Each is prepared to sacrifice himself to save the other.

मनसि वचसि काये पुण्यपीयूषपूर्णाः
त्रिभुवनमुपकारश्रेणिभि: प्रीणयन्तः ।
परगुणपरमाणून् पर्वतीकृत्य नित्यं
निजहृदि विकसन्तः सन्ति सन्तः कियन्तः ॥
Manasi vachasi kaaye punyapeeyooshapoornaa-
stribhuvanamupakaarashrenibhih preenayantah
Paragunaparamaanoon parvateekritya nityam
Nijahridi vikasantah santi santah kiyantah 1.79

There are only a handful of good people in this world who, in thought, word and body (deed) are full of the sweetness of nectar. Such people please the three worlds by their continuous efforts for helping others. Their hearts fill with joy when they find even an iota of good in others and shower high praise on such good qualities.

Praise of courage and determination (dhairya-gunagaana)
रत्नैर्महाब्धेः तुतुषुर्न देवाः
न भेजिरे भीमविषेन भीतिम् ।
सुधाम् विना न प्रययुर्विरामं
न निश्चितार्थाद्विरमन्ति धीराः ॥
Ratnairmahaabdheh tutushurna devaah
Na bhejire bheemavishena bheetim
Sudhaam vinaa na prayayurviraamam
Na nishchitaarthaadwiramanti dheeraah 1.82

The Devas, while churning the milky ocean, got invaluable jewels but they were not content with that. Even poison from the churning could not deter them from their goal. They were determined not to stop until thery obtained the nectar. Those of strong will and determination never stop until they realize their objective.

क्वचित् भूमौ शय्या क्वचिदपि च पर्यङ्कशयनं
क्वचिच्छाकाहारः क्वचिदपि च शाल्यन्नरुचिः ।
क्वचित्कंथाधारी क्वचिदपि च दिव्यांबरधरो
मनस्वी कार्यार्थी न गणयति दु:खं न च सुखम् ॥
Kwachit bhoomau shayyaa kwachidapi cha paryankashayanam
Kwachichchhaakaahaarah kwachidapi cha shaalyodanaruchih
Kwachitkanthaadhaaree kwachidapi cha divyaambaradharo
Manaswee kaaryaarthee na ganayati dukham na cha sukham 1.83

Those of courage and determination may sleep on the hard earth or on a soft bed, may eat a meal of vegetables or enjoy the taste of fine rice, clothe themselves in tatters or put on fine clothes. These diametrically opposite states do not deter them from their objective. They are focused on their goal and do not care for pleasure or pain.

ऐश्वर्यस्य विभूषणं सुजनता शौर्यस्य वाक्संयमो
ज्ञानस्योपशमः श्रुतस्य विनयॊ वित्तस्य पात्रे व्ययः।
अक्रोधस्तपसः क्षमा प्रभवितुर्धर्मस्य निर्व्याजता
सर्वेषामपि सर्वकारणमिदं शीलं परं भूषणम् ॥
Aishwaryasya vibhhooshanam sujanataa shauryasya vaaksamyamo
Jnaanasyopashamah, shrutasya vinayo vittasya paatre vyayah
Akrodhastapasah Kshamaa prabhaviturdharmasya nirvyaajataa
Sarveshaamapi sarvakaaranamidam sheelam param bhooshanam 1.84

Affluence is adorned by goodness, valour by not boasting, knowledge by control of the senses, scholarship by modesty, wealth by giving to the deserving, tapas by the absence of anger, power by forgiveness and dharma by Truth. All good qualities of men are embellished by good conduct.

निन्दन्तु नीतिनिपुणा यदिवा स्तुवन्तु
लक्ष्मीः समाविशातु गच्छतु वा यथेष्टम् ।
अद्यैव वा मरणमस्तु युगान्तरे वा
न्यायात्पथात्प्रविचलन्ति पदं न धीराः ॥
Nindantu neetinipunaa yadi vaa stuvantu
Lakshmeeh samaavishatu gachchhatu vaa yatheshtam
Adyaiva vaa maranamastu yugaantare vaa
Nyaayaatpathah pravichalanti padam na dheeraah 1.85

Those of courage and determination will not ever deviate from the righteous path whether knowers of codes of conduct (neeti nipunaah) praise or blame them , whether Goddess Lakshmi (wealth) comes to them or leaves them, whether death comes immediately or after ages.

.

On Fate (Destiny) (bhaagya, daiva)
भग्नाशस्य करण्डपिण्डिततनोः म्लानेन्द्रियस्य क्षुधा
कृत्वाखुर्विवरं स्वयं निपतितो नक्तं मुखे भोगिनः ।
तृप्तस्तत्पिशितेन सत्वरमसौ तेनैव यातः पथा
लोकाः पश्यत दैवमेव हि नृणाम् वृद्धौ क्षये कारणम् ॥
Bhagnaashasya karandapinditatanoh mlaanendriyasya kshudhaa
Kritwaakhurvivaram swayam nipatito naktam mukhe bhoginah
Triptastatpishitena satwaramasau tenaiva yaata pathaa
Lokaah pashyata daivameva hi nrinaam vriddhau kshaye kaaranam 1.86

A snake, caught by a snake charmer, was put in a round casket made of cane. It was lying inside the casket coiled and afflicted by hunger. All its senses had become weak and it had no hope of getting out. Then, during the night, a rat made a whole in the casket and got into it. The snake caught the rat and satisfied its hunger. It then escaped through the very hole the rat had made. It is clear that only fate (destiny) is behind the fortunes or misfortunes of men.

छिन्नोऽपि रोहति तरुः
क्षीणोप्युपचीयते पुनश्चन्द्र: ।
इति विमृशन्तस्सन्तः
सन्तप्यन्ते न विलुप्ता लोके ॥
Chchhinno’pi rohati taruh ksheeno’pyupacheeyate punashchandrah
Iti vimrishantah santah santapyante na viluptaa loke 1.87

A tree sprouts again after it is cut, the moon waxes again after waning. Contemplating thus and consoling themseleve that is their fate, good men do not grieve in times of misfortune.

नेता यस्य बृहस्पतिः प्रहरणं वज्रं सुराः सैनिकाः
स्वर्गो दुर्गमनुग्रहः किल हरेरैरावतो वारणः।
इत्यैश्वर्यबलान्वितोऽपि बलिभिर्भग्नः परैः संगरे
तद्व्यक्तं वरमेव दैवशरणं धिक् धिक् वृथा पौरुषम् ॥
Netaa yasya brihaspatih praharanam vajram suraah sainikaah
Swargo durgamanugrahah kila harerairaavato vaaranah
Ityaishwaryabalaanwito’pi balibhirbhagnah paraih sangare
Tadvyaktam varameva daivasharanam dhigdhigvrithaa paurusham 1.88

Indra has Brihaspati as his guru, vajraayudha as his weapon, , devas as his army, Heaven as his fort and Airawata as his elephant. He has also the blessings of Hari. In spite of all this he is defeated by the powerful asuras. It is clear that it is better to take refuge in fate (daivam). Fie on human effort.

खर्वाटो दिवसेश्वरस्य किरणैर्संतापिते मस्तके
गच्छन् देशमनातपं द्रुतगतिस्तालस्य मूलं गतः ।
तत्राप्यस्य महाफलेन पतता भग्नं सशब्दं शिरः
प्रायो गच्छति यत्र दैवहतकस्तत्रैव यान्त्यापदः ॥
Kharvaato divaseshwarasya kiranaih santaapite mastake
Gachchhan deshamanaatapam drutagatistalasya moolam gatah
Tatraapyasya mahaaphalena patataa bhagnam sashabdam shirah
Praayo gachchhati yatra daiva hatakah tatraiva yaantyaapadah 1.89

A wayfarer, his bald head exposed to the heat of the sun, hastened to take shelter under a palmyrah tree. No sooner had he come under the shade of the tree, his head was broken with a great sound by the big fruit falling from the tree. Wherever an ill-fated person goes misfortune follows him.

karma
ब्रह्मा येन कुलालवन्नियमितो ब्रह्माण्ड भाण्डोदरे
विष्णुर्येन दशावतार गहने क्षिप्तो महासंकटे ।
रुद्रो येन कपालपाणिपुटके भिक्षाटनं सेवते
सूर्यॊ भ्राम्यति नित्यमेव गगने तस्मै नमः कर्मणे ॥
Bhrahmaa yena kulaalavanniyamito brahmaanda bhaandodare
Vishnuryena dashaavataara gahane kshipto mahaa sankate
Rudro yena kapaalapaaniputake bhikshaatanam sevate
Sooryo bhraamyati nityameva gagane tasmai namah karmane 1.94

Salutations to karma which has made Brahma a potter (creator) in the universe, which has put Vishnu in difficult circumstances through His ten incarnations, which has made Shiva beg for alms with a container made of the human skull and at the bidding of which the Sun wanders in the sky every day.

नैवाकृतिर्फलति नैव कुलं न शीलं
विद्यापि नैव न च यत्नकृतानि सेवा ।
भाग्यानि पूर्वतपसा खलु सञ्चितानि
काले फलन्ति पुरुषस्य यथैव वृक्षाः ॥
Naivaakrutih phalati naiva kulam na sheelam
Vidyaapi naiva na cha yatnakritaani seva
Bhaagyaani poorva tapasaa khalu sanchitaani
Kaale phalanti purushasya yathaiva Vrikshaah 1.95

An attractive form, noble lineage, good conduct, scholarship, efforts made to serve kings or wealthy persons – all these are of no consequence. Only the merit earned and accumulated by the meritorious deeds (tapas) of the previous births will yield the desired results like trees which yield their fruits at the appropriate time.

वने रणे शत्रुजलाग्निमध्ये
महार्णवे पर्वतमस्तके वा ।
सुप्तं प्रमत्तं विषमस्थितं वा
रक्षन्ति पुण्यानि पुरा कृतानि ॥
Vane rane shatru jalaagnimadhye, mahaarnave parvatamastake vaa
Suptam pramattam vishamasthitam vaa rakshanti punaayni puraakritaani

Only the fruits of meritorious acts done in the past can save a person lost in a forest, fighting a battle, facing enemies, engulfed by water or fire, in the vast ocean or on the mountain top while sleeping, inadvertent or facing difficult situations.

भीमं वनं भवति यस्य पुरं प्रधानं
सर्वो जनस्स्वजनतामुपयान्ति तस्य ।
कृत्स्ना च भूर्भवति सन्निधिरत्नपूर्णा
यस्यास्ति पूर्वसुकृतं विपुलं नरस्य ॥
Bheemam vanam bhavati yasya puram pradhaanam
Sarvo janah swajanataamupayaati tasya
Kritsnaa cha bhoorbhavati sannidhiratnapoorna
Yasyaasti poorvasukritam vipulam narasya 1.100

A dense forest becomes the capital city, all people become friends and the whole world becomes full of valuable treasures for the one who has accumulated in previous births fruits of meritorious actions (punya).

को लाभो गुणिसंगमः किमसुखं प्राज्ञेतरैर्संगतिः
का हानिर्समयच्युतिः निपुणता का धर्मतत्त्वे रतिः ।
कः शूरो विजितेन्द्रियः प्रियतमाकाऽनुव्रता किं धनं
विद्या किं सुखमप्रवासगमनं राज्यं किमाज्ञाफलम् ॥
Ko laabho gunisangamah kimasukham praajnetaraih sangatih
Kaa haanih samayachyutih nipunataa kaa dharmatattve ratih
Kah shooro vijitendriyah priyatamaa kaa’nuvrataa kim dhanam
Vidyaa kim sukhamapravaasagamanam raajyam kimaajnaaphalam 1.102

What is gain? Company of good people. What is pain? Company of fools. What is loss? Wastage of time. What is skill? Passion for the principles of dharama. Who is valiant? One who has conquered his senses. Who is dear to the husband? A wife who follows in the footsteps of the husband. What is wealth? Learning. What is happiness? Not being in a far away land. What is kingdom? The power to command people.

कान्ताकटाक्षविशिखा न दहन्ति यस्य
चित्तं न निर्दहति कोपकृशानुतापः ।
कर्षन्ति भूरिविषयाश्च न लोभपाशैः
लोकत्रयं जयति कृत्स्नमिदं स धीरः ॥

Kaantaa kataaksha vishikhaa na dahanti yasya
Chittam na nirdahati kopakrishaanutaapah
Karshanti bhoorivishayaashcha na lobhapaashaih
Lokatrayam jayati kritsnamidam sa dheerah 1.106

One who does not burn in the fire of passion generated by the eye-arrows of beautiful women, who is not subjected to the heat of anger, whom the pleasures of the senses do not drag with ropes of greed – that person of adamantine heart conquers all the three worlds.

QUOTES FROM CHANAKYA NEETI

Quotations from Chanakya Niti

Chanakya, also known as Kautilya and Vishnugupata, was an adviser and a prime minister to Emperor Chandragupta of the Maurya dynasty. He was a professor at Takshashila University and is widely believed to be instrumental in the creation of the Mauryan Empire after bringing about the downfall of the Nanda dynasty.

Two books are attributed to Chanakya: Arthashastra and Nitishastra which is also known as Chanakya Niti. The Arthashastra discusses monetary and fiscal policies, welfare, international relations and war strategies in detail. Nitishastra is a treatise on the ideal way of life; it shows Chanakya’s in-depth study of the Indian way of life.

Chanakya is known as “The Indian Machiavelli” in the Western world.
Given below is a selection of verses from Chanakya Niti. The language is so simple and easy to follow that many of these verses find a place in Sanskrit primers. They are easy to commit to memory by students and contain a wealth of native wisdom and moral and practical advice. Though these were written in the context of the society and the times in which Chanakya lived, many of these codes of conduct are of universal application.
 
विद्वत्वं च नृपत्वं च नैव तुल्यं कदाचन ।
स्वदेशे पूज्यते राजा विद्वान् सर्वत्र पूज्यते ॥
 
Vidwatwam cha nripatwam cha naiva tulyam kadaachana
Swadeshe poojyate raajaa vidwaan sarvatra poojyate
 
Scholarship and kingship can never be equated. A king is respected in his own kingdom whereas a scholar is respected everywhere.

पण्डिते च गुणास्सर्वे मूर्खे दोषा हि केवलं ।
तस्मात् मूर्खसहस्रेभ्य: प्राज्ञ एको विशिष्यते ॥

Pandite cha gunaah sarve moorkhe doshaah hi kevalam
Tasmaat moorkhasahasrebhyah praajna eko vishishyate
 
A wise man has all qualities in him, a fool has only faults. Therefore a single wise person is better than a thousand fools.

 
परोक्षे कार्यहंतारं प्रत्यक्षे प्रियवादिनं ।
वर्जयेत्तादृशं मित्रं विषकुंभं पयोमुखम् ॥
 
Parokshe kaaryhantaaram pratyakshe priyavaadinam
Varjayettaadrisham mitram vishakumbham payomukham

A friend whose talk is sweet in person but who spoils the job when out of sight should be abandoned like a pot of poison topped with milk.

 
रूपयौवनसंपन्ना विशालकुलसंभवाः ।
विद्याहीना न शोभन्ते निर्गन्धा इव किंशुका: ॥
 
Roopayauvanasampanna vishaalakulasambhavaah
Vidyaaheenaa na shobhante nirgandhaa iva kimshukaah
 
Those who are goodlooking, young and born in a good family do not shine if they are devoid of learning, just as the flowers of the kimshuka tree do not shine (i.e. attract people) because they are without fragrance.

 
ताराणां भूषणं चन्द्रो नारीणाम् भूषणं पतिः ।
प्रिथिव्या भूषणं राजा विद्या सर्वस्य भूषणम् ॥
 
Taaraanam bhooshanam chandro naareenaam bhooshanam patih
Prithivyaa bhooshanam raajaa vidyaa sarvasya bhooshanam
 
The moon is the adornment of the stars; husband is the adornment of woman; the king is the adornment of the earth (country); learning is the adorment of all.
 

कोऽर्थः पुत्रेण जातेन यो न विद्वान् न भक्तिमान् ।
कानेन चक्षुषा किं वा चक्षु: पीडैव केवलम् ॥
 
Ko’rthah putrena jaatena yo na vidwaan na bhaktimaan
Kaanena chakshushaa kim vaa chakshuh peedaiva kevalam
 
What is the purpose of having a son who is neither learned nor devoted to God? It is useless to have a blind eye which will only result in eye-ache.
 
 
लालयेत् पंच वर्षाणि दश वर्षाणि ताडयेत् ।
प्राप्ते तु षोडशे वर्षे पुत्रं मित्रवदाचरेत् ॥
 
Laalayet pancha varshaani dasha varshaani taadayet
Praapte tu shodashe varshe putram mitravadaacharet
 
For five years one’s son should be pampered, the next ten years he should be beaten (meaning he must be disciplined) and once he turns sixteen he should be treated as a friend.

 
एकेनापि सुवृक्षेण पुष्पितेन सुगन्धिना ।
वासितं स्यात् वनं सर्वं सुपुतेण कुलं तथा ॥
 
Ekenaapi suvrikshena pushpitena sugandhinaa
Vaasitam syaat vanam sarvam suputrena kulam tathaa
 
Even as a single good tree with fragrant flowers can spread the fragrance in the entire forest, so also the entire family (or clan) shines by a son possessing good qualities.
 
 
एकेन शुष्कवृक्षेण दह्यमानेन वह्निना ।
दह्यते हि वनं सर्वं कुपुत्रेण कुलं तथा ॥
 
Ekena shushka vrikshena dahyamaanena vahninaa
Dahyate hi vanam sarvam kuputrena kulam tathaa
 
Even as a single dry tree on fire will destroy the whole forest, so also the entire family (or clan) will be destroyed by a son of evil character or tendencies.

 
निर्गुणेष्वपि सत्त्वेषु दयां कुर्वन्ति साधवः ।
न हि संहरते ज्योत्स्नां चन्द्रश्चण्डालवेश्मनि ॥
 
Nirguneshwapi sattweshu dayaam kurvanti saadhavah
Na hi samharate jyotsnaam chandrashchandaalaveshmani
 
Good men show kindness even to those who do not possess good qualities just as the Moon does not withhold her light from the hut of a chandala

 
विद्या मित्रं प्रवासेषु माता मित्रं गृहेषु च ।
व्याधितस्यौषधं मित्रं धर्मो मित्रं मृतस्य च ॥
 
Vidyaa mitram pravaaseshu maataa mitram griheshu cha
Vyaadhitasyaushadham mitram dharmo mitram mritasya cha

For one in an alien land learning is friend, for one staying at home mother is friend , for one suffering from illness medicine is friend and for the departed souls dharma is friend.
 
 
न कश्चित् कस्यचिन्मित्रं न कश्चित् कस्यचिद्रिपुः ।
व्यवहारेण जायन्ते मित्राणि रिपवस्तथा ॥
 
Na kashchit kasyachinmitram na kashchit kasyachidripuh
Vyavahaarena jaayante mitraani ripavastathaa
 
No one is a friend per se and no one is an enemy per se; friends and enemies are created out of personal dealings and behaviour.

 
दुर्जन: प्रियवादी च नैतद्विश्वासकारणं ।
मधु तिष्ठति जिह्वाग्रे हृदये तु हलाहलम् ॥
 
Durjanah priyavaadee cha naitadwishwaasakaaranam
Madhu tishthhati jihwaagre hridaye tu halaahalam
 
An evil person but his talk is pleasing to the ears of the recipient- these two things cannot go together. No one can give credence to this. It is like honey on the tongue with deadly poison in the heart.

 
दुर्जनः परिहर्तव्यो विद्ययाऽलंकृतोऽपि सन् ।
मणिना भूषितस्सर्पः किमसौ न भयंकर: ॥
 
Durjanah parihartavyo vidyayaa’lamkrito’pi san
Maninaa bhooshitah sarpah kimasu na bhayamkarah
 
An evil person, though adorned with learning, is to be avoided. Is not the snake adorned with a jewel in its hood not frightening?
 
 
सर्प क्रूरः खल क्रूरः सर्पात् क्रूरतर खलः।
मन्त्रौषधिवशः सर्पः खलः केन निवार्यते ॥
 
Sarpah kroorah khalah kroorah sarpaat krooratarah khalah
Mantraushadhivashah sarpah khalah kena nivaaryate
 
The sepent is cruel, the evil person is cruel; the evil person is more cruel than the serpent. The serpent can be controlled by mantra and medicines. By what means can the evil person be prevented from committing evil acts?

 
धनानि जीवितश्चैव परार्थे प्राज्ञ उत्सृजेत्
सन्निमित्ते वरं त्यागो विनाशे नियते सति
 
Dhanaani jeevitashchaiva paraarthe praajna utsrijet
Sannimitte varam tyaago vinaashe niyate sati
 
Wise men should given up wealth and even life for the sake of others. Wealth and life are sure to be lost by their very nature. Therefore sacrificing these for a good cause is better than losing them wihout benefit to anyone.

 
आयुष क्षण एकोऽपि न लभ्य: स्वर्णकोटिभि: ।
स चेन्निरर्थकं नीतः का नु हानिस्ततोधिका? ॥
 
Aayushah kshana ekopi na labhyah swarnakotibhih
Sa chennirarthakam neetah kaanu haanistato’dhikaa
 
Even a minute of one’s life cannot be obtained even for a million gold coins. If it is not used puposefully what loss is bigger than that?

 
शरीरस्य गुणानां च दूरमत्यन्तमन्तरम् ।
शरीरं क्षणविध्वंसि कल्पान्तस्थायिनो गुणाः ॥
 
Shareerasya gunaanaam cha dooramatyantamantaram
Shareeram kshanavidhwamsi kalpaantasthaayino gunaah
 
There is considerable distance betwwen the body and good qualities. The body can die any minute but the good qualities stay for many many ages (Persons are remembered for their good qualities even after death, not for their bodily features).

 
धनिक: श्रोत्रियो राजा नदी वैद्यश्च पंचमः ।
पंच यत्र न विद्यन्ते तत्र वासं न कारयेत् ॥
 
Dhanikah shrotriyo raajaa nadee vaidyshcha panchamah
Pancha yatra na vidyante tatra vaasam na kaarayet
 
One should not take up residence in a place where these five are absent – rich person, a brahman learned in the vedas, king, river and doctor.

 
मूर्खा: यत्र न पूज्यन्ते धान्यं यत्र सुसंचितं ।
दंपत्योः कलहो नास्ति तत्र श्री स्वयमागता॥
 
Moorkhaah yatra na poojyante dhaanyam yatra susanchitam
Dampatyoh kalaho naasti tatra shreeh swayamaagataa
 
Where fools are not respected, food grains are well-stocked and there is no quarrel between husband and wife, there Goddess Lakshmi comes uninvited.

 
अस्ति पुत्रो वशे यस्य भृत्यो भार्या तथैव च।
अभावेऽप्यस्ति सन्तोषः स्वर्गस्थोऽसौ महीतले ॥
 
Asti putro vashe yasya bhrityo bhaaryaa tathaiva cha
Abhaave’pyatisantoshah swargastho’sau maheetale
 
A person whose son, servant and wife are under his control and who is content even in times of scarcity, that person is in Heaven on earth.

 
माता यस्य गृहे नास्ति भार्याचाप्रियवादिनी ।
अरण्यं तेन गन्तव्यं यथारण्यं तथा गृहम् ॥
 
Maataa yasya grihe naasti bhaaryaa chaapriyavaadinee
Aranyam tena gantavyam yathaaranyam tathaa griham
 
A person whose mother is not in his house and his wife always offends him by her speech, should better take to the forest. For him home is also like a forest.

 
कोकिलानां स्वरो रूपं नारी रूपं पतिव्रतं ।
विद्या रूपं कुरूपाणां क्षमा रूपं तपस्विनाम् ॥
 
Kokilaanaam swaro roopam naaree roopam pativratam
Vidyaa roopam kuroopaanaam kshamaa roopam tapaswinaam
 
The cuckoo’s beauty is its melody, a woman’s beauty is pativratam, an ugly person’s beauty is learning and a tapaswi’s ( one who does tapas) beauty is forgiveness.

 
गुरुरग्निर्द्विजातीनां वर्णानां ब्राह्मणो गुरुः ।
पतिरेको गुरुस्त्रीणां सर्वस्याभ्यागतो गुरुः
 
Gururagnirdwijaateenaam varnaanaam braahmano guruh
Patireko guruh streenaam sarvasyaabhyaagato guruh
 
For the Brahmins, Agni (Fire) is guru, for the other varnas (kshatriya, vysya and Sudra) braahmana is guru, for women husband is guru and the guest (Atithi) is guru for everyone.

 
स जीवति गुणा यस्य धर्मो यस्य स जीवति ।
गुणधर्मविहीनस्य जीवनं निष्प्रयोजनम् ॥
 
Sa jeevati gunaa yasya dharmo yasya sa jeevati
Gunadharmaviheenasya jeevanam nishprayojanam
 
He lives who has good qualities. He also lives who has dharma. The life of one who has neither good qualities nor dharma is without any purpose.

 
दुर्लभं प्राकृतं मित्रं दुर्लभ: क्षेमकृत् सुतः ।
दुर्लभा सदृशी भार्या दुर्लभः स्वजन प्रियः ॥
 
Durlabham praakritam mitram durlabhah kshemakrit sutah
Durlabhaa sadrishee bhaaryaa durlabhah swajanah priyah
 
Rare indeed is a natural friend. A son who thinks of the welfare of the parents is difficult to get. A wife who is like her husband in every way (i.e. in thought, word and deed) is hard to find. A relative who is also a loved one is very rare.

 
साधूनां दर्शनं पुण्यं तीर्थभूता हि साधवः।
तीर्थं फलति कालेन सद्यः साधुसमागमः||
 
Saadhoonaam darshanam punyam teerthabootaah hi saadhavah
Teertham phalati kaalena sadyah saadhusamaagamah
 
The sight of saintly persons is punyam. Such saintly persons are like sacred rivers or lakes (teerthabhootaah) which absolve one’s sins. The holy waters (Teerthas) give results in their own time. The meeting with saintly persons gives instant results.

 
सत्संगः केशवे भक्तिः गंगांभसि निमज्जनं ।
असारे खलु संसारे त्रीणि सारानि भावयेत् ॥
 
Satsangah keshave bhaktirgangaambhasi nimajjanam
Asaare khalu samsaare treeni saaraani bhaavayet
 
In this evanescent world consider only these three things as of any substance – company of good people, devotion to Keshava (Krishna or Vishnu) and bathing in the waters of the Ganga.

 
शान्तितुल्यं तपो नास्ति न संतोषात् परं सुखं ।
न तृष्णाया परो व्याधिर्न च धर्मो दया समः ॥
 
Shaantitulyam tapo naasti na santoshaat param sukham
Na trishnaayaah paro vyaadhirna cha dharmo dayaa samah
 
No penance is equal to peace of mind (tranquility); no happiness is equal to contentment; no illness is equal to greed and no dharma is equal to kindness.

 
अन्नदाता भयत्राता विद्यादाता तथैव च। ।
जनिता चोपनेता च पंचैते पितरः स्मृताः॥
 
Annadaataa bhayatraataa vidyaadaataa tathaiva cha
Janitaa chopanethaa cha panchaite pitarah smritaah
 
The following five are considered fathers – one who gives food, one who saves from fear, one who imparts learning, one who is the cause of birth and one who performs the upanayana (and gives the Gayatri mantra)

 
आदौ माता गुरोः पत्नी ब्राह्मणी राजपत्निका ।
धेनुर्धात्री तथा पृथ्वी सप्तैताः मातरः स्मृताः॥
 
Aadau maataa guroh patnee braahmanee raajapatnikaa
Dhenurdhaatree tathaa prithwee saptaitaah maatarah smritaah
 
The following seven are considered mothers – One who has given birth, wife of the guru, a brahmana’s wife, wife of the king, the cow, dhatree (one who brings up, other than the mother) and prithwee ( the Earth).

 
आपदाम् कथितः पन्था इन्द्रियाणामसंयमः ।
तज्जय: संपदाम् मार्गो येनेष्टम् तेन गम्यताम् ॥
 
Aapadaam kathitah panthaa indriyaanaamasamyamah
Tajjayah sampadaam maargo yeneshtam tena gamyataam
 
Not controlling the senses is the road to adversity and sorrow. Conquering the senses is the road to prosperity and happiness. Choose either of the two which you like; that is your decision.

 
समुद्रावरणा भूमिः प्राकारावरणं गृहं।
नरेन्द्रावरणो देशः चरित्रावरणा स्त्रियः॥
 
Samudraavaranaa bhoomih praakaaraavaranam griham
Narendraavarano deshah charitraavaranaa striyah
 
The earth is having the seas as her covering (protection) , the house has the compound as covering, the king has the country as covering and women have chastity as covering.

 
परोपकरणं येषां जागर्ति हृदये सतां।
नश्यन्ति विपदस्तेषां सम्पद: स्युः पदे पदे ॥
 
Paropakaranam yeshaam jaagarti hridaye sataam
Nashyanti vipadasteshaam sampadah syuh pade pade
 
For those noble souls in whose heart arise the thoughts of helping others there is no adversity and sorrow; prosperity and happiness embrace them at every step.

 
नास्ति विद्यासमं चक्षुर्नास्ति सत्यसमं तपः।
नास्ति रागसमं दु:खं नास्ति त्यागसमं सुखं॥
 
Nasti vidyaasamam chakshurnaasti satyasamam tapah
Naasti raagasamam dukham naasti tyaagasamam sukham
 
There is no eye(vision) equal to learning; there is no tapas (penance) equal to truth; there is no sorrow equal to desire or attachment; there is no happiness equal to renunciation (or sacrifice).

 
पादपानां भयं वातात् पद्मानाम् शिशिराद्भयं।
पर्वतानां भयं वज्रात् साधूनां दुर्जनाद्भयं ॥
 
Paadapaanaam bhayam vaataat padmaanaam shishiraadbhayam
Parvataanaam bhayam vajraat saadhoonaam durjanaadbhayam
 
For the trees there is fear from strong winds; for the lotus there is fear from winter; for the mountains there is fear from Vajrayudha of Indra; for the good and noble souls there is fear from the evil ones.

 
सुभिक्षं कृषके नित्यं नित्यं सुखमरोगिनः।
भार्या भर्तु: प्रिया यस्य तस्य नित्योत्सवं गृहं ॥
 
Subhiksham krishake nityam nityam sukhamaroginah
Bhaaryaa bhartuh priyaa yasya tasya nityotsavam griham
 
There is always plenty for the tiller of the soil. There is always happiness for the healthy (free from disease) one. It is daily celebration in the home of one who has a loving wife.

 
प्रथमे नार्जिता विद्या द्वितीये नार्जितं धनं।
तृतीये नार्जितं पुण्यं चतुर्थे किं करिष्यति॥
 
Prathame naarjitaa vidyaa dwiteeye naarjitam dhanam
Triteeye naarjitam punyam chaturthe kim karishyati
 
During the first (twenty years of life) no learning was earned. In the second (twenty years of life) no wealth was earned. In the third (twenty years of life) no merit (punyam) was earned. What will one earn in the fourth( twenty years of life)?

 
क्षमया दयया प्रेम्णा सूनृतेनार्जवेन च।
वशीकुर्याज्जगत्सर्वं विनयेन च सेवया ॥
 
Kshamayaa dayayaa premnaa soonritenaarjavena cha
Vasheekuryaajjagatsarvam vinayena cha sevayaa
 
One can bring the whole world under one’s influence (power) by such sterling qualities as patience (or forgiveness), kindness, love, truth, straightforwardness, humility and service

 
अजरामरवत् प्राज्ञो विद्यामर्थम् च चिन्तयेत्।
गृहीत इव केशेषु मृत्युना धर्ममाचरेत् ॥
 
Ajaraamaravat praajno vidyaamartham cha chintayet
Griheeta iva kesheshu mrityunaa dharmamaacharet
 
On should think of acquiring learning and wealth as if one will never age or die (meaning that one should engage one self in learning and earning wealth throughout one’s life). One should do dharma as if Death has caught hold of one’s locks of hair (Since death can claim one any moment, one should hasten to do acts of dharma before one dies.)

 
अनेकसंशयोच्छेदि परोक्षार्थस्य दर्शकं।
सर्वस्य लोचनं शास्त्रं यस्य नास्त्यंध एव सः ॥
 
Anekasamshayochchhedi parokshaarthasya darshakam
Sarvasya lochanam shaastram yasya naastyandha eva sah
 
The Shaastras are like eyes for every one. They clear the many doubts that arise in one’s mind. They bring us knowledge of things which cannot be known by our senses. One who has not studied the shaastras is indeed a blind person.

 
मनस्यन्यत् वचस्यन्यत् कर्मण्यन्यत् दुरात्मनां ।
मनस्येकं वचस्येकं कर्मण्येकं महात्मनाम् ॥
 
Manasyanyat vachasyanyat karmanyanyat duraatmanaam
Manasyekam vachasyekam karmanyekam mahaatmanaam
 
Men of evil mind have one thing in the mind, another thing in their speech and some thing different in their actions. Men of great mind have the same thing in their thought, word and deed, meaning what they think they talk about and what they talk about they translate into action.

 
प्रविचार्योत्तरं देयं सहसा न वदेत् क्वचित्।
शत्रोरपि गुणा ग्राह्याः दोषास्त्याज्या गुरोरपि॥
 
Pravichaaryottaram deyam sahasaa na vadet kwachit
Shatrorapi gunaah graahyaah Doshaastyaajyaa gurorapi
 
Before one gives an answer one should carefully think about it; one should not talk something on impulse. One should accept good qualities even from an enemy. One should reject bad qualities even of the guru.

 
त्यज दुर्जनसंसर्गं भज साधुसमागमं।
कुरुपुण्यमहोरात्रं स्मर नित्यमनित्यताम् ॥
 
Tyaja durjanasamsargam bhaja saadhusamaagamam
Kurupunyamahoraatram smara nityamanityataam
 
Abandon the company of evil men, associate with good and noble men, do good meritorious deeds day and night and always think of the evanescence of the world.

 
दृष्टिपूतं न्येसेत्पादं वस्त्रपूतं जलं पिबेत्।
सत्यपूतम् वदेद्वाचं मनःपूतं समाचरेत् ॥
 
Drishtipootam nyaset paadam vastrapootam jalam pibet
Satyapootaam vadet vaaacham manahpootam samaacharet
 
Step on a place after seeing that it is clean, drink water after filtering it through a piece of cloth, utter your words purified by truth, do such deeds which, your conscience says, are good.

 
सत्येन धार्यते पृथ्वी सत्येन तपते रविः।
सत्येन वायवो वान्ति सर्वं सत्ये प्रतिष्ठितम् ॥
 
Satyena dhaaryate prithvee satyena tapate ravih
Satyena vaayavo vaanti sarvam satye pratishthhitam
 
The earth is supported by Truth; by Truth the Sun radiates heat; by Truth the air blows; everything is established in Truth.

 
कोऽतिभारः समर्थानां किं दूरे व्यवसायिनां।
को विदेशः सविद्यानाम् कः परः प्रियवादिनाम् ||
 
Ko’tibhaarah samarthaanaam kim doore vyavasaayinaam
Ko videshah savidyaanaam kah parah priyavaadinaam
 
For the competent what is great brden? What is far away for those who work hard? Which is a foreign country for the learned? Who is not one’s own for one whose speech is laced with love?

 
शोकस्थानसस्राणि भयस्थानशतानि च ।
दिवसे दिवसे मूढमाविशन्ति न पण्डितम् ॥
 
Shokasthaanasahasraani bhayasthaanashataani cha
Divase divase moodhhamaavishanti na panditam
 
For the fool there are thousands of sources of sorrow and hundreds of sources of fear every day, not so for the wise and the learned.

 
दरिद्रता धीरतया विराजते कुरूपता शीलतया विराजते।
कुभोजनं उष्णतया विराजते कुवस्त्रता शुभ्रतया विराजते ॥
 
daridrataa dheeratayaa viraajate kuroopataa sheelatayaa viraajate
Kubhojanam choshnatayaa viraajate kuvastrataa shubhratayaa viraajate
 
Poverty shines by courage, ugliness shines by good conduct, bad food shines by being hot and bad clothes shine by being clean.

 
यथा चतुर्भिः कनकं परीक्ष्यते निकर्षणछेदनतापताडनैः ।
तथा चतुर्भिः पुरुषः परीक्ष्यते श्रुतेन शीलेन कुलेन कर्मणा॥
 
Yathaa chaturbhih kanakam pareekshyate n ikarshanachchhedanataapataadanaih
Tathaa chaturbhih purushah pareekshyate shrutena sheelena kulena karmanaa
 
Just as the purity of gold is tested by four means, namely, rubbing, cutting, burning and beating so also man is tested by four means, namely, learning, conduct, pedigree and action

 
अनभ्यासे विषं विद्या अजीर्णे भोजनं विषं ।
विषं गॊष्ठी दरिद्रस्य भोजनान्ते जलं विषं ॥
 
Anabhyaase visham vidyaa ajeerne bhojanam visham
Visham goshthhee daridrasya bhojanante jalam visham
 
With no practice learning becomes poison; with indigestion food becomes poison; for the poor an assembly (of the rich) is poison; water immediately after eating is poison.

 
मातृवत्परदारेषु परद्रव्येषु लोष्टवत्।
आत्मवत्सर्वभूतेषु यः पश्यति स पण्डितः॥
 
Matrivatparadaareshu paradraqvyeshu loshtavat
Aatmavatsarvabhooteshu yah pashyati sa panditah
 
One who looks upon other men’s wives as mother, other people’s wealth as a lump of clay and all living beings as the Self is the real Pandita (wise and learned person )

 
दानेन पाणिर्नतुकंकणेन स्नानेन शुद्धिर्नतु चन्दनेन।
मानेन तृप्तिर्नतुभोजनेन ज्ञानेन मुक्तिर्नतु मण्डनेन ॥
 
Daanena paanirna tu kankanena snaanena shuddhirna tu chandanena
Maanena triptirna tu bhojanena jnaanena muktirna tu mandanena
 
The hand shines by giving, not by bangles. One becomes clean by bathing, not by smearing sandalwood paste. One gets satisfaction from respect of others, not by sumptuous food. Liberation comes from knowledge of the Truth, not by adornments.

 
कः कालः कानि मित्राणि को देशः कौ व्ययागमौ।
कस्याहं का च मे शक्तिरिति चिन्त्यं मुहुर्मुहु: ॥
 
Kah kaalah kaani mitraani ko deshah kau vyayaagamau
Kasyaaham kaa cha me shaktiriti chintyam muhurmuhuh
 
How is the time? Who are the friends? Which is the kingdom (or country)? What are the expenses and income? Where do I belong? What is my strength? One should frequently ponder on all these matters.

 
अत्यन्तकोपः कटुका च वाणी दरिद्रता च स्वजनेषु वैरं ।
नीचप्रसङ्ग: कुलहीनसेवा चिह्नानि देहे नरकस्थितानाम् ॥
 
Atyanta kopah katukaa cha vaanee daridrataa cha swajaneshu vairam
Neechaprasangah kulaheenasevaa chihnaani dehe narakasthitaanaam
 
Extreme of anger, harsh speech, poverty, enmity with relatives, association with evil men, service of people from not so good a family – these are the marks of people living in Hell

 
धनधान्यप्रयोगेषु विद्यासंग्रहणेषु च ।
आहारे व्यवहारे च त्यक्तलज्ज सुखी भवेत् ॥
 
Dhanadhaanyaprayogeshu vidyaasamgrahaneshu cha
Aahaare vyavahaare cha tyaktalajjah sukhee bhavet
 
Those who do not feel shy in the way they use wealth and food, in acquiring learning, in food and in personal relations, will always be happy.

 
गुणैरुत्तमतां याति नोच्चैरासनमास्थितः।
प्रासादशिखरस्थोऽपि काक: किं गरुडायते ?॥
 
Gunairuttamataam yaati nochchairaasanamaasthitah
Praasaadashikharastho’pi kaakah kim garudaayate
 
One attains a high status only by his good qualities not by sitting on a high seat. Will the crow ever become the kite even though it is sitting on a high mansion?

 
प्रियवाक्यप्रदानेन सर्वे तुष्यन्ति जन्तवः ।
तस्मात्तदेव वक्तव्यं वचने का दरिद्रता॥
 
Priyavaakyapradaanena sarve tushyanti jantavah
Tasmaattadeva vaktavyam vachane kaa daridrataa
 
All beings are happy to hear sweet words tempered with truth and love. Therefore one should utter only such words; why should one be stingy in using proper words?

 
पुस्तकेषु च या विद्या परहस्तेषु यद्धनं।
उत्पन्नेषु च कार्येषु न सा विद्या न तद्धनम्||
 
Pustakeshu cha yaa vidyaa parahasteshu yaddhanam
Utpanneshu cha kaaryeshu na saa vidyaa na taddhnam
 
The knowledge in the books and wealth in the hands of others – these will not be available when the need for them arises.

 
सन्तोषस्त्रिषु कर्तव्यः स्वदारे भोजने धने।
त्रिषु चैव न कर्तव्योऽध्ययने जपदानयोः॥
  
Santoshastrishu kartavyah swadaare bhojane dhane
Trishu chaiva na kartavyo’dhyayane japadaanayoh
 
Three things one should be content with – one’s own wife, food and wealth. Three things one should not be content with – learning, japa (repetition of the names of the Lord) and charity (daana)

 
विप्रयोर्विप्रवह्न्योश्च दम्पत्योः स्वामिभृत्ययोः।
अन्तरेण न गन्तव्यं हलस्य वृषभस्य च ॥
 
Viprayorvipravahnyoshcha dampatyoh swaamibhrityayoh
Antarena na gantavyam halasya vrishabhasya cha
 
One should not go (cross) between two brahmins, between brahmin and fire, between husband and wife, , master and servant and plouth and the ox.

 
पादाभ्याम् न स्पृशेदग्निं गुरुं ब्राह्मणमेव च।
नैव गां च कुमारीं च न वृद्धं न शिशुं तथा ॥
 
Paadaabhyaam na sprishedagnim gurum braahmanameva cha
Naiva gaam cha kumaareem cha na vriddham na shishum tathaa
 
One should not touch with one’s feet fire, guru, brahmin, cow, kumaari ( a girl less than twelve years old), an old person or a baby.