Gita Govindam, lyrical poetry in Sanskrit celebrating the love between Krishna and the gopis, specifically Radha, is authored by Jayadeva, the 12th century devotee-poet from Orissa. The basis for this work is the 5 chapters 29 to 33 of Srimadbhagavatam (known as Rasapanchadhyaayi) which describe the events leading to the rasaleela, the great dance on the banks of the Yamuna where each gopi thinks that Krishna is with her. Srimadbhagavatam, however, does not specifically talk about a gopi named Radha though Radha is described as the very heart of Krishna in some of the other Puranas.

above theme has been developed in Gita Govindam to such an extent that
it  is known as ‘Sringara Mahakavya’
wherein  the predominant sentiment is sringara
(erotic sentiment) in all its various moods in relation to the divine love
between Radha and Krishna. The ecstasy of union,  the agony of separation, the anxious moments
of wait for the loved one are all treated with sensitivity and poetic
excellence.  The whole work is divided
into twelve chapters ( sargas), each chapter containing one or more prabandhas.
There are 24 prabandhas each containing couplets grouped into eights
called  Ashtapadis, songs with a
refrain specific to that 
Ashatapadi.  There are in all 24 Ashtapadis
in Gita Govindam. Each Chapter may have one or more slokas
in  different metres of Sanskrit poetry
interspersed with the Ashtapadis.  It is said that the Poet-devotee Jayadeva
would sing the Ashtapadis and his wife Padmavati would dance to the music.  There have been many choreographic works  to enact and present the Ashtapadis  as  a
dance drama. 
Given below is the
text of   the
Ninth Chapter (नवमः सर्गः) with a prosaic
translation in English for those who cannot follow the Sanskrit of the
original. The translation in no way can do justice to the poetic excellence or
the beauty of expression of the original.
अथ तां मन्मथखिन्नां रतिरसभिन्नां विषादसम्पन्नाम्।
अनुचिन्तितहरिचरितां कलहान्तरितामुवाच रहःसखी ॥१॥
Now the friend spoke
to Radha who was pining in separation, was deprived of love, full of grief,
thinking of the conduct of Hari and regretting her spurning of him.
हरिरभिसरति वहति मधुपवने।
किमपरमधिकसुखं सखि भवने
माधवे मा कुरु मानिनि मानमये ॥१॥
While the spring breeze
blows Hari is waiting for you at the rendezvou. What is more joyful than this. O
friend! It is OK, your self-respect, but do not be vain where Madhava is
तालफलादपि गुरुमतिसरसम्।
किं विफलीकुरुषे कुचकलशम् ॥२॥
(माधवे मा कुरु ….)
Why would you waste those pot-shaped breasts of yours,
heavier and juicy than the fruit of the palmyra tree?  O friend! ….  
कति न कथितमिदमनुपदमचिरम्।
मा परिहर हरिमतिशयरुचिरम् ॥३॥
(माधवे मा कुरु ….)
How many times I have told you this ‘do not avoid Hari
who is extremely handsome and captivating’. O Friend! …..
किमिति विषीदसि रोदिषि विकला।
विहसति युवतिसभा तव सकला ॥४॥
(माधवे मा कुरु ….)
Why are you grieving, crying and out of sorts?  The whole assembly of young girls is laughing
at you . O Friend!…..
हरिमवलोकय सफलय नयने ॥५॥
(माधवे मा कुरु ….)
See Hari on the soft and cool bed made of lotus petals
and make your eyes fulfilled. O Friend!  ….
जनयसि मनसि किमिति गुरुखेदम्।
शृणु मम वचनमनीहितभेदम् ॥६॥
(माधवे मा कुरु ….)
Why does your heart grieve so much? Listen to my words
which are only for your good. O Friend!
हरिरुपयातु वदतु बहु मधुरम्।
किमिति करोषि हृदयमतिविधुरम्॥७॥(माधवे मा कुरु ….)
Let Krishna come and speak to you sweet words. Why do
you make your heart so sad?. O Friend!.
सुखयतु रसिकजनं हरिचरितम्॥८॥
(माधवे मा कुरु ….)
May this sweet and beautiful song on the leela
of Hari delight the hearts of lovers of poetry and song.   
स्निग्धे यत्परुषासि यत्प्रणमति स्तब्धासि यद्रागिणि
द्वेषस्थासि यदुन्मुखे विमुखतां यातासि तस्मिन्प्रिये।
तद्युक्तं विपरीतकारिणि तव श्रीखण्डचर्चाविषं
शीतांशुस्तपनो हिमं हुतवहः क्रीडामुदो यातनाः ॥१॥
The friend says to Radha:
When Krishna, your darling, is soft you are harsh;
when he bows you are stiff; when he loves you hate; when he is face-to-face you
turn way. It is antithesis all along;  therefore it is but proper that you should see
sandal paste as poison, moon as sun, ice as fire and pleasures of sporting as
स्तब्धाकर्षणदृष्टिहर्षणमहामन्त्रः कुरङ्गीदृशाम्।
भ्रंशः कंसरिपोर्समर्पयतु
वः श्रेयांसि वंशीरवः ॥२॥
When Krishna, enemy of
Kamsa,  plays the flute,  the mandara flowers adorning his head are  loosened. The melody of the music attracts
even inanimate objects. It delights those  who see him. 
It is like a powerful mantra for the doe-eyed gopis. It is the
end of those arrogant asuras who cause untold suffering and difficulties
for the devas.  May those melodies
from the flute of Krishna bring you all things auspicious.
श्रीगीतगोविन्दे शृङ्गारमहाकाव्ये खण्डितावर्णने
नाम नवमः सर्गः

Sri P R Ramamurthy Ji was the author of this website. When he started this website in 2009, he was in his eighties. He was able to publish such a great number of posts in limited time of 4 years. We appreciate his enthusiasm for Sanskrit Literature. Authors story in his own words :

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