Quotations from Chanakya Niti
Chanakya, also known as Kautilya and Vishnugupata, was an adviser and a prime minister to Emperor Chandragupta of the Maurya dynasty. He was a professor at Takshashila University and is widely believed to be instrumental in the creation of the Mauryan Empire after bringing about the downfall of the Nanda dynasty.
Two books are attributed to Chanakya: Arthashastra and Nitishastra which is also known as Chanakya Niti. The Arthashastra discusses monetary and fiscal policies, welfare, international relations and war strategies in detail. Nitishastra is a treatise on the ideal way of life; it shows Chanakya’s in-depth study of the Indian way of life.
Chanakya is known as “The Indian Machiavelli” in the Western world.
Given below is a selection of verses from Chanakya Niti. The language is so simple and easy to follow that many of these verses find a place in Sanskrit primers. They are easy to commit to memory by students and contain a wealth of native wisdom and moral and practical advice. Though these were written in the context of the society and the times in which Chanakya lived, many of these codes of conduct are of universal application.
विद्वत्वं च नृपत्वं च नैव तुल्यं कदाचन ।
स्वदेशे पूज्यते राजा विद्वान् सर्वत्र पूज्यते ॥
Vidwatwam cha nripatwam cha naiva tulyam kadaachana
Swadeshe poojyate raajaa vidwaan sarvatra poojyate
Scholarship and kingship can never be equated. A king is respected in his own kingdom whereas a scholar is respected everywhere.
पण्डिते च गुणास्सर्वे मूर्खे दोषा हि केवलं ।
तस्मात् मूर्खसहस्रेभ्य: प्राज्ञ एको विशिष्यते ॥
Pandite cha gunaah sarve moorkhe doshaah hi kevalam
Tasmaat moorkhasahasrebhyah praajna eko vishishyate
A wise man has all qualities in him, a fool has only faults. Therefore a single wise person is better than a thousand fools.
परोक्षे कार्यहंतारं प्रत्यक्षे प्रियवादिनं ।
वर्जयेत्तादृशं मित्रं विषकुंभं पयोमुखम् ॥
Parokshe kaaryhantaaram pratyakshe priyavaadinam
Varjayettaadrisham mitram vishakumbham payomukham
A friend whose talk is sweet in person but who spoils the job when out of sight should be abandoned like a pot of poison topped with milk.
रूपयौवनसंपन्ना विशालकुलसंभवाः ।
विद्याहीना न शोभन्ते निर्गन्धा इव किंशुका: ॥
Vidyaaheenaa na shobhante nirgandhaa iva kimshukaah
Those who are goodlooking, young and born in a good family do not shine if they are devoid of learning, just as the flowers of the kimshuka tree do not shine (i.e. attract people) because they are without fragrance.
ताराणां भूषणं चन्द्रो नारीणाम् भूषणं पतिः ।
प्रिथिव्या भूषणं राजा विद्या सर्वस्य भूषणम् ॥
Taaraanam bhooshanam chandro naareenaam bhooshanam patih
Prithivyaa bhooshanam raajaa vidyaa sarvasya bhooshanam
The moon is the adornment of the stars; husband is the adornment of woman; the king is the adornment of the earth (country); learning is the adorment of all.
कोऽर्थः पुत्रेण जातेन यो न विद्वान् न भक्तिमान् ।
कानेन चक्षुषा किं वा चक्षु: पीडैव केवलम् ॥
Ko’rthah putrena jaatena yo na vidwaan na bhaktimaan
Kaanena chakshushaa kim vaa chakshuh peedaiva kevalam
What is the purpose of having a son who is neither learned nor devoted to God? It is useless to have a blind eye which will only result in eye-ache.
लालयेत् पंच वर्षाणि दश वर्षाणि ताडयेत् ।
प्राप्ते तु षोडशे वर्षे पुत्रं मित्रवदाचरेत् ॥
Laalayet pancha varshaani dasha varshaani taadayet
Praapte tu shodashe varshe putram mitravadaacharet
For five years one’s son should be pampered, the next ten years he should be beaten (meaning he must be disciplined) and once he turns sixteen he should be treated as a friend.
एकेनापि सुवृक्षेण पुष्पितेन सुगन्धिना ।
वासितं स्यात् वनं सर्वं सुपुतेण कुलं तथा ॥
Ekenaapi suvrikshena pushpitena sugandhinaa
Vaasitam syaat vanam sarvam suputrena kulam tathaa
Even as a single good tree with fragrant flowers can spread the fragrance in the entire forest, so also the entire family (or clan) shines by a son possessing good qualities.
एकेन शुष्कवृक्षेण दह्यमानेन वह्निना ।
दह्यते हि वनं सर्वं कुपुत्रेण कुलं तथा ॥
Ekena shushka vrikshena dahyamaanena vahninaa
Dahyate hi vanam sarvam kuputrena kulam tathaa
Even as a single dry tree on fire will destroy the whole forest, so also the entire family (or clan) will be destroyed by a son of evil character or tendencies.
निर्गुणेष्वपि सत्त्वेषु दयां कुर्वन्ति साधवः ।
न हि संहरते ज्योत्स्नां चन्द्रश्चण्डालवेश्मनि ॥
Nirguneshwapi sattweshu dayaam kurvanti saadhavah
Na hi samharate jyotsnaam chandrashchandaalaveshmani
Good men show kindness even to those who do not possess good qualities just as the Moon does not withhold her light from the hut of a chandala
विद्या मित्रं प्रवासेषु माता मित्रं गृहेषु च ।
व्याधितस्यौषधं मित्रं धर्मो मित्रं मृतस्य च ॥
Vidyaa mitram pravaaseshu maataa mitram griheshu cha
Vyaadhitasyaushadham mitram dharmo mitram mritasya cha
For one in an alien land learning is friend, for one staying at home mother is friend , for one suffering from illness medicine is friend and for the departed souls dharma is friend.
न कश्चित् कस्यचिन्मित्रं न कश्चित् कस्यचिद्रिपुः ।
व्यवहारेण जायन्ते मित्राणि रिपवस्तथा ॥
Na kashchit kasyachinmitram na kashchit kasyachidripuh
Vyavahaarena jaayante mitraani ripavastathaa
No one is a friend per se and no one is an enemy per se; friends and enemies are created out of personal dealings and behaviour.
दुर्जन: प्रियवादी च नैतद्विश्वासकारणं ।
मधु तिष्ठति जिह्वाग्रे हृदये तु हलाहलम् ॥
Durjanah priyavaadee cha naitadwishwaasakaaranam
Madhu tishthhati jihwaagre hridaye tu halaahalam
An evil person but his talk is pleasing to the ears of the recipient- these two things cannot go together. No one can give credence to this. It is like honey on the tongue with deadly poison in the heart.
दुर्जनः परिहर्तव्यो विद्ययाऽलंकृतोऽपि सन् ।
मणिना भूषितस्सर्पः किमसौ न भयंकर: ॥
Durjanah parihartavyo vidyayaa’lamkrito’pi san
Maninaa bhooshitah sarpah kimasu na bhayamkarah
An evil person, though adorned with learning, is to be avoided. Is not the snake adorned with a jewel in its hood not frightening?
सर्प क्रूरः खल क्रूरः सर्पात् क्रूरतर खलः।
मन्त्रौषधिवशः सर्पः खलः केन निवार्यते ॥
Sarpah kroorah khalah kroorah sarpaat krooratarah khalah
Mantraushadhivashah sarpah khalah kena nivaaryate
The sepent is cruel, the evil person is cruel; the evil person is more cruel than the serpent. The serpent can be controlled by mantra and medicines. By what means can the evil person be prevented from committing evil acts?
धनानि जीवितश्चैव परार्थे प्राज्ञ उत्सृजेत्
सन्निमित्ते वरं त्यागो विनाशे नियते सति
Dhanaani jeevitashchaiva paraarthe praajna utsrijet
Sannimitte varam tyaago vinaashe niyate sati
Wise men should given up wealth and even life for the sake of others. Wealth and life are sure to be lost by their very nature. Therefore sacrificing these for a good cause is better than losing them wihout benefit to anyone.
आयुष क्षण एकोऽपि न लभ्य: स्वर्णकोटिभि: ।
स चेन्निरर्थकं नीतः का नु हानिस्ततोधिका? ॥
Aayushah kshana ekopi na labhyah swarnakotibhih
Sa chennirarthakam neetah kaanu haanistato’dhikaa
Even a minute of one’s life cannot be obtained even for a million gold coins. If it is not used puposefully what loss is bigger than that?
शरीरस्य गुणानां च दूरमत्यन्तमन्तरम् ।
शरीरं क्षणविध्वंसि कल्पान्तस्थायिनो गुणाः ॥
Shareerasya gunaanaam cha dooramatyantamantaram
Shareeram kshanavidhwamsi kalpaantasthaayino gunaah
There is considerable distance betwwen the body and good qualities. The body can die any minute but the good qualities stay for many many ages (Persons are remembered for their good qualities even after death, not for their bodily features).
धनिक: श्रोत्रियो राजा नदी वैद्यश्च पंचमः ।
पंच यत्र न विद्यन्ते तत्र वासं न कारयेत् ॥
Dhanikah shrotriyo raajaa nadee vaidyshcha panchamah
Pancha yatra na vidyante tatra vaasam na kaarayet
One should not take up residence in a place where these five are absent – rich person, a brahman learned in the vedas, king, river and doctor.
मूर्खा: यत्र न पूज्यन्ते धान्यं यत्र सुसंचितं ।
दंपत्योः कलहो नास्ति तत्र श्री स्वयमागता॥
Moorkhaah yatra na poojyante dhaanyam yatra susanchitam
Dampatyoh kalaho naasti tatra shreeh swayamaagataa
Where fools are not respected, food grains are well-stocked and there is no quarrel between husband and wife, there Goddess Lakshmi comes uninvited.
अस्ति पुत्रो वशे यस्य भृत्यो भार्या तथैव च।
अभावेऽप्यस्ति सन्तोषः स्वर्गस्थोऽसौ महीतले ॥
Asti putro vashe yasya bhrityo bhaaryaa tathaiva cha
Abhaave’pyatisantoshah swargastho’sau maheetale
A person whose son, servant and wife are under his control and who is content even in times of scarcity, that person is in Heaven on earth.
माता यस्य गृहे नास्ति भार्याचाप्रियवादिनी ।
अरण्यं तेन गन्तव्यं यथारण्यं तथा गृहम् ॥
Maataa yasya grihe naasti bhaaryaa chaapriyavaadinee
Aranyam tena gantavyam yathaaranyam tathaa griham
A person whose mother is not in his house and his wife always offends him by her speech, should better take to the forest. For him home is also like a forest.
कोकिलानां स्वरो रूपं नारी रूपं पतिव्रतं ।
विद्या रूपं कुरूपाणां क्षमा रूपं तपस्विनाम् ॥
Kokilaanaam swaro roopam naaree roopam pativratam
Vidyaa roopam kuroopaanaam kshamaa roopam tapaswinaam
The cuckoo’s beauty is its melody, a woman’s beauty is pativratam, an ugly person’s beauty is learning and a tapaswi’s ( one who does tapas) beauty is forgiveness.
गुरुरग्निर्द्विजातीनां वर्णानां ब्राह्मणो गुरुः ।
पतिरेको गुरुस्त्रीणां सर्वस्याभ्यागतो गुरुः
Gururagnirdwijaateenaam varnaanaam braahmano guruh
Patireko guruh streenaam sarvasyaabhyaagato guruh
For the Brahmins, Agni (Fire) is guru, for the other varnas (kshatriya, vysya and Sudra) braahmana is guru, for women husband is guru and the guest (Atithi) is guru for everyone.
स जीवति गुणा यस्य धर्मो यस्य स जीवति ।
गुणधर्मविहीनस्य जीवनं निष्प्रयोजनम् ॥
Sa jeevati gunaa yasya dharmo yasya sa jeevati
Gunadharmaviheenasya jeevanam nishprayojanam
He lives who has good qualities. He also lives who has dharma. The life of one who has neither good qualities nor dharma is without any purpose.
दुर्लभं प्राकृतं मित्रं दुर्लभ: क्षेमकृत् सुतः ।
दुर्लभा सदृशी भार्या दुर्लभः स्वजन प्रियः ॥
Durlabham praakritam mitram durlabhah kshemakrit sutah
Durlabhaa sadrishee bhaaryaa durlabhah swajanah priyah
Rare indeed is a natural friend. A son who thinks of the welfare of the parents is difficult to get. A wife who is like her husband in every way (i.e. in thought, word and deed) is hard to find. A relative who is also a loved one is very rare.
साधूनां दर्शनं पुण्यं तीर्थभूता हि साधवः।
तीर्थं फलति कालेन सद्यः साधुसमागमः||
Saadhoonaam darshanam punyam teerthabootaah hi saadhavah
Teertham phalati kaalena sadyah saadhusamaagamah
The sight of saintly persons is punyam. Such saintly persons are like sacred rivers or lakes (teerthabhootaah) which absolve one’s sins. The holy waters (Teerthas) give results in their own time. The meeting with saintly persons gives instant results.
सत्संगः केशवे भक्तिः गंगांभसि निमज्जनं ।
असारे खलु संसारे त्रीणि सारानि भावयेत् ॥
Satsangah keshave bhaktirgangaambhasi nimajjanam
Asaare khalu samsaare treeni saaraani bhaavayet
In this evanescent world consider only these three things as of any substance – company of good people, devotion to Keshava (Krishna or Vishnu) and bathing in the waters of the Ganga.
शान्तितुल्यं तपो नास्ति न संतोषात् परं सुखं ।
न तृष्णाया परो व्याधिर्न च धर्मो दया समः ॥
Shaantitulyam tapo naasti na santoshaat param sukham
Na trishnaayaah paro vyaadhirna cha dharmo dayaa samah
No penance is equal to peace of mind (tranquility); no happiness is equal to contentment; no illness is equal to greed and no dharma is equal to kindness.
अन्नदाता भयत्राता विद्यादाता तथैव च। ।
जनिता चोपनेता च पंचैते पितरः स्मृताः॥
Annadaataa bhayatraataa vidyaadaataa tathaiva cha
Janitaa chopanethaa cha panchaite pitarah smritaah
The following five are considered fathers – one who gives food, one who saves from fear, one who imparts learning, one who is the cause of birth and one who performs the upanayana (and gives the Gayatri mantra)
आदौ माता गुरोः पत्नी ब्राह्मणी राजपत्निका ।
धेनुर्धात्री तथा पृथ्वी सप्तैताः मातरः स्मृताः॥
Aadau maataa guroh patnee braahmanee raajapatnikaa
Dhenurdhaatree tathaa prithwee saptaitaah maatarah smritaah
The following seven are considered mothers – One who has given birth, wife of the guru, a brahmana’s wife, wife of the king, the cow, dhatree (one who brings up, other than the mother) and prithwee ( the Earth).
आपदाम् कथितः पन्था इन्द्रियाणामसंयमः ।
तज्जय: संपदाम् मार्गो येनेष्टम् तेन गम्यताम् ॥
Aapadaam kathitah panthaa indriyaanaamasamyamah
Tajjayah sampadaam maargo yeneshtam tena gamyataam
Not controlling the senses is the road to adversity and sorrow. Conquering the senses is the road to prosperity and happiness. Choose either of the two which you like; that is your decision.
समुद्रावरणा भूमिः प्राकारावरणं गृहं।
नरेन्द्रावरणो देशः चरित्रावरणा स्त्रियः॥
Samudraavaranaa bhoomih praakaaraavaranam griham
Narendraavarano deshah charitraavaranaa striyah
The earth is having the seas as her covering (protection) , the house has the compound as covering, the king has the country as covering and women have chastity as covering.
परोपकरणं येषां जागर्ति हृदये सतां।
नश्यन्ति विपदस्तेषां सम्पद: स्युः पदे पदे ॥
Paropakaranam yeshaam jaagarti hridaye sataam
Nashyanti vipadasteshaam sampadah syuh pade pade
For those noble souls in whose heart arise the thoughts of helping others there is no adversity and sorrow; prosperity and happiness embrace them at every step.
नास्ति विद्यासमं चक्षुर्नास्ति सत्यसमं तपः।
नास्ति रागसमं दु:खं नास्ति त्यागसमं सुखं॥
Nasti vidyaasamam chakshurnaasti satyasamam tapah
Naasti raagasamam dukham naasti tyaagasamam sukham
There is no eye(vision) equal to learning; there is no tapas (penance) equal to truth; there is no sorrow equal to desire or attachment; there is no happiness equal to renunciation (or sacrifice).
पादपानां भयं वातात् पद्मानाम् शिशिराद्भयं।
पर्वतानां भयं वज्रात् साधूनां दुर्जनाद्भयं ॥
Paadapaanaam bhayam vaataat padmaanaam shishiraadbhayam
Parvataanaam bhayam vajraat saadhoonaam durjanaadbhayam
For the trees there is fear from strong winds; for the lotus there is fear from winter; for the mountains there is fear from Vajrayudha of Indra; for the good and noble souls there is fear from the evil ones.
सुभिक्षं कृषके नित्यं नित्यं सुखमरोगिनः।
भार्या भर्तु: प्रिया यस्य तस्य नित्योत्सवं गृहं ॥
Subhiksham krishake nityam nityam sukhamaroginah
Bhaaryaa bhartuh priyaa yasya tasya nityotsavam griham
There is always plenty for the tiller of the soil. There is always happiness for the healthy (free from disease) one. It is daily celebration in the home of one who has a loving wife.
प्रथमे नार्जिता विद्या द्वितीये नार्जितं धनं।
तृतीये नार्जितं पुण्यं चतुर्थे किं करिष्यति॥
Prathame naarjitaa vidyaa dwiteeye naarjitam dhanam
Triteeye naarjitam punyam chaturthe kim karishyati
During the first (twenty years of life) no learning was earned. In the second (twenty years of life) no wealth was earned. In the third (twenty years of life) no merit (punyam) was earned. What will one earn in the fourth( twenty years of life)?
क्षमया दयया प्रेम्णा सूनृतेनार्जवेन च।
वशीकुर्याज्जगत्सर्वं विनयेन च सेवया ॥
Kshamayaa dayayaa premnaa soonritenaarjavena cha
Vasheekuryaajjagatsarvam vinayena cha sevayaa
One can bring the whole world under one’s influence (power) by such sterling qualities as patience (or forgiveness), kindness, love, truth, straightforwardness, humility and service
अजरामरवत् प्राज्ञो विद्यामर्थम् च चिन्तयेत्।
गृहीत इव केशेषु मृत्युना धर्ममाचरेत् ॥
Ajaraamaravat praajno vidyaamartham cha chintayet
Griheeta iva kesheshu mrityunaa dharmamaacharet
On should think of acquiring learning and wealth as if one will never age or die (meaning that one should engage one self in learning and earning wealth throughout one’s life). One should do dharma as if Death has caught hold of one’s locks of hair (Since death can claim one any moment, one should hasten to do acts of dharma before one dies.)
अनेकसंशयोच्छेदि परोक्षार्थस्य दर्शकं।
सर्वस्य लोचनं शास्त्रं यस्य नास्त्यंध एव सः ॥
Anekasamshayochchhedi parokshaarthasya darshakam
Sarvasya lochanam shaastram yasya naastyandha eva sah
The Shaastras are like eyes for every one. They clear the many doubts that arise in one’s mind. They bring us knowledge of things which cannot be known by our senses. One who has not studied the shaastras is indeed a blind person.
मनस्यन्यत् वचस्यन्यत् कर्मण्यन्यत् दुरात्मनां ।
मनस्येकं वचस्येकं कर्मण्येकं महात्मनाम् ॥
Manasyanyat vachasyanyat karmanyanyat duraatmanaam
Manasyekam vachasyekam karmanyekam mahaatmanaam
Men of evil mind have one thing in the mind, another thing in their speech and some thing different in their actions. Men of great mind have the same thing in their thought, word and deed, meaning what they think they talk about and what they talk about they translate into action.
प्रविचार्योत्तरं देयं सहसा न वदेत् क्वचित्।
शत्रोरपि गुणा ग्राह्याः दोषास्त्याज्या गुरोरपि॥
Pravichaaryottaram deyam sahasaa na vadet kwachit
Shatrorapi gunaah graahyaah Doshaastyaajyaa gurorapi
Before one gives an answer one should carefully think about it; one should not talk something on impulse. One should accept good qualities even from an enemy. One should reject bad qualities even of the guru.
त्यज दुर्जनसंसर्गं भज साधुसमागमं।
कुरुपुण्यमहोरात्रं स्मर नित्यमनित्यताम् ॥
Tyaja durjanasamsargam bhaja saadhusamaagamam
Kurupunyamahoraatram smara nityamanityataam
Abandon the company of evil men, associate with good and noble men, do good meritorious deeds day and night and always think of the evanescence of the world.
दृष्टिपूतं न्येसेत्पादं वस्त्रपूतं जलं पिबेत्।
सत्यपूतम् वदेद्वाचं मनःपूतं समाचरेत् ॥
Drishtipootam nyaset paadam vastrapootam jalam pibet
Satyapootaam vadet vaaacham manahpootam samaacharet
Step on a place after seeing that it is clean, drink water after filtering it through a piece of cloth, utter your words purified by truth, do such deeds which, your conscience says, are good.
सत्येन धार्यते पृथ्वी सत्येन तपते रविः।
सत्येन वायवो वान्ति सर्वं सत्ये प्रतिष्ठितम् ॥
Satyena dhaaryate prithvee satyena tapate ravih
Satyena vaayavo vaanti sarvam satye pratishthhitam
The earth is supported by Truth; by Truth the Sun radiates heat; by Truth the air blows; everything is established in Truth.
कोऽतिभारः समर्थानां किं दूरे व्यवसायिनां।
को विदेशः सविद्यानाम् कः परः प्रियवादिनाम् ||
Ko’tibhaarah samarthaanaam kim doore vyavasaayinaam
Ko videshah savidyaanaam kah parah priyavaadinaam
For the competent what is great brden? What is far away for those who work hard? Which is a foreign country for the learned? Who is not one’s own for one whose speech is laced with love?
शोकस्थानसस्राणि भयस्थानशतानि च ।
दिवसे दिवसे मूढमाविशन्ति न पण्डितम् ॥
Shokasthaanasahasraani bhayasthaanashataani cha
Divase divase moodhhamaavishanti na panditam
For the fool there are thousands of sources of sorrow and hundreds of sources of fear every day, not so for the wise and the learned.
दरिद्रता धीरतया विराजते कुरूपता शीलतया विराजते।
कुभोजनं उष्णतया विराजते कुवस्त्रता शुभ्रतया विराजते ॥
daridrataa dheeratayaa viraajate kuroopataa sheelatayaa viraajate
Kubhojanam choshnatayaa viraajate kuvastrataa shubhratayaa viraajate
Poverty shines by courage, ugliness shines by good conduct, bad food shines by being hot and bad clothes shine by being clean.
यथा चतुर्भिः कनकं परीक्ष्यते निकर्षणछेदनतापताडनैः ।
तथा चतुर्भिः पुरुषः परीक्ष्यते श्रुतेन शीलेन कुलेन कर्मणा॥
Yathaa chaturbhih kanakam pareekshyate n ikarshanachchhedanataapataadanaih
Tathaa chaturbhih purushah pareekshyate shrutena sheelena kulena karmanaa
Just as the purity of gold is tested by four means, namely, rubbing, cutting, burning and beating so also man is tested by four means, namely, learning, conduct, pedigree and action
अनभ्यासे विषं विद्या अजीर्णे भोजनं विषं ।
विषं गॊष्ठी दरिद्रस्य भोजनान्ते जलं विषं ॥
Anabhyaase visham vidyaa ajeerne bhojanam visham
Visham goshthhee daridrasya bhojanante jalam visham
With no practice learning becomes poison; with indigestion food becomes poison; for the poor an assembly (of the rich) is poison; water immediately after eating is poison.
मातृवत्परदारेषु परद्रव्येषु लोष्टवत्।
आत्मवत्सर्वभूतेषु यः पश्यति स पण्डितः॥
Matrivatparadaareshu paradraqvyeshu loshtavat
Aatmavatsarvabhooteshu yah pashyati sa panditah
One who looks upon other men’s wives as mother, other people’s wealth as a lump of clay and all living beings as the Self is the real Pandita (wise and learned person )
दानेन पाणिर्नतुकंकणेन स्नानेन शुद्धिर्नतु चन्दनेन।
मानेन तृप्तिर्नतुभोजनेन ज्ञानेन मुक्तिर्नतु मण्डनेन ॥
Daanena paanirna tu kankanena snaanena shuddhirna tu chandanena
Maanena triptirna tu bhojanena jnaanena muktirna tu mandanena
The hand shines by giving, not by bangles. One becomes clean by bathing, not by smearing sandalwood paste. One gets satisfaction from respect of others, not by sumptuous food. Liberation comes from knowledge of the Truth, not by adornments.
कः कालः कानि मित्राणि को देशः कौ व्ययागमौ।
कस्याहं का च मे शक्तिरिति चिन्त्यं मुहुर्मुहु: ॥
Kah kaalah kaani mitraani ko deshah kau vyayaagamau
Kasyaaham kaa cha me shaktiriti chintyam muhurmuhuh
How is the time? Who are the friends? Which is the kingdom (or country)? What are the expenses and income? Where do I belong? What is my strength? One should frequently ponder on all these matters.
अत्यन्तकोपः कटुका च वाणी दरिद्रता च स्वजनेषु वैरं ।
नीचप्रसङ्ग: कुलहीनसेवा चिह्नानि देहे नरकस्थितानाम् ॥
Atyanta kopah katukaa cha vaanee daridrataa cha swajaneshu vairam
Neechaprasangah kulaheenasevaa chihnaani dehe narakasthitaanaam
Extreme of anger, harsh speech, poverty, enmity with relatives, association with evil men, service of people from not so good a family – these are the marks of people living in Hell
धनधान्यप्रयोगेषु विद्यासंग्रहणेषु च ।
आहारे व्यवहारे च त्यक्तलज्ज सुखी भवेत् ॥
Dhanadhaanyaprayogeshu vidyaasamgrahaneshu cha
Aahaare vyavahaare cha tyaktalajjah sukhee bhavet
Those who do not feel shy in the way they use wealth and food, in acquiring learning, in food and in personal relations, will always be happy.
गुणैरुत्तमतां याति नोच्चैरासनमास्थितः।
प्रासादशिखरस्थोऽपि काक: किं गरुडायते ?॥
Gunairuttamataam yaati nochchairaasanamaasthitah
Praasaadashikharastho’pi kaakah kim garudaayate
One attains a high status only by his good qualities not by sitting on a high seat. Will the crow ever become the kite even though it is sitting on a high mansion?
प्रियवाक्यप्रदानेन सर्वे तुष्यन्ति जन्तवः ।
तस्मात्तदेव वक्तव्यं वचने का दरिद्रता॥
Priyavaakyapradaanena sarve tushyanti jantavah
Tasmaattadeva vaktavyam vachane kaa daridrataa
All beings are happy to hear sweet words tempered with truth and love. Therefore one should utter only such words; why should one be stingy in using proper words?
पुस्तकेषु च या विद्या परहस्तेषु यद्धनं।
उत्पन्नेषु च कार्येषु न सा विद्या न तद्धनम्||
Pustakeshu cha yaa vidyaa parahasteshu yaddhanam
Utpanneshu cha kaaryeshu na saa vidyaa na taddhnam
The knowledge in the books and wealth in the hands of others – these will not be available when the need for them arises.
सन्तोषस्त्रिषु कर्तव्यः स्वदारे भोजने धने।
त्रिषु चैव न कर्तव्योऽध्ययने जपदानयोः॥
Santoshastrishu kartavyah swadaare bhojane dhane
Trishu chaiva na kartavyo’dhyayane japadaanayoh
Three things one should be content with – one’s own wife, food and wealth. Three things one should not be content with – learning, japa (repetition of the names of the Lord) and charity (daana)
विप्रयोर्विप्रवह्न्योश्च दम्पत्योः स्वामिभृत्ययोः।
अन्तरेण न गन्तव्यं हलस्य वृषभस्य च ॥
Viprayorvipravahnyoshcha dampatyoh swaamibhrityayoh
Antarena na gantavyam halasya vrishabhasya cha
One should not go (cross) between two brahmins, between brahmin and fire, between husband and wife, , master and servant and plouth and the ox.
पादाभ्याम् न स्पृशेदग्निं गुरुं ब्राह्मणमेव च।
नैव गां च कुमारीं च न वृद्धं न शिशुं तथा ॥
Paadaabhyaam na sprishedagnim gurum braahmanameva cha
Naiva gaam cha kumaareem cha na vriddham na shishum tathaa
One should not touch with one’s feet fire, guru, brahmin, cow, kumaari ( a girl less than twelve years old), an old person or a baby.