MAHABHARATA(CONDENSED)- BIRTH OF KAURAVAS AND PANDAVAS

                                        THE MAHABHARATA
                                 CONDENSED IN
THE POET’S OWN WORDS
                                    By PANDIT
A. M. SRINIVASACHARIAR
         Translated By Dr V, Raghavan M.A.,
Ph.D. & Published By G.A. Natesan & Co., Madras
                                                              
॥    आदिपर्व   ॥
              Birth of Kauravas and Pandavas
                      
                      भीष्मेण राजा कौरव्यो धृतराष्ट्रोऽभिषेचितः।
           अमात्यो मनुजेन्द्रस्य
[भीष्मेण] विदुरः कृतः।
           त्रिषु लोकेषु न त्वासीत्
कश्चिद्विदुरसंमितः ॥
Dhritarashtra,
the descendant of Kuru, was crowned king by Bhishma; and Vidura was made the
king’s minister.  There was none equal to
Vidura in all the three worlds.
           धृतराष्ट्रस्त्वचक्षुष्ट्वाद्
राज्यं न प्रत्यपद्यत ।
           पारशवत्वाद् विदुरो,
राजा पाण्डुर्बभुव ह ॥
But, being
blind, Dhritarashtra did not accept the kingdom; being of mixed caste, Vidura
did not; Pandu became king.
 
           कदाचिदथ गाङ्गेयस्सर्वनीतिमतां
वरः।
          
विदुरं धर्मतत्त्वज्ञं वाक्यमाह यथोचितम् ॥
Once
Bhishma, the foremost among prudent men, appropriately said these words to
Vidura who knew the principles of Dharma.
          ’श्रूयते यादवी कन्या स्वनुरूपा
कुलस्य नः।
           सुबलस्यात्मजा चैव तथा मद्रेश्वरस्य
च ॥
“We hear
that there is a Yadava maiden, suited to our family, and a daughter of Subala,
and also a daughter of the king of the Madras”
          ‘कुलीना रूपवत्यश्च ताः कन्याः
पुत्र सर्वशः।
           उचिताश्चैव संबन्धे तेऽस्माकं
क्षत्रियर्षभाः ॥
“My
son, all the (three) maidens are of good lineage and beautiful.  Those kings also are fit for matrimonial
alliance with us.”      
          “मन्ये वरयितव्यास्ता इत्यहं
धीमतां वर।
           सन्तानार्थं कुलस्यास्य
यद्वा विदुर मन्यसे ॥
“O
you best among the wise, I think these maidens should be  sought as brides for the continuity of this
line.  What do you think, Vidura?”
          विदुरः-
          “भवान् पिता भवान्माता भवान्नः
परमो गुरुः।
          तस्मात्स्वयं कुलस्यास्य
विचार्यं कुरु यद्धितम्॥
Vidura-
“You
are our father, mother and greatest preceptor. Therefore, whatever  may be for the good of this house, you
yourself consider and do.
           ततो गान्धारराजस्य पुत्रः
शकुनिरभ्ययात्।
           स्वसारं धृतराष्ट्राय ददौ
परमसत्कृताम् ॥
Then,
Sakuni, the son of the king of the Gandharas (Subala), came and gave in
marriage to Dhritarashtra his most honoured sister ( Gandhari)
           शूरो नाम यदुश्रेष्ठो वसुदेवपिताऽभवत्।
           तस्य कन्या पृथा नाम रूपेणाप्रतिमा
भुवि।
           तस्या विवाहमकरोत्कुन्त्याः
पाण्डोर्महिपतिः ॥
There
was the chief of the Yadus, named Shura, the father of Vasudeva.  He had a daughter, Pritha by name, unequalled
in beauty in the world.  King(Kuntibhoja,
her adopted father) celebrated the marriage of Kunti (Pritha) with Pandu.
           ततः [शान्तनवो] भीष्मो ययौ मद्रपतेः पुरम्।
           स तां माद्रीमुपादाय प्रविष्टो
गजसाह्वयम्।
           जग्राह विधिवत्पाणिं  माद्र्याः पाण्डुर्नराधिपः॥
Bhishma
then went to the city of the king of Madra and entered Hastinapura, bringing
with him Madri (the Madra princess). 
King Pandu married Madri, in the manner prescribed.
           ततस्स कौरवो  राजा विहृत्या त्रिदशा निशाः।
           जिगीषया महीं पाण्डुर्निरक्रामत्पुरात्
[प्रभो] ॥
Living
then in happiness for thirty nights, king Pandu issued forth from the city,
desiring to conquer the world.
           तेन ते निर्जितास्सर्वे
पृथिव्यां सर्वपार्थिवाः।
           तमेकं मेनिरे शूरं देवेष्विव
पुरन्दरम् ॥
Defeated
by him, all the kings of the world regarded him as the only warrior, like Indra
among the gods.
  
           संप्रयुक्तस्तु कुन्त्या
च माद्र्या च [भरतर्षभ]।
           जिततन्द्रिस्तदा पाण्डुर्बभूव
वनगोचरः ॥
Along
with Kunti and Madri, the active  Pandu
went out to the forest (hunting).
           अथ पारशवीं कन्यां देवकस्यापगासुतः
           विवाहं कारयामास विदुरस्य
महामतेः॥
Then,
Bhishma, the son of river Ganga, married the daughter of king Devaka by a Sudra
wife to the lofty-minded Vidura.
          तस्यां चोत्पादयामास विदुरः
[कुरुनन्दन]।
          पुत्रान्विनयसंपन्नान् आत्मनस्सदृशान्गुणैः॥
And
on her, Vidura begot sons endowed with modesty, his own equals in virtues.
         गान्धार्यामाहिते गर्भे पाण्डुरम्बालिका
सुतः।
         अपत्यार्थं कृतमना इदं वचनमब्रवीत्   ॥
When
Gandhari conceived, Pandu, the son of Ambalika, who was intent on offspring,
said these words
        ‘चतुर्भिरृणवान्नित्यं जायते
मनुजो भुवि।
         ऋषिदेवमनुष्याणामृणान्मुक्तोस्मि धर्मतः।
         पिॠणां  तु न मुक्तोऽस्मि तच्च तेभ्यो विशिष्यते॥‘

Man is thus born on earth, a fourfold debtor. 
By doing my duties, I am released from the debts to the Seers, the gods
and the people; but I am not released from the debt to the ancestors; and that
debt is greater than those (other debts)
        “ अपत्यं नाम लोकेषु प्रतिष्ठा
धर्मसंमिता|
          इति कुन्ति विदुर्धीराः शाश्वतं
धर्मवादिनः ॥“
“Offspring
is an everlasting and virtuous glory in (all) the worlds; Kunti, so do the wise
exponents of virtue consider for all time. “
          प्रत्युवाच वरारोहा भर्तुः
प्रियहिते रता ॥
That
Kunti of shapely body, delighting in doing that which was pleasing and good to
her lord, replied:
         “पितुर्वेश्मन्यहं बाला नियुक्ताऽतिथिपूजने।
         उग्रं पर्यचरं तत्र ब्राह्मणं
संशितव्रतम् ॥

As a girl, I was enjoined in my father’s house to attend upon the guests.
There, I served a fierce Brahmin of severe austerities.
       
‘स मेऽभिचारसंयुक्तमाचष्ट भगवान्वरम्।
       
मन्त्रं त्विदं च मे प्रादात् तस्य कालोऽयमागतः’ ॥
“That venerable Brahmin gave me a boon
together with the power to bring the gods in person.  He gave me this Mantra also and the time for
its use has come.
       
अनुज्ञाता त्वया देवमाह्वयेयमहं नृप।
       
अनपत्यकृतं यस्ते शोकं वीर विनेष्यति ॥
“Permitted by you O heroic king! I will
invoke a god who will remove your sorrow in having no children.”
       जातमात्रे सुते तस्मिन् वागुवाचाशरीरिणी।
    
  ’एष धर्मभृतां श्रेष्ठो भविष्यति नरोत्तमः
     
  युधिष्ठिर इति ख्यातः पाण्डोः प्रथमजस्सुतः’॥
As soon as that son was born, an
incorporeal voice said: “This, the first son of Pandu, famed as Yudhishthira,
will become most eminent among the righteous and greatest of all men”
       धार्मिकं च सुतं दृष्ट्वा पाण्डुः कुन्तीमथाब्रवीत्।
      
’वायुमावाहयस्वेति स देवो बलवत्तरः॥
And seeing the reighteous son, Pandu then
told Kunti “ Invoke Vayu; that god is mightier”
     
तथोक्तवति सा काले वायुमेवाजुहाव ह।
     
तस्यां जज्ञे महावीर्यो भीमो भीमपराक्रमः ॥
When he said so, she invoked Vayu at the
proper time and Bhima of great heroism and terrible valour was born of her.
      तमप्यतिबलं जातं वागुवाचाशरीरिणी।
     
सर्वेषां बलिनां श्रेष्ठो जातोऽयमिति भारत ॥
And of that son of surpassing strength
born also, an incorporeal voice said: “ The greatest of all men of strength has
been born.”
     
इदं चाद्भुतमत्रासीज्जातमात्रे वृकोदरे।
     
यदङ्कात्पतितो मातुश्शिलां गात्रैरचूर्णयत्॥
And as soon as Vrikodara
(Bhima) was born, there happened this miracle; falling from the lap of his
mother, (the child), with his limbs, reduced to dust the stone (underneath).   
     यस्मिन्नहनि भीमस्तु जज्ञे भीमपराक्रमः।
     तामेव रात्रिं पूर्वां तु जज्ञे
दुर्योधनो नृपः ॥
On the night preceding
the day on which that Bhima of terrible valour was born, king Duryodhana was
born.
    स जातमात्र एवाथ धृतराष्ट्रसुतो
[नृप]
    रासभारावसदृशं रुराव च ननाद च ॥
As soon as he was born,
that son of Dhritarashtra brayed like an ass.   
   लक्षयित्वा निमित्तानि तानि घोराणि
सर्वशः।
   अब्रुवन्ब्राह्मणा [राजन्] विदुरश्च महामतिः ॥
Observing these terrible
omens all around, the Brahmins [of the court] and the wise vidura said [to
Dhritarashtra]
   “व्यक्तं कुलान्तकरणो भवितैव सुतस्तव।
    तस्य शान्तिः परित्यागे गुप्तावपनयो
महान् ॥“
“It is clear, this son of
yours is going to be the cause of the annihilation of the race; peace can be
secured by abandoning him;great will be the impolicy in keeping him.”
    ‘न केवलं कुलस्यान्तं क्षत्रियान्तं
करिष्यति।
     त्यजैनमेकं शान्तिं चेत् कुलस्येच्छसि
भारत॥
“Scion of Bharata! not
only of the family, but of all kshatriyas, will he cause the end. Sacrifice
this one individual, if you desire peace for your house”
     स तथा विदुरेणोक्तस्तैश्च सर्वैर्द्विजोत्तमैः।
     न चकार तथा राजा पुत्रस्नेहसमन्वितः
(Though) told so by
Vidura and all those great Brahmins, the king in his affection for the son,
failed to act accordingly.
     ततः पुत्रशतं पूर्णं धृतराष्ट्रस्य
[पार्थिव]
     अह्नां शतेन संजज्ञे कन्या चैका
शताधिका।
     युयुत्सुश्च महातेजा वैश्यापुत्रः
प्रतापवान् ॥
  
 Then, a full century of sons was born to
Dhritarashtra in a century of days;  and
over and above that century of sons, a single daughter;  also, a pwerful and valorous son named
Yuyutsu to a Vaisya wife of Dhritaraashtra.
      सर्वेषामनुरूपाश्च कृता दारा
[महीपते] ।
      दुश्शलां चापि समये धृतराष्ट्रो
नराधिपः।
      जयद्रथाय प्रददौ विधिना
[भरतर्षभ]
And, wives suitable to
all of them, were married. In the proper time, and in the manner prescribed,
king Dhritarashtra gave his daughter Dussala in marriage to Jayadratha (the
king of the Sindhus)
      जाते बलवतां श्रेष्ठे पाण्डुश्चिन्तापरोऽभवत्।
      कथमन्यो मम सुतो लोके श्रेष्ठो
भवेदिति॥
After that greatest of
the strong, (Bhima), had been born, Pandu began to think of how there might be
for him another son who would the greatest person in the world.
     ततः पाण्डुर्महाराजो मन्त्रयित्वा
महर्षिभिः  ।
     दिदेश कुन्त्याः कौरव्यो व्रतं
सांवत्सरं शुभम् ॥
Consulting then the great
sages, king Pandu of the Kuru line directed Kunti to observe an auspicious vow
for a year.

    
     अथाजगाम देवेन्द्रो जनयामास चार्जुनम्।
Then came the king of the
gods, Indra, and caused the birth of Arjuna (from Kunti). 
   
     जातमात्रे कुमारे तु वागुवाचाशरीरिणी।
     ’कार्तवीर्यसमः कुन्ति शिवतुल्यपराक्रमः।
     तथा विष्णुसमः प्रितिं वर्धयिष्यति
तेऽर्जुनः ॥
As soon as that son was
born, an incorporeal voice said: “Kunti! Equal to Kartavirya, equal to Siva in
valour and equal to Vishnu, (this) Arjuna will increase your happiness.”
     ततः कुन्तीं पुनः पाण्डुर्विविक्त
इदमब्रवीत्।
     ’अनुगृह्णीष्व कल्याणि मद्रराजसुतामपि’
Then Pandu said this to
Kunti in private: “ Fortunate lady! Bless the daughter of the Madra king also”  
    एवमुक्ताऽब्रवीन्माद्रीं सकृच्चिन्तय
दैवतम्।
    ततो माद्री विचार्यैका जगाम मनसाऽश्विनौ
So told, (Kunti) asked
Madri to meditate once on some deity. 
Then, after deliberation and alone, Madri meditated on the Ashwins. 
    तावागम्य सुतौ तस्यां जनयामासतुर्यमौ।
    नकुलं सहदेवं च रूपेणाप्रतिमौ भुवि
    
They two appeared and begot on her twin-sons Nakula and Sahadeva, unequalled in
the world in beauty.
    तथैव तावपि बभौ वागुवाचाशरीरिणी}
    सत्त्वरूपगुणोपेतौ भवतोऽत्यश्विनाविति॥
In the same manner (as
before), an incorporeal voice told of those twins also:  “ These two, endowed with qualities of
strength and beauty, surpass the Ashwins”
    ततस्तु वृष्णयस्सर्वं वसुदेवपुरोगमाः।
    पाण्डोः पुत्रागमं श्रुत्वा सर्वे
हर्षसमन्विताः ॥
Then,
the Vrishnis, headed by Vasudeva, rejoiced on hearng of the birth of sons to
Pandu.
    ते च पञ्चशतं चैव कुरुवंशविवर्धनाः।
    सर्वे ववृधिरेऽल्पेन कालेनाप्स्विव
पङ्कजाः ॥
These
five and the hundred scions of the Kuru house grew up in a short time, like
lotuses on the waters.       
  

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