LESSON – 5
 In this lesson we shall familiarise
ourselves with the roots of verbs which are classified into ten groups  (called
गण) depending upon
the way they are conjugated in the different tenses and moods. Within each
group certain roots are only 
परस्मै पद (indicatng that
the result of the action is on others, 
not on the doer).  some roots are
आत्मने पद (indicating the result of the action
accrues to the doer).  Yet other roots
can be both
परस्मै पद and आत्मने पद.  Annexure to this lesson gives the complete
list of roots in all the 10 ganas.
Here are some words in भ्वादि (प्रथम) गणः (परस्मै पद)  with their present tense forms:
Singular   dual    plural
अट्    to roam, to wander  3rd person     अटति     
अटतः    अटन्ति
अटथः     अटथ
अटामि      अटावः    अटामः
अर्च्  to worship, to
अर्चति      अर्चतः    अर्चन्ति                                        
                                  अर्चसि     अर्चथः    अर्चथ
                                 अर्चामि     अर्चावः   अर्चामः 
अर्ज्  to procure, to
अर्जति     अर्जतः   अर्जन्ति etc
अर्ह्  to deserve, to
अर्हति      अर्हतः   अर्हन्ति etc
काङ्क्ष्  to wish, to
काङ्क्षति   काङ्क्षतः  काङ्क्षन्ति etc      
कृष् (कर्ष्)  to
कर्षति     कर्षतः   कर्षन्ति  etc
क्रद् (क्रन्द्) to call, to weep     क्रन्दति    क्रन्दतः   क्रन्दन्ति etc
क्रीड्  to play, to
amuse oneself  
क्रीडति    क्रीडतः   क्रीडन्ति  etc
क्रुश् (क्रोश्) to call, to

 to lament                      क्रोशति    क्रोशतः  क्रोशन्ति 
क्षि(क्षय्)  to decay               क्षयति    क्षयतः   क्षयन्ति  etc 
खाद्     to eat                  खादति    खादतः   खादन्ति etc
गद्      to speak               गदति     गदतः    गदन्ति  etc
गम् (गच्छ्)  to go               गच्छति    गच्छतः   गच्छन्ति etc       
Exercise 1: Write the present tense forms
of roots of verbs belonging to 

भ्वादिगण (परस्मैपद ) vide Annexure to this lesson.
Exercise 2: 
Write sentences using the above verbs in the present tense ( in the
first, second and third persons and singular, dual and plural forms)
Example छात्रः विद्यालयं गच्छति
         छात्रौ विद्यालयं गच्छतः
         छात्राः विद्यालयं गच्छन्ति
       त्वं विद्यालयं गच्छसि
       युवां विद्यालयं गच्छथः
       यूयं  विद्यालयं गच्छथ
      अहं विद्यालयं गच्छामि
      आवां विद्यालयं गच्छावः
      वयं विद्यालयं गच्छामः

Sri P R Ramamurthy Ji was the author of this website. When he started this website in 2009, he was in his eighties. He was able to publish such a great number of posts in limited time of 4 years. We appreciate his enthusiasm for Sanskrit Literature. Authors story in his own words : http://ramamurthypr1931.blogspot.com/

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