four sections dealing essentially with the nature of Brahman as the efficient
cause and the knowledge thereof. The central point is that Brahman is not what
can come within the scope of our ordinary knowledge. The Upanishad derives its name from the first
word in the text, namely, Kena (by whom)
प्राणश्चक्षुः श्रोत्रमथो बलमिन्द्रियाणि च सर्वाणि। सर्वं ब्रह्मौपनिषदम्। माहं ब्रह्म
निराकुर्याम्। मा मा ब्रह्म निराकरोत्।अनिराकरण्मस्तु। अनिराकरणं मेऽस्तु। तदात्मनि
निरते य उपनिषत्सु धर्मास्ते मयि सन्तु ते मयि सन्तु। ओं शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः॥
vigorous, my speech, breath, eye, ear, also my strength and all my senses! All
is the Brahman of the Upanishads. May I
never discard Brahman! May not Brahman
discard me ! May there be no discarding! May there be no discarding of me! Therefore,
let those dharmas which are in the Upanishads be in me dedicated to Atman; let
them be in me. Om peace, peace, peace.
उ देवो युनक्ति ॥
does the mind, well urged, alight (on its objects)? By whom directed does the first
breath go forth? By whom urged do men
utter the speech? The eye and the ear, which god indeed directs?
मनसो मनो य–
is the ear of the ear, the mind of the mind, the speech, indeed, of the speech,
the breath of the breath, the eye of the eye.
Having abandoned (the sense of self in these) and departing from this
world, the wise become immortal.
न वाग्गच्छति नो मनः।
does not go, speech does not go, nor the mind.
We do not know, we do not understand, how one can teach this.
known, verily, it is, also above the unknown.
Thus have we heard from the ancients who have discriminated it for us.
विद्धि नेदं यदिदमुपासते ॥
expressed through speech, and whereby speech is expressed, that alone, know ye,
as Brahman; not this which people worship.
विद्धि नेदं यदिदमुपासते ॥
contemplate with the mind, and whereby, they say, the mind is contemplated,
that alone, know ye, as Brahman; not this which people worship.
three further stanzas, identical in wording with the above two stanzas and
dealing with the eye, the ear and the breath]
दभ्रमेवापिनूनं त्वं वेत्थ
त्वं यदस्य च देवेषु।
thinkest. “ I know well”, only little in truth thou knowest of Brahman’s form,
which (form) of that (Brahman) art thou, and which (form) of that (Brahman)
exists among gods. Hence it is indeed to be inquired into by you.
I think it has been known
नो न वेदेति वेद च।
नो न वेदेति वेद च॥
know it well; nor do I know that I do not know it. He, who amongst us knows it,
knows it, and he knows not too that he does not know.
मतं यस्य न वेद सः।
not contemplated, by him it is contemplated.
He by whom it is contemplated, knows it not. It is not understood by those who understand
it. It is understood by those who do not
contemplated as known in every cognition, one attains, indeed, immortality. By the self one attains vitality. By
knowledge one attains the immortal.
knows it, then truth there is; and if here he knows it not, there is great
destruction. Discerning (it) in beings
after beings, the wise become immortal on departing from this world.
विजिग्ये। तस्य ह ब्रह्मणो विजये देवा अमहीयन्त। त ऐक्षन्तास्माकमेवायं विजयोऽस्मकमेवायं
a victory for the gods. By that victory of Brahman, the gods attained
glory. They felt “ Ours alone is this victory, ours alone this
विजानत किमिदं यक्षम् – इति। तेऽग्निमब्रुवन् –
knew this (false pride) of theirs. He
appeared before them. They did not know
what spirit (yaksha) it was. They spoke
beings (jatavedas), find this out, what this spirit is “
would do) so, he ran after that. He (the
spirit) asked him (Agni): “Who art thing that (he would do) so, he ran after
that. He (the spirit) asked him (Agni):
“Who art thou?” He replied: “I am vou?” He replied: “I am verily Agni, I am the
knower of beings (jatavedas)”
वीर्यं – इति। अपीदं सर्वं दहेयं यदिदं पृथिव्याम् – इति॥
(He again asked): “What vitality (is there) in thee?” (He replied):
can burn, what there is on this earth.”
एतद्दह – इति। तदुपप्रेयाय सर्वजवेन। तन्न शशाक दग्धुम्
। स तत एव निववृते। नैतदशकं विज्ञातुं यदेतद्यक्षम् – इति॥
blade of grass before him, (and said): “Burn this.”
with all his speed. He was not able to
thence, (He told the gods): “ I was not able to know what this spirit is.”
Then the gods sent Vayu to find out the iddentity of the spirit. Vayu was not able to lift up the grass,
though he said that he could lift anything on earth. Vayu also returned in
failure. Then they sent Indra for the purpose; but the spirit vanished before him.
स्त्रियमाजगाम बहु शोभमानामुमां हैमवतीम्। तां होवाच– किमेतद्यक्षम्– इति॥
etherial region, he (indra) came across a woman who was shining intensely, Uma the
daughter of Himavan. He asked her “What
spirit is this?”
वा एतद्विजये महीयध्वम् – इति । ततो हैव विदाञ्चकार
ब्रह्म – इति॥
is) Brahman.” (And she added) “Through the victory of Brahman, verily,
you(gods) have attained glory”. Then,
indeed, he knew that (it was) Brahman.
अतितरामिवान्यान् देवान् यदग्निर्वायुरिन्द्रः । ते ह्येनं नेदिष्ठं पस्पर्शुः।
विदाञ्चकार ब्रह्म – इति॥
Therefore these gods, namely, Agni, Vayu and Indra, far surpass, as it were,
the other gods. They have indeed, come
into very intimate contact with him (Brahman).
They, indeed, for the first time knew that (it was) Brahman.
देवान् । स ह्येनं नेदिष्ठं पस्पर्श।
विदाञ्चकार ब्रह्म – इति॥
Indra, far surpasses, as it were, the other gods. He has, indeed, come into very intimate
contact with him (Brahman). He, indeed,
for the first time knew that (it was) Brahman.
व्यद्युतदा ३ इतीं न्यमीमिषदा ३। इत्यधिदैवतम्॥
(Brahman) there is this teaching; this
is, as it were, the flash of lightning and it has vanished. Thus (the teaching) concerning the gods.
च मनः । अनेन चैतदुपस्मरत्यभीक्ष्णं संकल्पः ॥
concerning the self: It is this towards which the mind appears as moving. In association with that, this (self)
repeatedly remembers as resolve.
स य एतदेवं वेदाभि हैनं सर्वाणि भूतानि संवाञ्छन्ति॥
what is called tadvana (that desire),
worshipped, He who knows this (Brahman)
thus, him all beings love.
वाव त उपनिषदमश्रुम – इति॥
been explained the Upanishad. Now we
will explain to thee the Upanishad relating to Brahman”.
प्रतिष्ठा। वेदाः सर्वाङ्गानि। सत्यमायतनम्। यो वा एतामेवं वेदापहत्य
लोके ज्येये प्रतितिष्ठति प्रतितिष्ठति ॥
restraint, sacrificial rites, these are its (Upanishad) support.
all its limbs. Truth is its abode. He who knows it (Upanishad) thus, shaking off
sin, in the end he is firmly established in the supreme world of heaven; yes,
he is firmly established.
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