वैराग्यप्रकरणम्-प्रथमः सर्गः
           (देवदूतद्वारा मोक्षोपायवर्णनम् )
यतः सर्वाणि भूतानि प्रतिभान्ति स्थितानि च
यत्रैवोपशमं यान्ति तस्मै सत्यात्मने नमः ॥१॥
ज्ञाता ज्ञानं तथा ज्ञेयं द्रष्टा दर्शनदृश्यभूः
कर्ता हेतुः क्रिया यस्मात्तस्मै ज्ञप्त्यात्मने नमः ॥२॥
स्फुरन्ति शीकरा यस्य आनन्दस्याऽम्बरेऽवनौ
सर्वेषां जीवनं तस्मै ब्रह्मानन्दात्मने नमः ॥३ ॥
Salutation to that Eternal Truth from which all these
living beings appear, in whom all these reside and in whom they finally find
quiescence. Salutations to that Brahman of the form of absolute pure Knowledge
who is the Knower, the Knowledge and the process of Knowing. Salutations to
that Brahman of the nature of Absolute Bliss
droplets from which pervade the sky and the earth and
infuse life into all beings
सुतीक्ष्णो ब्राह्मणः कश्चित् संशयाकृष्टमानसः
अगस्तेराश्रमं गत्वा मुनिं पप्रच्छ सादरम् ॥४॥
भगवन् धर्मतत्त्वज्ञ सर्वशास्त्रविनिश्चित
संशयोऽस्ति महानेकस्त्वमेतं कृपया वद ॥५।
मोक्षस्य कारणं कर्म ज्ञानं वा मोक्षसाधनं
उभयं वा विनिश्चित्य एकं कथय कारणम् ॥६॥
उभाभ्यामेव पक्षाभ्यां यथा खे पक्षिणां गतिः
तथैव ज्ञानकर्माभ्यां जायते परमं पदम् ॥७॥
केवलात् कर्मणा ज्ञानात् नहि मोक्षोऽभिजायते
किन्तूभाभ्यां भवेन्मोक्षः साधनं उभयं विदुः ॥८॥
A brahmin  by
name Sutikshna, assailed by doubts, went to the hermit of Agastya Rishi and reverentially
asked the saint ”O Revered One! you know the very essence of dharma and
you have rightly understood the all the sastras. I have a very great
doubt.  Kindly clear my doubt by your
words. Which is the cause of moksha (liberation) (1)- Karma(Action),
Knowledge or both (Karma and Knowledge)?” 
Saint Agastya says –“Knowledge coupled with Action leads to liberation
just as birds fly in the sky with the help of both of their two wings (not with
one wing alone)”.  Liberation cannot be
attained either by (selfless) Action alone or Knowledge alone.  But it can be attained by (selfless) Action
and Knowledge taken together.  Both these
are instruments for liberation.
अस्मिन्नर्थे पुरावृत्तमितिहासं वदामि ते
कारुण्याख्यः पुरा कश्चिद्ब्राह्मणोऽधीतवेदकः ॥९॥
अग्निवेश्यस्य पुत्रोऽभूत् वेदवेदांगपारगः
गुरोरधीतविद्यः सन्नाजगाम गृहं प्रति ॥१०॥
अनित्यकर्मकृत्तूष्णीं संशयानो गृहे सदा
अग्निवेश्यो विलोक्याऽथ पुत्रं कर्मविवर्जितं ॥११।
प्राह एतद्वचो निन्द्य गुरुः पुत्रं हिताय च
किमेतत् पुत्र कुरुषे पालनं न स्वकर्मणः ॥१२ ॥
अकर्मनिरतः सिद्धिं कथं प्राप्स्यसि तद्वद
कर्मणोऽस्मान्निवृत्तः किं कारणं तन्निवेद्यताम्॥१३॥
यावज्जीवमग्निहोत्रं नित्यं संध्यामुपासयेत्
प्रवृत्तिरूपो धर्मोऽयं श्रुत्या स्मृत्या च चोदितः॥१४॥
In this connection I shall relate to you an old story
about a brahmin named Karunya. He was the son of Agnivesha and after attaining
proficiency in the Vedas and Vedangas,  he returned home but continued to spend time
lazily not doing his prescribed daily karmas.. His father scolded him
and advised “ My son, why are you not performing those daily karmas
ordained in the Vedas for a brahmin.  How
will a person attain his goal if he does not perform the daily rites prescribed
for him? Please tell me why you have turned away from your prescribed karmas
like agnihotra, sandhyopasana  etc. prescribed by the Vedas and the dharma
न धनेन भवेन्मोक्षः कर्मणा प्रजया न वा
त्यागमात्रेण किन्त्वेके यतयोऽश्नन्तिचाऽमृतम् ॥१५॥
इति श्रुत्योर्द्वयोर्मध्ये किं कर्तव्यं मया गुरो
इति सन्दिग्धतां गत्वा तूष्णीं भूतोऽस्मि कर्मणा ॥१६॥
इत्युक्त्वा तात विप्रोऽसौ कारुण्यो मौनमागतः
तथा विप्र सुतं दृष्ट्वा पुनः प्राह गुरुः सुतं ॥१७॥
(Karunya says in reply) “ Sruti also says that
liberation cannot be attained  by
material possessions, by karma (actions) or by progeny. It is by tyaga
(sacrifice, giving up everything) alone that saints attain liberation and
become immortal.  Thus Sruti (Vedas)
prescribes both karma as well as tyaga.  I am assailed by doubts of which of the two I
should follow.  This is the reason for my
I am spending time quietly without doing anything.”  So saying Karunya became silent.  Then the Guru (father) told the son
again (as follows):
शृणु पुत्र कथामेकां तदर्थं हृदयेऽखिलं
मत्तोऽवधार्य पुत्र त्वं यथेच्छसि तथा कुरु ॥१८॥
सुरुचिर्नाम काचित् स्त्री अप्सरोगण उत्तमा
उपविष्टा हिमवतः शिखरे शिखिसंवृते ॥१९॥
स्वर्धुन्योघेन संस्पृष्टे महाघौघविनाशिना
रमन्ते कामसन्तप्ताः किन्नर्यो यत्र किन्नरैः  ॥२०॥
दूतमिन्द्रस्य गच्छन्तं अन्तरिक्षे ददर्श सा
तमुवाच महाभागा सुरुचिश्चाऽप्सरोवरा ॥२१॥
देवदूत महाभाग कुत आगम्यते त्वया
अधुना कुत्र गन्ताऽसि तत्सर्वं कृपया वद ॥२२॥
Agnivesha says “Son!, hear from me a story and
understand its import in your heart. Afterwards you can do whatever you
want.  Suruchi, the best among apsara
women, was seated on a peak of the Himavan surrounded by peacocks and washed by
the waves of the celestial Ganga which washes away all the sins and where
passionate kinnara damsels are engaged in love sport with kinnaras.  Suruchi, the best among apsaras,  saw a messenger of Indra flying overhead and
asked him  “ O Fortunate messenger of
Indra! Please tell me from where you are coming and to which place you are
साधु पृष्टं त्वया सुभ्रु यथावत् कथयामि ते
अरिष्टनेमी रजर्षिर्दत्वा राज्यं सुताय वै ॥२३॥
वीतरागः स धर्मात्मा निर्ययौ तपसे वनं
तपश्चरत्यसौ राजा पर्वते गन्धमादने ॥२४॥
कार्यं कृत्वा मया तत्र तत्त आगम्यतेऽधुना
गन्तास्मि पार्श्वे शक्रस्य तं वृत्तन्तं निवेदितुम् ॥२५॥
वृत्तान्तः कोऽभवत्तत्र कथयस्व मम प्रभो
प्रष्टुकामा विनीताऽस्मि नोद्वेगं कर्तुमर्हसि  ॥२६॥
(The messenger of Indra said) “One with pretty
eye-brows! It is good you have asked me; I will tell you what happened.  Rajarshi Arishtanemi entrusted the
kingdom to his son and, devoid of any desire for the pleasures of the senses,
went to the forest for doing penance. The king is doing penance in the
Gandhamadana mountain. Having finished my work there I am coming from there
now.  I am going to report what happened
there to Devendra.  Suruchi asks
the messenger “ Please tell me what happened there.  I want to ask you in all humility. Please do
not be disturbed.”  
शृणु भद्रे यथावृत्तं विस्तरेण वदामि ते
तस्मिन् राज्ञि वने तत्र तपश्चरति दुस्तरम् ॥२७॥
इत्यहं देवराजेन सुभ्रूराज्ञापितस्तदा 
दूतस्त्वं तत्र गच्छाशु गृहीत्वेदं विमानकं ॥२८॥
अप्सरोगणसंयुक्तं नानावादित्रशोभितं
गन्धर्वसिधयक्षैश्च किन्नराद्यैश्च शोभितम् ॥२९॥
तालवेणुमृदंगादि शोभिते गन्धमादने
नानावृक्षसमाकीर्णे गत्वा तस्मिन् गिरौ शुभे ॥३०॥
अरिष्टनेमिं राजानं दूताऽऽरोप्य विमानके
आनय स्वर्गं भोगाय नगरीममरावतीम् ॥३१॥
“O Auspicious One! hear what I say in detail about the
happenings there. When the king was engaged in penance in the forest,  I was ordered by Indra thus: “O messenger!
Take this airplane and go without delay to Gandhamadana  which is inhabited by hordes of apsaras,  gandharvas, siddhas, yakshas and
kinnaras,  where sweet music from different
types of musical instruments pervades and which is full of different types of
trees and plants.”
इत्याज्ञां प्राप्य शक्रस्य  गृहीत्वा
सर्वोपस्करसंयुक्तं तस्मिन्नद्रावहं ययौ ॥३२॥
आगत्य पर्वते तस्मिन् राज्ञो गत्वाऽऽश्रमं मया
निवेदिता महेन्द्रस्य सर्वाज्ञाऽरिष्टनेमये ॥३३॥
इति मद्वचनं श्रुत्वा संशयानोऽवदच्छुभे
प्रष्टुमिच्छामि दूत त्वां तन्मे त्वं वक्तुमर्हसि ॥३४॥
गुणा दोषाश्च के तत्र स्वर्गे वद ममाग्रतः
ज्ञात्वा स्थितिं तु तत्रत्यां करिष्येऽहं यथारुचि ॥३५॥
ordered by Indra, I took that well-furnished airplane and went to the
hermitage of the Rajarshi in the mountain and conveyed to him whatever
was ordered by Indra.  Having
heard my words he said,  with a hint of
doubt in his words “O messenger! I want to ask you something which you should
answer. Tell me what are the good things in heaven and what are bad.  After knowing the state of affairs there I
will act according to my liking.”
स्वर्गे पुण्यस्य सामग्र्या भुज्यते परमं सुखं
उत्तमेन तु पुण्येन प्राप्नोति स्वर्गमुत्तमं  ॥३६॥
मध्यमेन तथा मध्यः स्वर्गो भवति नाऽन्यथा
कनिष्ठेन तु पुण्येन स्वर्गो भवति तादृशः ॥३७॥
परोत्कर्षासहिष्णुत्वं स्पर्धा  चैव
समैश्च तैः
कनिष्ठेषु च सन्तोषो यावत् पुण्यक्षयो भवेत् ॥३८॥
क्षीणे पुण्ये विशन्त्येतं मर्त्यलोकं च मानवाः
इत्यादिगुणदोषाश्च स्वर्गे राजन्नवस्थिताः ॥३९॥
The messenger replies “ In Heaven one enjoys the
greatest of pleasures as reward for punya (meritorious deeds).  For the best punya one enjoys the best
of pleasures, medium punya begets medium joys and  the least of punya is rewarded with
only commensurate levels of pleasures.  The denizens of heaven are envious of those
who are above themselves in terms pleasures and comforts.  Similarly there is rivalry and competition
among equals. And there is satisfaction in some on seeing that they are better
off than those who are less fortunate than themselves.  This continues until the stock of punya is
exhausted when they take birth again in the world of humans.  This is what is good and bad in heaven”. 
इति श्रुत्वा वचो भद्रे स राजा प्रत्यभाषत
नेच्छामि देवदूताऽहं स्वर्गमीदृग्विधं फलं ॥४०॥
अतः परं महोग्रं च तपः कृत्वा कलेवरं
त्यक्ष्यामहमशुद्धं हि जीर्णां त्वचमिवोरगः ॥४१॥
देवदूत विमानेदं गृहीत्वा त्वं यथाऽऽगतः
तथा गच्छ महेन्द्रस्य सन्निधौ त्वं नमोऽस्तु ते ॥४२॥
इत्युक्तोऽहं गतो भद्रे शक्रस्याऽग्रे निवेदितुं
यथावृत्तं नेवेद्याऽथ महदाश्चर्यतां गतः ॥४३॥  
Having heard the words of the messenger the king
replied  “I do not want a heaven which
gives this kind of fruits (pleasures). I shall do more intense penance and
leave this body just as a snake discards its decayed outer skin. O messenger of
Indra! You take this airplane and go back to Indra the same way you came here;
salutations to you.”
पुनः प्राह महेन्द्रो मां श्लक्ष्णं मधुरया गिरा
दूत गच्छ पुनस्तत्र तं राजानं नयाऽऽश्रमं ॥ ४४॥
वाल्मीकेर्ज्ञातत्त्वस्य स्वबोधार्थं विरागिणं
सन्देशं मम वाल्मीकेर्महर्षेस्त्वं निवेदय  ॥४५॥
महर्षे त्वं विनीताय राज्ञेऽस्मै वीतरागिणे
न स्वर्गमिच्छते तत्त्वं प्रबोधय  महामुने
तेन संसारदु:खार्तो मोक्षमेष्यति च क्रमात्
इत्युक्त्वा देवराजेन प्रेषितोऽहं तदन्तिके ॥४७॥
Messenger of Indra says 
“Devendra then told me in soft and sweet words O messenger! You go back
and take this king to the hermitage of Valmiki who has known the Highest Truth
so that the former is enlightened about his own Self.  You convey my message “O Maharshi Valmiki ! impart
to this king,  who is full of humility
and devoid of desires, the knowledge of Tattwa,  the Ultimate Reality.”    
मयाऽऽगत्य पुनस्तत्र संज्ञा वल्मीकजन्मने
निवेदितो महेन्द्रस्य राज्ञा मोक्षस्य साधनम् ॥४८॥
ततो वल्मीकजन्माऽसौ राजानं समपृच्छत
अनामयमतिप्रीत्या कुशलप्रश्नवार्तया ॥४९॥
भगवन् धर्मतत्वज्ञ ज्ञातज्ञेय विदांवर
कृतार्थोऽहं भवद्दृष्ट्या तदेव कुशलं मम ॥५०॥
भगवन् प्रष्टुमिच्छामि तदविघ्नेन मे वद
संसारबन्धदु:खार्तिं कथं मुञ्चामि तद्वद  ॥५१॥
I then went to back and took the King to Maharshi
Valmiki and delivered the message of Indra. 
The king asked Valmiki about the means of attaining moksha or
liberation.  The Maharshi affectionately enquired
about the welfare of the King. In reply the king said “O Bhagavan ! you
know about all the dharmas.  You are
foremost among those who have known all that is to be known. My life has been
fulfilled by seeing you and that itself is my welfare. I want to ask you how I
can get rid of the sorrows and miseries arising out of bondage in this samsara.”
शृणु राजन् प्रवक्ष्यामि रामायणमखण्डितं
श्रुत्वाऽवधार्य यत्नेन जीवन्मुक्तो भविष्यसि ॥५२॥
वसिष्ठरामसंवादं  मोक्षोपायकथां
ज्ञातस्वभावो राजेन्द्र वदामि श्रूयतां बुध ॥५३॥
को रामः कीदृशः कस्य बद्धो वा मुक्त एव वा
एतन्मे निश्चितं ब्रूहि ज्ञानं तत्त्वविदां वर ॥५४॥
Maharshi “O King! hear from me the complete story of
Rama and ponder over its meaning with diligence.  You will become a jeevanmukta, a
liberated soul while still in the embodied state. Since I know your innate
tendencies and tastes which are auspicious and since you are wise I shall
relate to you Ramayana in the form of a discourse between Vasishtha and Rama
regarding the means of attaining moksha, liberation.  The Kings asks the Rishi “ Who is this Rama?  What kind of a person is he?  To whom we can relate him? Whether he is
bound to this samsara or is he a liberated soul? O the best among the
knowers of Brahman (Ultimate Reality)!Kindly enlighten me on these questions.”
शापव्याजवशादेव रजवेषधरो हरिः
आहृताज्ञानसंपन्नः किञ्चित्ज्ञोसावभूत्प्रभुः ॥५५॥
चिदानन्दस्वरूपे हि रामे चैतन्यविग्रहे
शापस्य कारणं ब्रूहि कः शप्ता चेति मे वद ॥५६॥
सनत्कुमारो निष्काम अवसद् ब्रह्मसद्मनि
वैकुण्ठादागतो विष्णुस्त्रैलोक्याधिपतिः प्रभुः ॥५७॥
ब्रह्मणा पूजितस्तत्र सत्यलोकनिवासिभिः
विना कुमारं तद्दृष्ट्वा ह्युवाच प्रभुरीशरः ॥५८॥
सनत्कुमार स्तब्धोऽसि निष्कामो गर्वचेष्टया
अतस्त्वं भव कामार्तः शरजन्मेति नामतः   ॥५९॥
तेनाऽपि शपितो विष्णुः सर्वज्ञत्वं तवास्ति यत्
किञ्चित्काल इदं त्यक्त्वा त्वमज्ञानी भविष्यसि ॥६०॥
Maharshi tells the king that Hari (Mahavishnu), on the
pretext of making true the curses (of his devotees), incarnated in human form
as Rama, and though omniscient, took on the role of one with diminished
knowledge.  The King asks the Maharshi
the reason for the curse on Rama who is of the nature of Absolute Pure
Knowledge (Consciousness). Maharshi replies “Once Vishnu visited Satyaloka, the
abode of Brahma. He was worshipped by Brahma and others of Satyaloka. But Sanatkumara,
who had conquered all his desires and lived in the house of Brahma did not
participate in honouring Vishnu. Mahavishnu cursed him for his supercilious
conduct saying that he would become passionately in love as sarajanma by name. Sanatkumara
also cursed Vishnu, though omniscient, would for some time become one with
limited Knowledge.   
भृगुर्भार्यां हतां दृष्ट्वा ह्युवाच क्रोधमूर्च्छितः
विष्णो युवाऽपि भार्याया वियोगो हि भविष्यति ॥६१॥
वृन्दया शपितो विष्णुः छलनं कृतवत्यया
अतस्त्वं स्त्रीवियोगं तु वचनान्मम यास्यसि ॥६२॥
भार्या हि देवदत्तस्य पयोष्णीतीरसंस्थिता
नृसिंहवेषधृग्विष्णुं दृष्ट्वा पंचत्वमागता ॥६३॥
तेन शप्तो हि नृहरिर्दुखार्तः स्त्रीवियोगतः
तवाऽपि भार्यया सार्धं वियोगो हि भविष्यति ॥६४॥
भृगुणैवं कुमारेण शापितो देवशर्मणा
वृन्दया शापितो विष्णुस्तेन मानुष्यतां गतः ॥६५॥
एतत्ते कथितं सर्वं शापव्याजस्यकारणं
इदानीं वच्मि तत्सर्वं सावधानमतिः शृणु॥ ६६॥

“Once the wife of maharshi Bhrigu was killed by
vishnu’s chakra. Bhrigu cursed Vishnu saying that the latter would also experience,
for some time,  the pain of separation
from his wife (Sita in his incarnation as Rama). Vrinda, duped by Vishnu, also
cursed the latter that he would suffer separation from his wife.  Wife of Devadatta, on the banks of Payoshni,
was frightened to death by the sight of Nrisimha incarnation of Vishnu.
Devadutta likewise cursed Vishnu to suffer separation from wife.  Because of all these curses of Bhrigu,
Sanatkumara, Devasharma, Vrinda etc Vishnu had to take birth in the world of
humans. I have explained to you the reasons why the pretext of curse(
शापव्याज) arose.  I will
now explain to you everything in detail. 
Hear me with full concentration of your mind. 


              योगवासिष्ठम्-वैराग्यप्रकरणम् – सर्गः २३
In these verses selected from the Vairagrya
of Yogavasishtham Rama speaks to Viswamitra and other
sages about Kala (Time, Death)
नीतः संसारकुहरे भ्रमः ॥१॥
In this sea
of samsara, people of little intelligence, with their doubts,
imagination and meaningless talk,  have
created  differences leading to increased
confusion and delusion among people.   
सतां कथमिवाऽऽस्थेह
जायते जालपञ्जरे
बाला एवाऽत्तुमिच्छन्ति
फलं मुकुरबिंबितम् ॥२॥
How can good and noble people
have interest in this cage of nets ? Only children will want to eat the fruits
reflected in a mirror.
न तदस्तीह यदयं
कालः सकलभक्षकः
ग्रसते तज्जगज्जातं
प्रोत्थाब्धिमिव बाडवः ॥३॥
kala (Time) is
the eater of all beings born in this world like the       badavagni drinking up the ocean
during dissolution. Nothing exists which this Kala does not devour.  . 
भीमः कालो महेश्वरः
सर्वां कबलीकर्तुमुद्यतः ॥४॥
Time is the
overlord,  is terrible and is common for
everyone (i.e. does not spare any one). 
It is bent upon devouring all this which is perceived (by the senses)
महतामपि नो देवः
प्रतिपालयति क्षणम्
कालः कबलितानन्तविश्वो
विश्वात्मतां गतः ॥५॥
Kala does not wait for a
minute even for great and noble men.  It
eats up the whole of these endless worlds pervading them.
किञ्चित्प्रकटतां गतः
सर्वमाक्रम्य तिष्ठति ॥६॥
This Kala manifests itself by
such names as yuga, samvatsara and kalpa though he is  unmanifest. He pervades everything and   eats them up   .
ये रम्या ये शुभारंभा
सुमेरुगुरवोऽपि ये
कालेन विनिगीर्णास्ते
गरुडेनेव पन्नगाः ॥७॥
All these beautiful and
auspicious things, even those as heavy as Sumeru mountain, are devoured by Kala
(Time) as serpents by Garuda.
निर्दयः कठिनः
क्रूरः कर्कशः कृपणोऽधमः
न तदस्ति यदद्याऽपि
न कालो निगिरयत्ययम् ॥८॥
Whether a person is pitiless,
hard-hearted, cruel, abrasive, stingy or mean, there is nothing which is not
eaten up by Kala.  
कालः कबलनैकान्तमतिरत्ति
अनन्तैरपि लोकोघैर्नाऽयं
तृप्तो महाशनः ॥९॥
Kala,  whose heart is ever on eating (destroying), is
such a great eater that it  is not
satisfied even after gulping down countless worlds
हरत्ययं नाशयति
करोत्यत्ति निहन्ति च
कालः संसारनृत्तं
हि नानारूपो यथा नटः ॥१०॥
Kala, like an
actor doing many roles, takes on many forms in this cosmic dance taking away,
destroying, doing, eating and killing. .
प्रकटयन् सहसैव
च गोपयन्
विलसतीह हि कालबलं
नृषु ॥११॥
Kala shows its
power on men taking on different forms, 
with limbs or without limbs, pretty or ugly, manifest or concealed.   


                 जराजुगुप्सा वर्णनम्
In these verses selected from the Vairagrya Prakarana of Yogavasishtham
Ra ma speaks to Viswamitra and other sages about graying and old age. 
अपर्याप्तं हि बालत्वं बलात् पिबति यौवनम्
यौवनं च जरा पश्चात् पश्य कर्कशतां मिथः ॥१॥
Man is unable to do anything in childhood, youth saps
the energy of the young person and then aging, the most difficult period, takes
हिमाशनिरिवाऽम्भोजं वात्येव शरदंबुदम्
देहं जरा नाशयति नदी तीरतरुं यथा ॥२॥
Just like snowfall destroys lotuses, wind scatters the
autumn clouds and river fells trees on its banks, so too old age weakens  the body.
जर्जरीकृतसर्वांगो जरा जरठरूपिणी
विरूपतां नयत्याशु देहं विषलवो यथा ॥३॥
Old age wears away all the limbs and makes the body ugly to look at
as a drop of poison would do. 
शिथिलोदीर्णसर्वांगं जराजीर्णकलेवरम्
समं पश्यन्ति कामिन्यः पुरुषं करभं यथा ॥४॥
An aged person whose limbs have become loose and body has become
worn out is looked at by women in the same way they look at a donkey.  
दासाः पुत्राः स्त्रियश्चैव बांधवाः सुहृदस्तथा
हसन्त्युन्मत्तकमिव नरं वार्धककंपितम् ॥५॥
A man who is shaken by old age is laughed at by servants, sons,
women, relations and friends as if he were out of his senses.
दुष्प्रेक्ष्यं जरठं दीनं हीनं गुणपराक्रमैः
गृध्रो वृक्षमिवाऽदीर्घं सर्वो ह्यभ्येति वृद्धकम् ॥६॥
An aged person is not good-looking, is worn out, miserable and
devoid of good qualities and valour.  He
is approached by every one with contempt like an eagle looking at a short tree.
दैन्यदोषमयी दीर्घा हृदि दाहप्रदायिनी
सर्वापदामेकसखी वार्धके वर्धते स्पृहा ॥७॥
Old age is full of misery and shortcomings, long,  burns one’s 
heart and is the cause all types of accidents and mishaps. Old age also
brings with it increased desire for worldly pleasures.
कर्तव्यं किम् मया कष्टं परलोकेऽतिदारुणम्
अप्रतीकारयोग्यं हि वर्द्धते वार्द्धके भयम् ॥८॥
The man who is old is worried ” what can I do about the other
world?”   The fear about the other world which is
imagined as terrible and which cannot be countered increases during old
age.  .
कोऽहं वराकः किमिव करोमि कथमेव च
तिष्ठामि मौनमेवेति दीनो सीदति वार्द्धके ॥९॥
“Who am I, powerless creature? 
What shall I do? How shall I do it? I shall remain quiet only” – thus
worries the person in old age.  
वृद्धोऽभ्युपैति सोल्लासमुपभोक्तुं न शक्यते
हृदयं दह्यते नूनं शक्तिदौस्थ्येन वार्द्धके ॥१०॥
The old man approaches with enthusiasm objects of
enjoyment but he is unable to enjoy them. His heart burns at the thought of his
lack of strength for any sort of enjoyment.  
जराजीर्णबकी यावत् कायक्लेशापकारिणी
रौति रोगोरगाकीर्णा कायद्रुम शिरः स्थिता ॥११॥
The female crane of old age cries aloud seated atop the tree of the
body surrounded by serpents of diseases giving lot of pain to the body.  
तावदागत एवाऽशु कुतोऽपि परिदृश्यते
घनान्धतिमिराकांक्षी मुने मरणकौशिकः ॥१२॥
O Sage! by this time is seen coming the owl of Death which is fond
of dense darkness.
परिपक्वं समालोक्य जरा क्षारमिव धूसरम्
शिरः कूष्माण्डकं भुङ्क्ते कालोऽयमखिलेश्वरः ॥१३॥
Death,  master of
everyone, eats up the aged person’s head which has turned white like ash and
looks like a fully ripe white pumpkin.
न जिता शत्रुभिः संख्ये प्रविष्टा येऽद्रिकोटरे
ते जराजीर्णराक्षस्या पश्याऽऽशु विजिता मुने ॥१४॥
O Sage! This demon of aging scores victory over even those who are
not beaten in a fight or who have escaped into the safety of a mountain cave.
अभावोऽग्रेसरी यत्र जरा जयति जन्तुषु
कस्तत्रेह समाश्वासो मम मन्दमतेर्मुने ॥१५॥
Old age scores victory over beings by  first snatching every thing of a person ( his
strength, peace of mind, happiness etc). O Sage! How can I, dull headed as I
am,  rely on this old age?  
किं तेन दुर्जीवितदुर्ग्रहेण
जरागतेनाऽपि हि जीव्यते यत्
जरा जगत्यामजिता समेत्य
सर्वैषणास्तात तिरस्करोति ॥१६॥
What is the use of wanting to live a life overtaken by aging and
full of miseries?  The invincible old age
inevitably comes into life and negates all desires of man


                                    YOGA VAASISHTHAM
is such a great, glorious and extraordinary text that anybody who comes
under its influence will undergo a metamorphosis which will make his life
supremely joyous and blissful.  It deals
essentially with Jnaana, spiritual knowledge.  Three paths to realisation of the Ultimate
Reality,  Karma Yoga ( path of selfless
action),  Bhakti Yoga (path of devotion)  and  Jnana
Yoga (path of knowledge) are generally recognised.   The
emphasis in Yoga Vaishtha  is  on Jnaana 
aided by  selfless action without
the sense of doer-ship as a means to purifying  the mind, an essential pre-requisite on the
spiritual path.   The word ‘Yoga’ in Yoga
Vasishtha  is used in the  generic sense of spiritual practices.  ‘Vaasishtham’ means originating from sage
Vasishtha who imparts this knowledge to youthful Rama  who had developed extreme aversion to all
worldly duties and things after  pondering over their futility and
The Authorship of this work is ascribed to Maharshi
Valmiki,  the Aadi Kavi (the very first
poet), who wrote Ramayana.  While the
Ramayana  has captured the heart of the
masses not many are familiar with Yoga Vaasishtha  except 
a few who are treading the spiritual path adopting the Path of
The work consists of six Sections or
Prakaranas.  They are :
Vairagya Prakarna  on indifference to worldly things.
Mumukshu Prakarana on longing after Realisation
Utpatti Prakarana on Origin
Sthiti Prakarana  on Sustenance
Upasama Prkarana on Quiescence
Nirvana on the ultimate divine merger
The following selection of verses is from Nirvana
Prakarana on   Sapta Bhoomikas,  the seven stages which all spiritual aspirants
on the path of Self-Realisation have to pass through.   
                SAPTA BHOOMIKA
Rama to Maharshi Vasishtha:
सप्तानां योगभूमीनामभ्यासः क्रियते कथम्।
कीदृशानि च चिह्नानि भूमिकां प्रति योगिनः ॥१॥
What are the means by which the seven jnaana (spiritual
knowledge) stages can be practised? What are the characteristics of the Jnaana
 when they reach the different
Vasishtha replies:
प्रवृत्तश्च निवृत्तश्च भवति द्विविधः पुमान्।
स्वर्गापवर्गोन्मुखयोः शृणु लक्षणमेतयोः॥२॥
There are two types of people– those who are after
material enjoyments, Pravrtta; and those who are after the spiritual
goal, Nivrtta. Hear (from me) the characteristics of those two types of aspirants
(those desiring sense-enjoyments and those desiring Moksha).
कियत्तन्नाम निर्वाणं वरं संसृतिरेव मे।
इति निर्णिय कर्ता यः स प्रवृत्त उदाहृतः ॥३॥
What is this Nirvana after all? Samsara is
better for me; a person who acts with this conviction is termed a Pravrtta  by the sages.
अनेकजन्मनामन्ते विवेकी जायते पुमान् ॥४॥
Like a tortoise thrusting out his neck through a hole
in a rock in the ocean, a Pravrtta, after several rebirths, develops
असारा बत संसारव्यवस्थालं ममैतया।
किं कर्मभिः पर्युषितैर्दिनं  तैरेव नीयते ॥५॥
There is no substance in
the activities of this mundane world, samsara. Enough of this for
me.  Of what avail are these routine
actions which occupy one’s time day in and day out?
क्रियातिशयनिर्मुक्तं किं स्याद्विश्रमणं
इति निश्चयवान्योन्तः स निवृत्त
इति स्मृतः ॥६॥
“When shall I have
supreme peace relieved of these multifarious activities?” .  When a person comes to this inner conviction,
he is said to be a Nivrtta.
कथं विरागवान् भूत्वा संसाराब्धिं
तराम्यहम् ।
एवं विचारणपरो यदा भवति सन्मतिः॥७॥
“How am I to develop an
unattached attitude and cross this ocean of Samsara?”
By this ceaseless enquiry
the Nivrtta becomes pure in heart.
क्रियासूदाररूपासु क्रमते मोदतेऽन्वहम्॥८॥
Day by day he will have
more and more Vairagya, dispassion within, towards the Vasanas
(ingrained tendencies).  Every day he
starts doing more and more good and noble deeds and derives joy from them.
ग्राम्यासु जडचेष्टासु सततं
नोदाहरति मर्माणि पुण्यकर्माणि
सेवते ॥९॥
He will be loathe to
participate in obscene and sensuous activities. He will not  criticize and speak ill of others. He will engage
himself in virtuous and meritorious deeds. 
अनन्योद्वेगकारीणि मृदुकर्माणि
सेवते ।
पापाद्बिभेति सततं न च भोगमपेक्षते
He will engage himself in
such gentle actions as will not cause mental agitation or  physical hurt to others. He will always be
fearful of doing sinful deeds. He will no longer long for sensuous enjoyments.
स्नेहप्रणयगर्भाणि पेशलान्युचितानि
देशकालोपपन्नानि वचनान्यभिभाषते।
तदासौ प्रथमामेकां प्राप्तो
भवति भूमिकाम् ॥११॥
His speech will be full
of love and compassion, will have a soft and healing touch, and will be appropriate
for the time and place in which it is spoken.. Such a person, when he conducts
himself thus, is said to have reached the first stage of the Jnaana path.
मनसा कर्मणा वाचा सज्जनानुपसेवते।
यतः कुतश्चिदानीय ज्ञानशास्त्राण्यवेक्षते
In his thoughts, words
and deeds he will have the association of good and noble people.  He will also read precious spiritual books,
somehow getting them from somewhere.
एवं विचारवान्यः स्यात्संसारोत्तरणं
स भूमिकावानित्युक्तः शेषस्त्वार्य
इति स्मृतः ॥१३॥
Such a person, who takes
to the path of vichara (reflection and contemplation), for crossing the
ocean of Samsara, is called a Bhoomikaavaan,  one who has stepped into the first stage
leading to Mukti which is known as subhechcha (शुभेच्छा), which can be roughly translated
as noble thoughts or auspicious aspirations. Thereafter he is called an Aarya.
विचारनाम्नीमितरामागतो योगभूमिकाम्।
मुख्यया व्याख्यया ख्याताञ्श्रयति
श्रेष्ठपण्डितान् ॥१४॥
Having reached the second
stage in the path of Jnaana, called Vichara (discrimination), he
will approach self-realised souls who have also mastered the Sastras  to get the real and essential interpretation
of the Shruti (Vedas), smruti , sadachara ( right conduct),
dharana (
concentration), dhyaana (meditation) etc.
पदार्थप्रविभागज्ञः कार्याकार्यविनिर्णयम्।
जानात्यधिगतश्रव्यो गृहं गृहपतिर्यथा
Discriminating between
the Real and the Unreal, he will know what actions are to be done and what
not,  like the master of a house
acquainting himself perfectly with the knowledge of his domestic affairs.
बहिरप्यर्थितामीषत्त्यजत्यहिरिव त्वचम् ॥१६॥
Like a serpent discarding
its worn out skin, he will easily cast away arrogance, vanity, quarrelsome
disposition, religious hypocrisy, sensuality with its different expressions,
and dependence on external things for his happiness.
इत्थं भूतमतिः शास्त्रे गुरुसज्जनसेवया।
स रहस्यमशेषेण यथावदधिगच्छति
Thus obtaining a new
awakening by service to the spiritual guru and association with saintly souls,
he will acquire a perfect and complete grasp of the true significance of all
असंसङ्गाभिधामन्यां तृतीयां
ततः पतत्यसौ कान्तः पुष्पशय्यामिवामलाम्
He will glide into the
third stage called Asamsanga, unattached state, even as a newly wed
husband falls on the soft bridal bed.  


                  YOGA VAASISHTHAM
is such a great, glorious and extraordinary text that anybody who comes
under its influence will undergo a metamorphosis which will make his life
supremely joyous and blissful.  It deals
essentially with Jnaana, spiritual knowledge.  Three paths to realisation of the Ultimate
Reality,  Karma Yoga ( path of selfless
action),  Bhakti Yoga (path of
devotion)  and  Jnana Yoga (path of knowldege) are generally
recognised.   The emphasis in Yoga
Vaishtha  is  on Jnaana 
aided by  selfless action without
the sense of doership as a means to purifying 
the mind, an essential pre-requisite on the spiritual path.   The word ‘Yoga’ in Yoga VasishYha  is used in the  generic sense of spiritual practices.  ‘Vaasishtham’ means orignating from sage
Vasishtha who imparts this knowledge to youthful Rama  who had developed extreme aversion to all
worldly duties and things after 
pondering over their futility and evanescence.   
The Authorship of this work is ascribed to Maharshi
Valmiki,  the Aadi Kavi (the very first
poet), who wrote Ramayana.  While the
Ramayana  has captured the heart of the
masses not many are familiar with Yoga Vaasishtha  except 
a few who are treading the spiritual path adopting the Path of
The work consists of six Sections or
Prakaranas.  They are :
Vairagya Prakarna  on indifference to worldly things.
Mumukshu Prakarana on longing after
Utpatti Prakarana on Origin
Sthiti Prakarana  on Sustenance
Upasama Prkarana on Quiescence
Nirvana on the ultimate divine merger
The following selection of verses is from
Nirvana Prakarana on   Sapta
Bhoomikas,  the seven stages which all
spiritual aspirants on the path of Self-Realisation have to pass through.  
                   SAPTA BHOOMIKA
4 TO 7
भूमिकात्रितयाभ्यासादज्ञाने क्षयमागते।
सम्यग्ज्ञानोदये चित्ते पूर्णचन्द्रोदयोपमे ॥५८॥ 
By practising the first
three bhoomikas  subhechcha,
Vicharana and Asamsanga ignorance will completely dissipate.   Then jnaana  will dawn and settle itself firmly in the mind
like the rising of the full moon.
निर्विभागमनाद्यन्ते योगिनो युक्तचेतसः।
समं सर्वं प्रपश्यन्ति चतुर्थीं भूमिकां गता: ॥५९॥
By repeated samadhi,
when they will start seeing the whole manifest phenomena as nothing but the
expression of Brahman, which is indivisible
and without a beginning
or end, they would be entering the fourth Bhoomika.         
अद्वैते स्थैर्यमायाते द्वैते प्रशममागते।
पश्यन्ति स्वप्नवल्लोकं चतुर्थीं भूमिकामिताः ॥६०॥
Those who are established in the fourth Bhoomika will
have perfect Advaita (non-dual) vision. 
The perception of Dvaita (duality) will not be there.  They then see the world as in the dream.
भूमिकात्रितयं जाग्रच्चतुर्थी स्वप्न उच्यते।
चित्तं तु शरदभ्रांशविलायं प्रविलीयते ॥६१॥
The first three bhoomikas  can be classified as coming under jagrat,
wakeful consciousness, while the fourth is similar to the dream.  In the later stage of the fourth bhoomika,
the mind will perish like a cloud in the sarat season, autumnal days.
सत्तावशेष एवास्ते पञ्चमीं भूमिकां गतः।
जगद्विकल्पो नोदेति चित्तस्यात्र विलापनात् ॥६२॥
When the mind remains in the transcendental state
alone, the sadhaka is said to have reached the fifth stage. With the total
dissolution of the mind, the world delusion will not arise in him.
पञ्चमीं भूमिकामेत्य सुषुप्तपदनामिकाम्।
शान्ताशेषविशेषांशस्तिष्ठत्यद्वैतमात्रके ॥६३॥
Having reached the fifth
stage, which can be called sushupti, deep sleep, unmovingly will he
remain established in the blissful state of Advaita experience.  All notions of duality and multiplicity would
completely vanish.  Either awake, or in
Samadhi, the jnaani would ever be in the transcendental
State.  This is the state of Sahaja Samadhi.
मुदितोऽन्तः प्रबोधवान्।
एवास्ते पञ्चमीं भूमिकां गतः ॥६४॥
the fifth stage, he will be free from all the toils and tribulations arising on
account of the feeling of duality.  He
will be always blissful and awakened within. 
As regards the reactions of the mind, such as sukha and dukkha,
 he will be completely oblivious to
them as in deep slumber.
तिष्ठन् बहिर्वृत्तिपरोऽपि सन्।
नित्यं निद्रालुरिव लक्ष्यते ॥६५॥
dwelling by introversion, in the pure consciousness, he will yet be active,
like any other man. He will be always peaceful and appear as though asleep (due
to the mind’s non-reaction and poise).
कुर्वन्नभ्यासमेतस्यां भूमिकायां विवासनः।
षष्ठीं तुर्याभिधामन्यां क्रमात्पतति भूमिकाम् ॥६६॥
When he practises the fifth bhoomika, bereft of
all vasanas, he will gradually fall into the sixth state called Tureeya.
पर प्रयुक्तेन चिरं 
पदार्थाभावनी नाम षष्ठी संजायते गतिः ॥६७॥
jnaani in the sixth bhoomika can be brought down  to the level of body-consciousness only if
other people make efforts.  That state is
one where the material world is seldom cognised, if at all, for short periods,
now and then, as ripples (thoughts) arise on the Pure Consciousness of samadhi.  He may be like a day dreamer, often with eyes
open, but the eyes will not see. There will not be much of external
consciousness in him. Even if he is beaten, he will not be able to recognise
यत्रानासन्नसद्रूपो नाहं नाप्यनहंकृतिः।
केवलं क्षीणमनन आस्ते द्वैतैक्यनिर्गतः ॥६८॥   .  
that state, the jnaani  cannot fix
whether he is embodied or otherwise; he will be without the ‘I’ notion, yet
acting, simply without  thoughts, beyond
the notions of duality and oneness.
निर्ग्रन्थिः शान्तसंदेहो  जीवन्मुक्तो विभावनः ।
अनिर्वाणोऽपि निर्वाणश्चित्रदीप इव स्थितः ॥६९॥
this state, unaffected by the knot of ahamkara and free from all doubts,
he is indeed a  Jeevanmukta (for
the jeevabhava  has gone).
Although he would not have attained Nirvana state – Videha Mukti –  he is all the same having Nirvana  for he does not any more cognise his body. His
body will be like that of lamp in a picture, with just the appearance but with
none of its other features.
अन्तःशून्यो बहिःशून्यः शून्यकुंभ इवाम्बरे।
अन्तः पूर्णो बहिः पूर्णो पूर्णकुंभ इवार्णवे॥७०॥
is empty within and without, like a pot held in the air; he is also full within
 and full without, like a pot immersed in
the ocean.
किंचिदैवेष संपन्नस्त्वथैवैष न किंचन।
षष्ठ्यां भूम्यामसौ स्थित्वा सप्तमीं भूमिमाप्नुयात् ॥७१॥
possesses nothing, yet he possesses everything. Remaining in the sixth stage
for a while, he slips into the seventh Bhoomika.
विदेहमुक्तता तूक्ता सप्तमी योगभूमिका।
अगम्या वचसां शान्ता सा सीमा भवभूमिषु॥७२॥
say that the seventh janaana bhoomikaa is Videha Mukti. It is the
last frontier of the realm of Jnaana
It is pure peace and cannot be explained by the power of speech.  Words cannot describe that state of sublime
quiescence.  That is the ultimate stage –
there is nothing more beyond that.
कैश्चित्सा शिव इत्युक्ता कैश्चित् ब्रह्मेत्युदाहृता।
कैश्चिद्विष्णुरिति प्रोक्ता कैश्चिच्छून्यमितिस्मृता ॥७३॥
अर्थ इत्युदिता कैश्चित्कैश्चित्काल इति स्मृता।
कैश्चित्प्रकृतिपुंभागविभाग इति भाविता ॥७४॥
experiencing that state, some call  it
Siva, some people say it is Para Brahma, some people say it is Vishnu; and yet
some say it is Soonya – Nothingness. 
Some people say it is Pure Energy, some say it is unconditioned Time;
and some say it is Prakruti and Purusha
The Ultimate Reality cannot be explained by words, but still people call
It by different names
अन्यैरप्यन्यथा नानाभेदैरात्मविकल्पितैः।
नित्यमव्यपदेश्यापि कथंचित् व्यपदिश्यते॥७५॥
having this realisation, some start thinking about it in different manners, according
to their capacities.  Although it cannot
be explained by anybody at any time, still they would be trying to explain it
सप्तैता भूमिका प्रोक्ता मया तव रघूद्वह।
आसामभ्यासयोगेन न दुःखमनुभूयते ॥७६॥
Rama, I have explained to you the seven stages for your practice. If you do
this abhyasa, you will surely go beyond misery.   


                                                  YOGA VAASISHTHAM
is such a great, glorious and extraordinary text that anybody who comes
under its influence will undergo a metamorphosis which will make his life
supremely joyous and blissful.  It deals
essentially with Jnaana, spiritual knowledge.  Three paths to realisation of the Ultimate
Reality,  Karma Yoga ( path of selfless
action),  Bhakti Yoga (path of
devotion)  and  Jnana Yoga (path of knowldege) are generally
recognised.   The emphasis in Yoga
Vaishtha  is  on Jnaana 
aided by  selfless action without
the sense of doership as a means to purifying 
the mind, an essential pre-requisite on the spiritual path.   The word ‘Yoga’ in Yoga VasishYha  is used in the  generic sense of spiritual practices.  ‘Vaasishtham’ means orignating from sage
Vasishtha who imparts this knowledge to youthful Rama  who had developed extreme aversion to all
worldly duties and things after 
pondering over their futility and evanescence.   
The Authorship of this work is ascribed to Maharshi
Valmiki,  the Aadi Kavi (the very first
poet), who wrote Ramayana.  While the
Ramayana  has captured the heart of the
masses not many are familiar with Yoga Vaasishtha  except 
a few who are treading the spiritual path adopting the Path of
The work consists of six Sections or
Prakaranas.  They are :
Vairagya Prakarna  on indifference to worldly things.
Mumukshu Prakarana on longing after
Utpatti Prakarana on Origin
Sthiti Prakarana  on Sustenance
Upasama Prkarana on Quiescence
Nirvana on the ultimate divine merger
The following selection of verses is from
Nirvana Prakarana on   Sapta
Bhoomikas,  the seven stages which all
spiritual aspirants on the path of Self-Realisation have to pass through.  
               YOGA VAASISHTHAM
                   SAPTA BHOOMIKA
               Third STAGE
यथावच्छास्त्रवाक्यार्थे मतिमाधाय निश्चलाम्।
शिलाशय्यासनासीनो जरयत्यायुराततम्
The spiritual aspirant will fix his mind on the
ultimate purport of the Sastras and go to Asramas (hermitages) of realised
sages and have discussions with them on Vedanta and the techniques of self-realisation
The sages in the Ashram
will help him get rid of the negative aspects of Samsara and develop Vairagya,
dispassion.  Thus he will be just passing
his time without fear, care and concern, irrespective of whether he is on a
rock or in a nice bed. 
वनावनिविहारेण चित्तोपशमशोभिना।
असङ्गसुखसौख्येन कालं नयति
नीतिमान् ॥२१॥
The sadhaka,
aspirant on the spiritual path, with supreme peace and tranquility reigning in
his mind, will be peacefully spending his time with the unique joy of Asamsanga
whether he be in a city or a forest.
अभ्यासात्साधुशास्त्राणां करणात्पुण्यकर्मणाम्।
जन्तोर्यथावदेवेयं वस्तुदृष्टि
प्रसीदति ॥२२॥
By the study of jnaana
and by doing good deeds, this ‘animal’ called man, will have a
wonderful vision of the Reality, Atman, 
in an easy and natural way.
तृतीयां भूमिकां प्राप्य बुद्धोऽनुभवति
द्विप्रकारमसंसङ्गं तस्य भेदमिमं
शृणु ॥२३॥
Having stepped into the
third bhumika, the aspirant becomes awakened and experiences flashes of
the Self.  Asamsanga is of two
types.  Hear from me the difference
between the two types of Asamsanga.
द्विविधोऽयमसंसङ्गः सामान्यः
श्रेष्ठ एव च।
नाहं भोक्ता न कर्ता च न बाध्यो
न च बाधकः ॥२४॥
प्राक्कर्मनिर्मितं सर्वमीश्वराधीनमेव
सुखं वा यदि दुःखं कैवात्र
मम कर्तृता ॥२५॥
भोगाभोगा महारोगाः संपदः परमापदः।
वियोगायैव संयोगा आधयो व्याधयो धियः ॥२६॥
कालः कवलनोद्युक्तः सर्वभावान्विनाशयन्।
तिष्ठतीति विचारो यः सामान्योऽसावसङ्गमः
Asamsanga (detachment) is of two types.  One is ordinary and the other extra-ordinary,
far superior.  The ordinary type of
detachment consists in the cultivation of ideas such as ‘I am not the enjoyer,
I am not the doer; I am not conditioned, nor do I condition others’.
My joys and sufferings are because of my past Karma.  Everything is done by
Whether I am having sukha (joy, happiness) or dukkha
(sorrow, misery), how can their agency be attributed to me?
All excessive enjoyments
are but fatal diseases.  In reality they
are not enjoyments,  All wealth is but a
source of infinite danger.  All unions
are for separations.  Everything
ultimately brings about mental agony, physical pain and anxieties. 
Kaala, the factor called
“time” is projecting things like a magician. 
Whatever is there in the world as an entity will be destroyed by it,
absorbed back by it.  Those who thus
reflect and develop detachment towards samsara are of the ordinary  type.
अनेन क्रमयोगेन संयोगेन महात्मनाम्।
वियोगेनासतामन्तः प्रयोगेनात्मसंविदाम्
पौरुषेण प्रयत्नेन संतताभ्यासयोगतः।
करामलकवद्वस्तुन्यागते स्फुटतां
दृढम् ॥२९॥
नाहं कर्तेश्वरः कर्ता कर्म
वा प्राक्तनं मम।
कृत्वा दूरतरे नूनमिति शब्दार्थभावनाम्
संसाराम्बुनिधेः पारे सारे
यन्मौनमासनं शान्तं तच्छ्रेष्ठासङ्ग
उच्यते ॥३१॥
By gradual and systematic
practice of this asamsanga and by association with Mahaatmaas  (great and noble souls), all the bad traits
within the mind will vanish    
And, by practising the saadhana
 of the Mahaatmaas one gets
into the closing part of the third bhoomika.
By constant practice of Asamsanga,
using one’s own will power and effort, the
Realisation of Self will
be had as clearly and vividly as an aamalaka(gooseberry), kept in the
“I am not the doer, God
is doing everything.  All happens because
of my past Karma.” Thoughts about the meaning of these phrases will then
definitely be thrown away.
This is then called the
supreme Asamsanga  when one gets
established,  with utter quiet and
peace, in the ultimate cause of the universe which is beyond the ocean of samsaara.
यन्नान्तर्न बहिर्नाधो नोर्ध्वं
नाशासु नाम्बरे।
न पदार्थे नापदार्थे न जडे
न च चेतने ॥३२॥
It is neither within nor
without, neither below nor above, neither in the eight directions nor in the
sky; it is neither in the material objects nor again in Soonya
(emptiness), neither is it in the inert things nor in the conscious mind.
आश्रितं भासनं शान्तमभासनमभावनम्।
अनाद्यन्तमजं कान्तं तच्छ्रेष्ठासङ्ग
That splendorous state is
called the supreme unattached state, which is the ultimate refuge of all
things, by whose power all things are revealed, but which itself cannot be
revealed by anything, which cannot be thought of, which has neither an origin
nor an end and which is supremely peaceful.
संतोषामोदमधुरः सत्कार्यामलपल्लवः।
चित्तनालाग्रसंलग्नो विघ्नकण्टकसंकटः॥३४॥
That state is so sweet,
blissful and satisfying, it is the off-shoot of all virtues and good acts.  It is hiding on the top of the flame called
Chitta.  Realising this state will bring
an end to all troubles, tribulations and obstacles to peace and bliss in life.
विवेकपद्मं रूढोन्तर्विचारार्कविकासितः।
फलं फलत्यसंसङ्गां तृतीयां
The third Bhoomika
or state wil bear the fruit of supreme unattachment when the lotus bud of
Viveka, discrimination, blossoms forth with the sunrise of Vichara, reflection
on life.
समवायाद्विशुद्धानां संचयात्पुण्यकर्मणाम्।
काकतालीययोगेन प्रथमोदेति भूमिका
The first  Bhoomika dawns in the heart through the
conact of pure souls, combined with the accumulated effect of noble deeds , as
happens in the case of a ripe palm fruit which falls down when a crow casually
rests on it. 
भूमिः प्रोदितमात्रान्तरमृताङ्कुरिकेव
विवेकेनाम्बुसेकेन रक्ष्या
पाल्या प्रयत्नतः ॥३७॥
The small offshoot
bearing traces of pure bliss, shooting up by coming in contact with souls, has
to be protected, nourished with effort, using the water of Viveka,
येनांशेनोल्लसत्येषा विचारेणोदयं
तमेवानुदितं यत्नात्कृषीवल
इवाङ्कुरम् ॥३८॥
By nurturing, with
systematic Vichara, this joy, 
which is an infinitesimal fraction of the bliss of the Self, has to be
developed, just like the farmer taking care of the young offshoots every day.
एषा हि परिमृषृन्तरन्यासां
द्वितीयां भूमिकां यत्नात्तृतीयां
प्राप्नुयात्ततः ॥३९॥
If given a healthy
growth, it (subhechchaa) proves to be the source for the birth of the
other Bhoomikas.  By effort, then,
Sadhaka will reach the second and the third Bhoomikas.   
श्रेष्ठासंसङ्गता ह्येषातृतीया
भूमिकात्र हि।
भवति प्रोज्झिताशेषसंकल्पकलनः
पुमान् ॥४०॥
The third Bhoomikaa will
bring forth the supreme Asamsanga, wherein the sadhaka relinquishes
the mind itself absolutely, so full of thoughts, feelings and imaginations.  
मूढस्यासत्कुलोत्थस्य प्रवृत्तस्याधमस्य
अप्राप्तयोगसङ्गस्य कथमुत्तरणं
भवेत् ॥४१॥
एकामथ द्वितीयां वा तृतीयां
वैतरां च वा।
आरुढस्य मृतस्याथ कीदृशी भगवन्
गतिः ॥४२॥
At this point Rama raises
some doubts for clarification by Vasishtha:
How can Mukti be attained
by those who are unintelligent in nature, born in bad families, who do binding
worldly Karma,  who are of low
character and who have never come across saints and yogis? Moreover, O
Bhavavan!, if a person dies having reached the first, second or third Bhoomikas,
what will be his future fate?
Vasishtha replies:
मूढस्यारूढदोषस्य तावत्संसृतिरातता।
प्रथमात्र भूः ॥४३॥
The ignorant person, who
has all the evils in him, will have to struggle through hundreds of births
until the time as he does not reach the first jnaana state (bhoomika) 
अथ वा साधुसंगत्या काकतालीय
संसारस्य परामर्शाद्वैराग्यं
समुदेति हि ॥४५॥
By contact with the wise
and saintly persons, a critical study of life in the world will start in him
and as a result, Vairaagya will develop in him.  This will occur as easily and naturally as
the palm fruit falling down due to the crow’s perching on it.
वैराग्येऽभ्युदिते जन्तोरवश्यं
ततो नश्यति संसारः इति शास्त्रार्थसंग्रहः
When this animal called
man starts having Vairaagya, then definitely he has come to the first
Bhoomika. Then alone samsara, worldly life, perishes for him.  This is the quintessence of the purport of
all the sastras.
भूमिकांशानुसारेण क्षीयते पूर्वदुष्कृतम्
A person who dies when he
is established in the first, second or third bhoomika,  will get the effect of his evil deeds
exhausted in proportion to the stage he is in.
ततः सुरविमानेषु लोकपालपुरेषु
मेरुपर्वतकुञ्जेषु रमते रमणीसखः
Then he will get into the
celestial aeroplane and go on to the cities of Devendra, the king of Devas and
also to the caves of the divine mountain Meru. 
He will have a happy life there with his consort.
ततः सुकृतसंभारे दुष्कृते च
पुरा कृते।
भोगक्षयात्परिक्षीणे जायन्ते
योगिनो भुवि ॥४९॥
With the expiry of their
enjoyment (when the sankalpa life gets exhausted) they will again be
born in the Earth in much better circumstances and become yogis with
most of their sins and merits exhausted through their experiences.
शुचीनां श्रीमतां गेहे गुप्ते
गुणवतां सताम्।
जनित्वा योगमेवैते सेवन्ते
योगभाविताः ॥५०॥
They will be reborn in
the families of persons who are wise, wealthy, good and pure and who will
cherish virtues as precious possession. 
They will then continue the pursuit of the path of jnaana, since
they had already been following this path (in their previous life)
तत्र प्राग्भावनाभ्यस्तं योगभूमिक्रमं
दृष्ट्वोपरि पतन्त्युच्चैरुत्तरं
भूमिकाक्रमम् ॥५१॥
Then, visualizing the Bhoomika
he left off at the time of death, he will continue his Jnaana nishtha
again, rising to the subsequent higher stages.
भूमिकात्रितयं त्वेतद्राम जाग्रदिति
जाग्रतीवात्र विस्पष्टं भेदबुध्यनुवर्तनात्
Rishis say that the first
three bhoomikas belong to the jagrat or wakeful state, as the
sense of difference between oneself and the things of the world prevails in
them then.
उदेति योगयुक्तानामत्र केवलमार्यता।
यां दृष्ट्वा मूढबुद्धीनामप्युदेति
मुमुक्षुता ॥५३॥
For those practising Jnaana
, the maximum attainment in the first three stages will be Aaryataa.
  Aaryataa  is so great, sublime and noble a state that
even idiots, seeing an Arya, would aspire to attain Mukti through his
inspiration.  They would be greatly
inspired by his personality.
तिष्ठति प्रकृताचारो यः स आर्य
इति स्मृतः ॥५४॥
They will do only things
fit to be done and would leave things that ought not to be done.  They will be established always in a natural
and normal state.  Such men alone are
called Aryas.
यथाचारं यथाचित्तं यथाशास्त्रं
व्यवहारमुपादत्ते यः स आर्य
इति स्मृतः ॥५५॥
The vyavahaara (worldly duties and actions ) of an Arya
will be according to Aacharas
(codes of
conduct), according to the sastras, according to the changing circumstances and
also as inspired from within.
प्रथमायामङ्कुरितं भूमौ विकसितं ततः।
द्वितीयायां तृतीयायां फलत्यार्यत्वमुत्तमम् ॥५६॥
manifests in the first bhoomika, (
शुभेच्छा), it
grows and blossoms in the second bhoomika Vichaarana (
विचारणा)  and takes the sadhaka to the level of
self-realisation in Asamsanga (
असंसङ्ग)  in the third stage.
आर्यतायां मृतो योगी शुद्धसंकल्पसंभृतान्।
भोगान्भुक्त्वा चिरं कालं योगवाञ्जायते पुनः ॥६७॥
If a jnaana yogi  dies when he is an Arya in the first,
second or third bhoomika, he will be going to and enjoying long, in the realms
which are generally attained by people who practise intently different systems
of religious disciplines and will reincarnate on earth again as a jnaana yogi.     


              योगवासिष्ठम्-वैराग्यप्रकरणम्-सर्गः २१
स्त्रीजुगुप्सा वर्णनम्
In these verses selected from the Vairagrya
of Yogavasishtham Rama speaks to Viswamitra and other
sages about  the negative aspects of
passion for women.
मांसपाञ्चालिकायास्तु यंत्रलोलेऽङ्गपञ्जरे
स्त्रियाः किमिव शोभनम्॥१॥
is so auspicious and good about woman whose body is like a doll made of a
flimsy cage filled with flesh and blood, nerves and blood vessels, bones and
different organs
त्वङ्मांसरक्तबाष्पांबु पृथक्कृत्वा
समालोकय रम्यं चेत् किं मुधा
परिमुह्यति ॥२॥
skin, flesh, blood, tears and eyes and look at them if they are pretty to look
at. Otherwise why are you enthralled and deluded by them ? .
इतः केशा इतोरक्तमितीयं प्रमदातनुः
किमेतया निन्दितया करोति
विपुलाशयः ॥३॥
can a man of discriminating mind do with this hair, with this blood, this body
of the woman all of which deserve condemnation.
वासोविलेपनैर्यानि लालितानि
पुनः पुनः
तान्यङ्गान्यङ्ग लुण्ठन्ति
क्रव्यादाः सर्वदेहिनाम् ॥४॥
organs which have been pampered by clothes, cosmetics etc. again and again,
those very organs of all human beings are dragged by jackals (when they die).
मेरुशृङ्गतटोल्लासि गङ्गाजलरयोपमा
दृष्टा यस्मिन् स्तने मुक्ताहारस्योल्लास
शालिता ॥५॥
श्मशानेषु दिगन्तेषु स एव
श्वाभिरास्वाद्यते काले लघुपिण्ड
इवान्धसः ॥६॥
The breasts of woman
sporting a chain of pearls is seen as the peaks of Meru with the waters of the
Ganga rushing down the peaks. Those very breasts are eaten by dogs like balls
of cooked rice in cremation grounds and other places (after the death of the
रक्तमांसास्थिदिग्धानि करभस्य
यथा वने
तथैवाऽङ्गानि कामिन्यास्ता
प्रत्यपि को ग्रहः ॥७॥
The same blood, flesh
and bones which are in the animals of the forest like the donkey also make up
the body and limbs of a woman.  What
attraction can be there in such a body? 
आपातरमणीयत्वं कल्प्यते केवलं
मन्ये तदपि नास्त्यत्र मुने
मोहैककारणम् ॥८॥
It is only in woman that
all-encompassing beauty is imagined.  O
sage! I think that the beauty is not there; it is only delusion.
विपुलोल्लासदायिन्या मदमन्मथपूर्वकम्
को विशेषो विकारिण्या मदिरायाः
स्त्रियास्था ॥९॥
What is the difference
between an alcoholic drink and a woman? Both give exuberance accompanied by
intoxication and carnal desire.
ललनालानसंलीना मुने मानवदन्तिनः
प्रबोधं नाऽधिगच्छन्ति दृढैरपि
शमाङ्कुशैः ॥१०॥
Those man-elephants
tied to the woman-chains do not wake up even with the strongest of goads of shama
(quiescence of the mind)
केशकज्जलधारिण्यो दुःस्पर्शाः
दुष्कृताग्निशिखा नार्यो
दहन्ति तृणवन्नरम् ॥११॥
Women with their
tresses and kajal-applied eyes are like flames of fire which are their
sinful actions.  They burn up men like
dry grass.
शोच्यतां परमां याति तरुणस्तरुणीपरः
निबद्धः करिणीलोलो विन्ध्यखाते
यथा गजः ॥१२॥
The young man who dotes
on a young woman comes to the utmost grief just like a male elephant,
infatuated with a she-elephant, falls into the large pit on the slopes of the
Vindhya mountain.  
यस्य स्त्री तस्य भोगेच्छा
निःस्त्रीकस्य क्व भोगभूः
स्त्रियं त्यक्त्वा जगत्त्यक्तं
जगत्त्यक्त्वा सुखी भवेत् ॥१३॥
One who has a woman
(as wife) carnal desires are for him. Without woman where is the scope for such
desire? When one abandons woman one abandons the world.  When one abandons the world one becomes



वैराग्यप्रकरणम्- सर्गः १५     
            अहंकारजुगुप्सा वर्णनम्
Rama speaks to Viswamitra and other sages about Ahamkara
(Ego) in these verses selected from the Vairagrya Prakarana of Yogavasishtham.
मोहान्मुधैव परिवर्धते
भीतोऽस्मि दुरहङ्कारशत्रुणा ॥
I am terrified by the enemy of harmful Ahamkara (I-ness, ego)
which, just like that, arises and grows out of delusion and which is the very
embodiment of Mithyaa (unTruth)
दोषकोशकदर्थताम् |
दीनदीनानां संसारो विविधाकृतिः ॥
It is only
this Ahamkara which generates so many evils and  creates for these miserable creatures this
(phenomenal world) of multiple forms. 
त्वऽहंकारो ममाऽऽमयः ॥
It is Ahamkara
which is my disease. It is the root cause of all my miseries, mental tensions
and worries and all desires.
परमं चिरवैरिणम्|

भुञ्जे  न पिबाम्यम्भः किमु भोगान् भुजे
मुने  ॥
This Ahamkara is my long-standing  and the greatest enemy because of which I
neither eat food nor drink water. O Sage! What to talk of other sense
enjoyments? (I don’t touch them)
दीर्घा माया मानसमोहिनी|
दोषेण किरातेनेव वागुरा ॥
The negative qualities arising out of Ahamkara  have created the long night of this samasara
and have deluded the mind by Maya as a hunter spreading his net (to trap
animals or birds) 
दुःखानि दीर्घाणि विषमाणि महान्ति च|
प्रसूतानि तान्यगात् खदिरा इव ॥
It is Ahamkara
 which gives birth to long days of
misery and great difficulties just like khadira trees on mountain
गुणपद्महिमानिलम् |
त्यजाम्यहम् ॥
I am abandoning this Ahamkara which is like Rahu for the
moon of quiescence of mind, snow storm to the lotus of good qualities and the
season of autumn for the clouds of shama
रामो न मे वाञ्छा भावेषु न च मे मनः|
आसितुमिच्छामि स्वात्मनीव जिनो यथा ॥
“ I am not
Rama; I do not have any desires; my mind does not entertain any thought or
emotion; I want to quietly abide in my Self like a muni.” 

सर्वापदां निलयमध्रुवमन्तरस्थ-
न संश्रयामि।
शेषेण मां समनुशाधि
महानुभाव ॥
This Ego is
the repository of all troubles,  extremely
fickle, internal and devoid of  good
qualities.  With great effort I try to
free myself from this which is the cause of much misery.  O Great Sage! Kindly instruct me about what
remains to be done by me  (to get rid of


    योगवासिष्ठम् – वैराग्यप्रकरणम् – सर्गः १४
Fleeting Nature of Life
Rama speaks to Viswamitra and other sages about the
fleeting nature of life in these verses selected from the Vairagrya
of Yogavasishtham.
आयुः पल्लवकोणाग्रलम्बांबुकणभंगुरम्
उन्मत्तमिव संत्यज्य यात्यकाण्डे शरीरिणम् ॥१॥
Life is as
evanescent  and fleeting as a drop of
water hanging from the tip of a leaf.  It
leaves the body, at the oddest of  times,
 like a mad or intoxicated person.
अप्रौढात्मविवेकानामायुरायासकारणम् ॥२॥
Life is the cause of exhaustion for
those whose mind has been weakened  by
attachment to sense objects which are like poisonous snakes and whose self-awareness
is shallow and weak.
ये तु विज्ञातविज्ञेया विश्रान्ता वितते पदे
भावाभावसमाश्वासा आयुस्तेषां सुखायते ॥३॥
Those who have known what is to be known, are
firmly established in the all-pervading Brahman and are equally comfortable
with existence and non-existence, for them only life is full of happiness.
वयं परिमिताकारपरिनिष्ठितनिश्चयाः
संसाराभ्रतडित्पुञ्जे मुने नाऽऽयुषि निर्वृताः
Putting my trust in this limited body, I
do not rejoice in this life of mine which darts like a flash of lightning in
the cloud of samsara (delusion).  
युज्यते वेष्टनं वायोराकाशस्य च खण्डनं
ग्रथनं च तरङ्गाणामास्था नाऽऽयुषि युज्यते
It is
possible to cleave the all-pervading Akasa or clothe the stormy winds or still
the waves that continuously arise on the surface of the (ocean) but one cannot
put one’s trust in this fleeting life.
पेलवं शरदीवाऽभ्रमस्नेह इव दीपकः
तरङ्गक इवाऽऽलोलं गतमेवोपलक्ष्यते ॥६॥
This life is ephemeral  and fleeting like autumnal clouds or an oil-less
lamp or ocean waves. It is as good as extinguished.
तरङ्गप्रतिबिम्बेन्दुं तडित्पुञ्जं नभोऽम्बुजम्
ग्रहीतुमास्थां बध्नामि न त्वायुषि हतस्थितौ॥७॥
I can hope to catch the reflection of
the moon in the waves, or the streak of lightning or the sky-lotus.  But I cannot put my hope in life the
existence of which is already doomed.
अविश्रान्तमनाः शून्यमायुराततमीहते
दुःखायैव विमूढोऽन्तर्गर्भमश्वतरी यथा ॥८॥
One whose mind never experiences quietude foolishly
longs for a long life only to court misery, like the pregnancy of ashwarataree
an animal which  can be delivered
of its offspring only by cutting open its stomach).
संसारसंसृतावस्यां फेनेऽस्मिन्सर्गसागरे
कायवल्ल्याऽम्भसो ब्रह्मन् जीवितं मे न रोचते
I  do not
like this life with a creeper-like flimsy body being tossed about in the foaming
waters of the ocean of samsara.
प्राप्यं संप्राप्यते येन भूयो येन न शोच्यते
पराया निर्वृतेः स्थानं 
यत्तज्जीवितमुच्यते ॥१०॥
That  life by
which is attained whatever is  to be
attained, by which one does not  grieve
again and which is the abode of supreme peace and tranquillity – that alone can
be called life.
तरवोऽपि हि जीवन्ति जीवन्ति मृगपक्षिणः
स जीवति मनो यस्य मननेन न जीवति ॥११॥
animals and birds also live.  But a
person lives only when his mind has stopped running after the senses and is
turned inward and focused  on the Self.

एव जगति जन्तवः साधुजीविताः।
पुनर्नेह जायन्ते शेषाजगरगर्दभाः ॥ १२॥
are only those who take birth in this world and lead a saintly life and are
never again born in this world. Others are pythons or donkeys.
शास्त्रं भारो ज्ञानं च रागिणः
मनो भारो भारोऽनात्मविदो वपुः ॥१३॥

the fool sastra is a burden. 
Knowledge is a burden for those attached to sensual pleasures. The mind
is a burden for those who are never calm. The body is a burden for those
without Self-realisation.


               योगवासिष्ठम्-वैराग्यप्रकरणम्- सर्गः २०
यौवनावस्था दोषवर्णनम्
In these verses selected from the Vairagrya
of Yogavasishtham Rama speaks to Viswamitra and other
sages about  the pitfalls and dangers of
त्यक्त्वा पुमानभिहताशयः
निपाताय यौवनं संभ्रमेण तु ॥१॥
Leaving behind the
problems of childhood man, his mind numbed, 
climbs into Youth with excitement, only to face a downfall.
लोलस्य स्वस्य चेतसः
याति दुःखाद् दुःखान्तरं जडः ॥२॥
In youth man experiences
the different moods of his fickle and 
wavering mind indulging in endless pleasures.  The fool is led from misery and sorrow to
greater misery and sorrow.
विवशः परिभूयते ॥३॥
He loses control on
himself and is forcefully overcome by the demon of carnal desires which abide
in his heart creating lot of excitement
यौवनं मे न रोचते ॥४॥
I do not like this youth which is bright one moment, like
thundering of clouds next moment, like lightning yet another moment and always
स्वादु तिक्तं च दूषणं दोषभूषणम्
यौवनं मे न रोचते ॥५॥
I do not like this youth
which is sweet, tasty, bitter, full of bad qualities and their ornament and
like waves in sura, intoxicating drink.
ये केचन
समारंभास्ते सर्वे सर्वदुःखदाः
सन्निधिं यान्ति महोत्पाता इव क्षये ॥६॥
Whatever endeavours
which are sources of misery and sorrow
take their place in
youth like the fires, floods and earthquakes during deluge.
हृदि दुःस्पर्शवह्निना
दह्यते जन्तुः तरुर्दावाग्निना यथा ॥७॥
The creature is burnt in
youth by the unbearable fire in the heart born of separation from a wife. It is
like a tree being burnt in a wildfire.
विस्तीर्णा पावन्यपि हि यौवने
कलुषतामेति प्रावृषीव तरङ्गिणी ॥८॥
Even a pure, broad and
holy mind becomes polluted in youth just like a river becomes turbid during the
rainy season. 
दोषालिं निकृन्तति गुणावलिम्
यौवनोल्लासो विलासो दुष्कृतश्रियाम् ॥९॥
Youth awakens all bad qualities and cuts down all good qualities
of men.  The exuberance of youth is the
play of all sinful activities. 
कतिचिद्योऽयं फलिता देहजङ्गले
शरदस्यां हि न समाश्वासमर्हति ॥१०॥
Youth yields the fruits
of joy only for a few days as in sharat
and it is no reason to
be complacent ( as winter is not far away)
प्रयात्येव शरीरात् युवताखगः
हस्ताच्चिन्तामणिर्यथा ॥११॥
The bird of youth flies
away from the body all of a sudden like the Chintamani gem slips from the hand
of a person of little luck.
यदा परा कोटिमध्यारोहति यौवनम्
सज्वरा कामास्तदा नाशाय केवलम् ॥१२॥
Whenever youth reaches
its highest point  then feverish desires
envelope man only to destroy him.  
यो मोहात् पुरुषः क्षणभङ्गिना
महामुग्धः स वै साक्षात् मृगः
स्मृतः ॥१३॥
The man who, captivated
and deluded by this fleeting youth, becomes overjoyed, is considered a mere
स दुर्बुद्धिः पश्चात्तापेन युज्यते ॥१४॥
That man of perverted
mind who desires this youth which is full of pride, delusion and intoxication
will, before long, regret the decision he has made.   
ते पूज्यास्ते
महात्मानस्त एव पुरुषा भुवि
ये सुखेन
समुत्तीर्णा साधो यौवनसङ्कटात् ॥१५॥
O sage! Only those  who have crossed this difficult period of
youth with ease are great men deserving to be worshipped and real men on this