GITA GOVINDAM -CHAPTER-3

GITA GOVINDAM (गीतगोविन्दम्)

Gita Govindam, lyrical poetry in Sanskrit celebrating the love between Krishna and the gopis, specifically Radha, is authored by Jayadeva, the 12th century devotee-poet from Orissa. The basis for this work is the 5 chapters 29 to 33 of Srimadbhagavatam (known as Rasapanchadhyaayi) which describe the events leading to the rasaleela, the great dance on the banks of the Yamuna where each gopi thinks that Krishna is with her. Srimadbhagavatam, however, does not specifically talk about a gopi named Radha though Radha is described as the very heart of Krishna in some of the other Puranas.

The 
above theme has been developed in Gita Govindam to such an extent that
it  is known as ‘Sringara Mahakavya’
wherein  the predominant sentiment is sringara
(erotic sentiment) in all its various moods in relation to the divine love
between Radha and Krishna. The ecstasy of union,  the agony of separation, the anxious moments
of wait for the loved one are all treated with sensitiviy and poetic
excellence.  The whole work is divided
into twelve chapters ( sargas), each chapter containing one or more prabandhas.
There are 24 prabandhas each containing couplets grouped into eights
called  Ashtapadis, songs with a
refrain specific to that 
Ashatapadi.  There are in all 24 Ashtapadis
in Gita Govindam. Each Chapter may have one or more slokas
in  different metres of Sanskrit poetry
interspersed with the Ashtapadis.  It is said that the Poet-devotee Jayadeva
would sing the Ashtapadis and his wife Padmavati would dance to the music.  There have been many choreographic works  to enact and present the Ashtapadis  as  a
dance drama. 
Given below is the
text of   the
Third Chapter (त्रितीयः सर्गः) with a prosaic
translation in English for those who cannot follow the Sanskrit of the
original. The translation in no way can do justice to the poetic excellence or
the beauty of expression of the original.
CHAPTER-3
Prabandha-7
कंसारिरपि
संसार वासनाबन्धशृंखलां
राधामाधाय
हृदये तत्याज व्रजसुन्दरीः ॥१॥
Krishna,
the enemy of Kamsa, installed in his heart Radha who was the chain binding to
the yearnings of this mundane world and left the other gopis
इतस्ततस्तामनुसृत्य
राधिका-
मनंगबाणव्रणखिन्नमानसः
कृतानुतापः
स कलिन्दनन्दिनी-
तटान्तकुञ्जे
नीषसाद माधवः ॥२॥
With
a heart pierced by the arrows of Cupid,  Krishna, regretting his earlier neglect of
Radha,  followed her here and there and
finally settled himself in a bower on the banks of the Yamuna.
अष्टपदी-७
मामियं
चलिता विलोक्य वृतं वधूनिचयेन।
सापराधतया
मयापि न वारितातिभयेन ॥
हरिहरि
हतादरतया गता सा कुपितेव॥ १॥
Krishan
thinks thus: “Radha walked away seeing me surrounded by so many gopis.  Because it was my mistake I did not prevent
her  fearing (her reaction).  Alas! since she was spurned she went away,
may be with anger in her heart.”
किं
करिष्यति किं वदिष्यति सा चिरं विरहेण।
किं
धनेन जनेन किं मम जीवितेन गृहेण ॥२॥ (हरिहरि…..)
What
will she do and what will she say?  Of
what use are wealth, relatives, house or even life in the agony of a long
separation?  Alas! ……  
चिन्तयामि
तदाननं कुटिलभ्रूरोषभरेण।
शोणपद्ममिवोपरि
भ्रमताकुलं भ्रमरेण ॥३॥
(हरिहरि…..)
I
contemplate her face with arched brows in anger as if honey-bees circling over
a red lotus flower.  Alas! ….
तामहं
हृदि संगतामनिशं भृशं रमयामि।
किं वनेऽनुसरामि किं वृथा विलपामि ॥४॥ (हरिहरि…..)
I
will always carry her in my heart; I will surely make her delighted.  Shall I follow her in the forest or simply
bewail my fate? Alas! ….
तन्वि
खिन्नमसूयया हृदयं तवाकलयामि।
तन्न
वेद्मि कुतो गतासि न तेन तेऽनुनयामि ॥५॥ (हरिहरि…..)
O
slender one! I will soothe your heart which is weighed down by jealousy.  I do not know where you have gone; that is
the reason why I m not there to assuage your feelings. Alas!  …..
दृश्यसे
पुरतो गतागतमेव मे विदधासि
किं
पुरेव ससंभ्रमं परिरंभणं न ददासि ॥६॥ (हरिहरि…..)
When you
are seen by me you just keep moving but you do not come and embrace me
excitedly as before (Because of the agony of separation Krishna sees Radha in
every gopi he sees) Alas!
 
क्षम्यतामपरं
कदापि तवेदृशं न करोमि।
देहि
सुन्दरि दर्शनं मम मन्मथेन दुनोमि॥७॥(हरिहरि…..)
O
Beautiful one ! forgive me, I will not ever behave like this.  I am tormented by Cupid; please let me see
you.  Alas…
वर्णितं
जयदेवकेन हरेरिदं प्रणतेन।
किन्दुबिल्वसमुद्रसंभवरोहिणीरमणेन
॥८॥ (हरिहरि…..)
भ्रूपल्लवं
धनुरपांगतरंगितानि
बाणा
गुणाः श्रवणपालिरिति स्मरेण।
तस्यामनंगजयजंगमदेवताया-
मस्त्राणी
निर्जितजगन्ति किमर्पितानि ॥१॥
Radha’s
eye-brows are the bow of Cupid, her sidelong glances are arrows, bow string is
the sides of her ears. It seems as if Cupid has deposited all his weapons by
which he has conquered all the worlds in the person of Radha who is the walking
goddess of his victory.    
हृदि
बिसलताहारो नायं भुजङ्गमनायकः
कुवलयदलश्रेणी
कण्ठे न सा गरलद्युतिः
मलयजरजो
नेदं भस्म प्रियारहिते मयि
प्रहर
न हरभ्रान्त्याऽनङ्ग क्रुधा किमु धावसि ॥२॥
Krishna
says:  “What I wear on my breast is a
garland of lotus stalk,  not the chief of
serpents. What is around the neck is a bouquet of blue lotus flowers, not
poison.  It is sandal paste on my body,
not ashes.  O Cupid! do not aim you
arrows in anger at me, suffering the agony of separation from my loved
one,  mistaking me for Lord Shiva who is
your enemy.” 
पाणौ
मा कुरु चूतसायकममुं मा चापमारोपय
क्रीडानिर्जितविश्वमूर्छितजनाघातेन
किं पौरुषम्।
तस्या
एव मृगीदृशो मनसिज प्रेक्षत्कटाक्षानल-
ज्वालाजर्जरितं
मनागपि मनो नाद्यापि संधुक्षते ॥३॥
Krishna
says: “O Cupid, do not take the arrow of mango flower; do not shoot the arrow
from the bow.  You have playfully
conquered the world. What manliness is there in striking at people who have
fainted. O Cupid! My heart which has been burnt by the flame of sidelong
glances of the doe-eyed Radha has not yet regained its life.”
भ्रूचापे
निहितः कटाक्षविशिखो निर्मातु मर्मव्यथां
श्यामात्मा
कुटिलः करोतु कबरीभारोऽपि मारोद्यमम्।
मोहं
तावदयं च तन्वि!
तनुतां बिम्बाधरो रागवान्
सद्वृत्तस्तनमण्डलं
तव कथं प्राणैर्मम क्रीडति ॥४॥
Krishna
says with Radha in his mind: “Let the arrows of your sidelong glances shot from
the bow of your brows hurt my inside. Let the dark curled  (crooked) tresses do the work of Cupid.  Let your red lips O slender one! seduce
me.  But how can your rounded breasts play
with my life? “
[sadvrutta  means 
(1) rounded  and (2) of good
conduct and character
]
तानि
स्पर्शसुखानि ते च तरलाः स्निग्धा दृशो विभ्रमा-
स्तद्वक्त्राम्बुजसौरभं
स च सुधास्यन्दि गिरां वक्रिमा।
सा बिम्बाधरमाधुरीति
विषयासंगेऽपि मन्मानसं
तस्यां
लग्नसमाधि हंत विरहव्याधिः कथं वर्तते ॥५॥
Those
pleasures of touch, those liquid and smooth looks, that sweet smell of the
lotus-face, those nectar-dripping crookedness of words, that sweetness of your
red lips  – my mind always dwells on
these things.  In spite of this how is it
that this disease of viraha (separation) still persists
तिर्यक्कंठविलोलमौलितरलोत्तंसस्य
वंशोच्चरद्
गीतस्थानकृतावधानललनालक्षैर्न
संलक्षिताः ।
संमुग्धं
मधुसूदनस्य मधुरे राधामुखेन्दौ मृदु-
स्पन्दं
कंदलिताश्चिरं दधतु वः क्षेमं कटाक्षोर्मयः॥६॥
Krishna’s
neck had turned slightly and his head ornaments had also been displaced a
little because of the wave of sidelong glances he was casting on the sweet
moon-like face of Radha.  But the other gopis
who were immersed in the melodious music from the flute of Krishna did not
notice those glances.  May those glances
of Krishna protect you.
                  [ End of prabandha 7]
 
इति
श्रीगीतगोविन्दे  शृङ्गारमहाकाव्ये श्रीकृष्णदासजयदेवकृतौ
मुग्धमधुसूदनोनाम
तृतीयः सर्गः


  

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