LESSON  13
Carefully read the following sentences in the past
   अहं स्तोत्रं अलिखम्     =  I wrote
the hymn
   त्वं स्तोत्रं अलिखः     
=  You wrote the hymn
   सः स्तोत्रं अलिखत्    
=  He wrote the hymn
Recall the past
tense forms of the root ‘लिख्’  given
                             Singular     Dual        Plural
लिख्  to write (1.P) 3rd person  अलिखत्   अलिखताम्    अलिखन्
                    2nd person अलिखः    अलिखतम्    अलिखत
                    1st  person अलिखम्    अलिखाव    अलोखाम
 Now read the following:  
   मया स्तोत्रं लिखितं   
=  The hymn was written by me
   त्वया स्तोत्रं लिखितं   =  The hymn
was written by you
   तेन  स्तोत्रं लिखितं   =   The hymn was written by him
The first set of sentences are in active voice,  the verb is in the past tense.  The second set of sentences (which resembles
passive voice in English)  convey the
same meaning but here the verb (आसीत् which corresponds to ‘स्तोत्रम्’ which is third person, singular) is
implied not explicit.  Also ‘लिखितं’  corresponds to ‘स्तोत्रम्’ and therefore is the same  in all the sentences.   However this will change to ‘लिखिता’  and ‘लिखितः’  as in the
following sentences where the object is of the feminine and masculine gender
   मया कविता लिखिता 
=  The poem was written by me ’
   त्वया कविता लिखिता = 
The poem was written by you
   तेन  कविता लिखिता   =  The
poem was written by him
   मया लेखःलिखितः 
=  The essay was written by me ’
   त्वया लेखःलिखितः = 
The essay was written by you
   तेन  लेखःलिखितः =  The essay was written by him
Here are some
examples of roots when used in passive voice in the three genders (person (first,
second or third) is not relevant here)
                Masculine   Feminine    
अर्च् to worship    अर्चितः      अर्चिता       अर्चितम्
अर्ज्   to earn    
अर्जितः      अर्जिता      अर्जितम्
ईक्ष्    to see    
ईक्षितः       ईक्षिता       ईक्षितम्
निन्द्  to abuse  
निन्दितः     निन्दिता      निन्दितम्    
पठ्   to
read      पठितः     
पठिता        पठितम्  
दण्ड्  to punish   
दण्डितः      दण्डिता      दण्डितम्
पूज्  to worship  
पूजितः       पूजिता       पूजितम्
भक्ष्  to eat    
  भक्षितः      भक्षिता       भक्षितम्
भूष  to adorn    
भूषितः       भूषिता       भूषितम्
आक्रम्  to invade आक्रान्त:    आक्रान्ता      अक्रान्तम्
क्षम्  to bear      
क्षान्तः      क्षान्ता       क्षान्तम्
कृ     to do        कृतः       कृता         कृतम्
छिद्   to cut      
छिन्नः      छिन्ना       छिन्नम्
भिद् to differen-
    Tiate          भिन्नः     
भिन्ना        भिन्नम्          


Convert a few more roots of verbs as given in the above examples to express
past tense.    

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