FAMILIARIZE YOURSELF WITH SANSKRIT LESSON 3

                                               FAMILIARISE
 YOURSELF  WITH SANSKRIT
                                                                       LESSON – 4
Here are
some examples of the use of the seven vibhaktis:
प्रथमा विभक्तिः (nominative case,
subject)   
रामः गृहं गच्छति    Rama goes home
सः पुस्तकं पठति 
  He  reads a book     
सा उद्याने खेलति 
  She plays in the park 
                                       
In the
above examples the underlined words are in the nominative case.
द्वितीया विभक्तिः (accusative case,
direct object)   
अहं विद्यालयं गच्छामि   I go to school
त्वं पुस्तकं पठसि       you read a book 
सः रामं नमति         He prostrates before Rama
सा गृहं गच्छति        She goes home
In the
above examples the underlined words are in the accusative case.
तृतीया विभक्तिः (instrumental
case)   
सः वामहस्तेन लिखति   
He writes with his left hand
सा कर्णाभ्यां श्रुणोमि      I hear with my ears
अहं नेत्राभ्यां पश्यामि     I see with my eyes
त्वं रामेण सह खेलसि    
you play with Rama
अहं पादाभ्यां चलामि      I walk with my legs
In the above examples the underlined words are in the instrumental
case. 
वमहस्तेन and रामेण are singular while 
कर्णाभ्यां, नेत्राभ्यां and पादाब्यां are dual
since, ears, eyes and legs are in pairs.
चतुर्थी विभक्तिः (dative case)
रामायः नमः   Prostration to Rama
सः दरिद्राय  धनं यच्छति   He gives money to the poor
अहं भिक्षुकाय अन्नं ददामि  I give cooked
rice to the beggar
त्वं  रामाय फलं ददासि     You give
fruit to Rama
रामः तृषिताय जलं यच्छति   Rama gives
water to the thirsty
In the above examples the underlined words are in the
dative case. Note that in the third sentence
फलं  is the direct object (द्वितीया विभक्तिः) and रामाय is the indirect
object (
चतुर्थी विभक्ति:).  नमः and दा धातु (ददाति etc) always take चतुर्थी विभक्तिः with them.
पञ्चमी विभक्तिः ( Ablative case)
अहं गृहात् आगच्छामि               
I come from home
छात्रः विद्यालयात् आगच्छति)           The student
comes from school
सर्पात् भयं भवति                    there is fear from snake
वृक्षात् फलं पतति                    fruit falls from the tree
मेघात् वर्षा भवति                    it  rains from the cloud 
In the above examples the underlined words are in the
ablative case.  
षष्ठी विभक्तिः (possessive case)
             
रामस्य  भार्या सीता            Sita
is Rama’s wife                  
कृष्ण्स्य वर्णः श्यामः            Krishna’s complexion
is dark
अस्माकं विद्यालयस्य नाम        The name of our school is
     ’सान्दीपनी विद्यालयः’       ‘Sandipani Vidyalaya’
अस्य बालकस्य वयः पञ्च वर्षाणि  The age of this
boy is five years
युवयोः विद्यालयः कुत्र अस्ति?      Where is your (plural) school?  
In the above examples the underlined words are in the
possessive case.
सप्तमी विभक्तिः  (Locative case)
अहं गृहे वसामि                    I live in the
house
अहं छात्रावासे न वसामि             I
do not live in the student hostel  
सः भोजनालये खादति              
He eats in the hotel
सा कार्यालये न खादति             
She does not eat in the office.
चन्द्रः आकाशे प्रकाशति             
The moon shines in the sky
In the above examples the underlined words are in the
locative case.
संबोधने प्रथमा विभक्तिः
हे राम!   अरे मित्रहे सीते !  etc.    

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