bow down to Him – to Sri Hari (the destroyer of ignorance), the Supreme
Bliss, the First Teacher, Ishwara, the All-pervading One and the Cause
of all Lokas (the universe).
Herein is expounded (the means of attaining to) Aparokshanubhuti
(Self-Realization) for the acquisition of final liberation. Only the
pure in heart should constantly and with all effort meditate upon the
truth herein taught.
तपसा हरितोषणात् ।
प्रभवेत्पुंसां वैराग्यादि चतुष्टयम् ॥३॥
The four preliminary qualifications (the means to the attainment of
knowledge), such as Vairagya (dispassion) and the like, are acquired by
men by propitiating Hari (the Lord), through austerities and the
performance of duties pertaining to their social order and stage in
ब्रह्मादि स्थावरान्तेषु वैराग्यं
यथैव काकविष्ठायां वैराग्यं तद्धि निर्मलम्
4. The indifference with which one treats the excreta of a crow –
such an indifference to all objects of enjoyment from the realm of
Brahma to this world (in view of their perishable nature), is verily
called pure Vairagya.
नित्यमात्मस्वरूपं हि दृश्यं तद्विपरीतगम्।
एवं यो निश्चयः सम्यग्विवेको वस्तुनः स वै॥५॥
5. Atman (the seer) in itself is alone
permanent, the seen is opposed to it (ie., transient) – such a settled
conviction is truly known as discrimination.
वासनात्यागः शमोऽयमिति शब्दितः।
बाह्यवृत्तीनां दम इत्यभिधीयते ॥६॥
6. Abandonment of desires at all times is
called Shama and restraint of the external functions of the organs is
परावृत्तिः परमोपरतिर्हि सा।
सर्व दुःखानां तितिक्षा सा शुभा मता ॥७॥
Turning away completely from all sense-objects is the height of
Uparati, and patient endurance of all sorrow or pain is known as
Titiksha which is conducive to happiness.
भक्तिः श्रद्धेति विश्रुता।
तु सल्लक्ष्ये समाधानमिति स्मृतम्॥८॥
Implicit faith in the words of the Vedas and the teachers (who
interpret them) is known as Shraddha, and concentration of the mind on
the only object Sat (i.e., Brahman) is regarded as Samadhana.
संसारबन्धनिर्मुक्तिः कथं मे स्यात्कदा विधे!
इति या सुदृढा बुद्धिर्वक्तव्या सा
When and how shall I, O Lord, be free from the bonds of this world
(i.e., births and deaths) – such a burning desire is called Mumukshuta.
उक्तसाधनयुक्तेन विचारः पुरुषेण हि।
कर्तव्यो ज्ञानसिद्ध्यर्थमात्मनः शुभमिच्छता॥१०॥
Only that person who is in possession of the said qualification (as
means to Knowledge) should constantly reflect with a view to attaining
Knowledge, desiring his own good.
नोत्पाद्यते विना ज्ञानं विचारेणाऽन्यसाधनैः
यथा पदार्थभानं हि प्रकाशेन विना क्वचित्॥११॥
Knowledge is not brought about by any other means than Vichara, just as
an object is nowhere perceived (seen) without the help of light.
कथमिदं जातं को वै कर्ताऽस्य विद्यते।
किमस्तीह विचारः सोऽयमीदृशः॥१२॥
12. Who am I ? How is this (world) created
? Who is its creator ? Of what material is this (world) made ? This is
the way of that Vichara (enquiry).
भूतगणो देहो नाहं चाक्षगणस्तथा।
I am neither the body, a combination of the (five) elements (of
matter), nor am I an aggregate of the senses; I am something different
from these. This is the way of that Vichara.
सर्वं ज्ञानेन प्रविलीयते।
विविधः कर्ता विचारः सोऽयमीदृशः॥१४॥
Everything is produced by ignorance, and dissolves in the wake of
Knowledge. The various thoughts (modifications of Antahkarana) must be
the creator. Such is this Vichara.
एतयोर्यदुपादानमेकं सूक्ष्मं सदव्ययम्
यथैव मृद्घटादीनां विचारः सोऽयमीदृशः ॥१५॥
The material (cause) of these two (i.e., ignorance and thought) is the
One (without a second), subtle (not apprehended by the senses) and
unchanging Sat (Existence), just as the earth is the material (cause)
of the pot and the like. This is the way of that Vichara.
अहमेकोऽपि सूक्ष्मश्च ज्ञाता साक्षी सदव्ययः।
तदहं नात्र सन्देहो विचारः सोऽयमीदृशः॥।१६॥
As I am also the One, the Subtle, the Knower, the Witness, the
Ever-Existent, and the Unchanging, so there is no doubt that I am
“That” (i.e., Brahman). Such is this enquiry.
आत्मा विनिष्कलो ह्येको देहो बहुभिरावृतः।
तयोरैक्यं प्रपश्यन्ति किमज्ञानमतः परम्॥१७॥
Atman is verily one and without parts, whereas the body consists of
many parts; and yet the people see (confound) these two as one ! What
else can be called ignorance but this ?
आत्मा नियामकश्चान्तर्देहो बाह्यो नियम्यकः।
तयोरैक्यं प्रपश्यन्ति किमज्ञानमतः परम्॥१८॥
18. Atman is the ruler of the body and is
internal, the body is the ruled and is external; and yet, etc.,
ज्ञानमयः पुण्यो देहो मांसमयोऽशुचिः।
तयोरैक्यं प्रपश्यन्ति किमज्ञानमतः परम्॥१९॥
19. Atman is all consciousness and holy,
the body is all flesh and impure; and yet, etc.,
प्रकाशकः स्वच्छो देहस्तामस उच्यते।
तयोरैक्यं प्रपश्यन्ति किमज्ञानमतः परम्॥२०॥
20. Atman is the (supreme) Illuminator and
purity itself; the body is said to be of the nature of darkness; and
नित्यो हि सद्रूपो देहोऽनित्यो
तयोरैक्यं प्रपश्यन्ति किमज्ञानमतः परम्॥२१॥
Atman is eternal, since it is Existence itself; the body is transient,
as it is non-existence in essence; and yet etc.,
The luminosity of Atman consists in the manifestation of all objects.
Its luminosity is not like that of fire or any such thing, for (in
spite of the presence of such lights) darkness prevails at night (at
some place or other).
मूढो धृत्वा तिष्ठत्यहो जनः।
ज्ञात्वा घटद्रष्टेव सर्वदा ॥२३॥
23. How strange is it that a person ignorantly
rests contented with the idea that he is the body, while he knows it as
something belonging to him (and therefore apart from him) even as a
person who sees a pot (knows it as apart from him) !
समः शान्तः सच्चिदानन्दलक्षणम्।
देहो ह्यसद्रूपो ज्ञानमित्युच्यते बुधैः॥२४॥
24. I am verily Brahman, being equanimous,
quiescent, and by nature absolute Existence, Knowledge, and Bliss. I am
not the body which is non-existence itself. This is called true
Knowledge by the wise.
देहो ह्यसद्रूपो ज्ञानमित्युच्यते बुधैः॥२५॥
25. I am without any change, without any
form, free from all blemish and decay. I am not, etc.,
देहो ह्यसद्रूपो ज्ञानमित्युच्यते बुधैः॥२६॥
I am not subjected to any disease, I am beyond all comprehension, free
from all alternatives and all-pervading. I am not, etc.,
निर्गुणो निष्क्रियो नित्यो
देहो ह्यसद्रूपो ज्ञानमित्युच्यते बुधैः॥२७॥
27. I am without any attribute or activity,
I am eternal, ever free, and imperishable. I am not, etc.,
देहो ह्यसद्रूपो ज्ञानमित्युच्यते बुधैः॥२८॥
I am free from all impurity, I am immovable, unlimited, holy, undecaying,
and immortal. I am not, etc.,
स्वदेहे शोभनं शान्तं पुरुषाख्यं च संमतम्।
किं मूर्ख! शून्यमात्मानं देहातीतं
O you ignorant one ! Why do you assert the blissful, ever-existent
Atman, which resides in your own body and is (evidently) different from
it, which is known as Purusha and is established (by the Shruti as
identical with Brahman), to be absolutely non-existent ?
स्वात्मानं शृणु मूर्ख त्वं श्रुत्वा युक्या
देहातीतं सदाकारं सुदुर्दर्शं भवादृशैः ॥३०॥
30. O you ignorant one ! Try to know, with
the help of Shruti and reasoning, your own Self, Purusha, which is
different from the body, (not a void but) the very form of existence,
and very difficult for persons like you to realize.
शब्देन विख्यातः एक एव स्थितः परः।
प्राप्तः कथं स्याद्देहकः पुमान्॥३१॥
31. The Supreme (Purusha) known as “I”
(ego) is but one, whereas the gross bodies are many. So how can this
body be Purusha ?
अहं द्रष्टृतया सिद्धो देहो दृश्यतया स्थितः।
निर्देशात् कथं स्याद्देहकः पुमान्॥३२॥
“I” (ego) is well established as the subject of perception whereas the
body is the object. This is learnt from the fact that when we speak of
the body we say, “This is mine.” So how can this body be Purusha ?
विकारहीनस्तु देहो नित्यं विकारवान्।
प्रतीयते साक्षात् कथं स्याद्देहकः पुमान् ॥३३॥
It is a fact of direct experience that the “I” (Atman) is without any
change, whereas the body is always undergoing changes. So how can this
body be Purusha ?
यस्मात्परमिति श्रुत्या तया पुरुषलक्षणं।
विनिर्णीतं विमूढेन कथं स्याद्देहकः पुमान्
Wise men have ascertained the (real) nature of Purusha from that Shruti
text, “(There is nothing) higher than He (Purusha),” etc. So how can
this body be Purusha ?
एवेति सूक्ते पुरुषसंज्ञिते।
अप्युच्यते यतः श्रुत्या कथं
स्याद्देहकः पुमान् ॥३५॥
Again the Shruti has declared in the Purusha Sukta that “All this is
verily the Purusha”. So how can this body be Purusha ?
पुरुषः प्रोक्तो बृहदारण्यकेऽपि च ।
अनन्तमलसंश्लिष्टः कथं स्याद्देहकः पुमान् ॥३६॥
So also it is said in Brihadaranyaka that “The Purusha is completely
unattached”. How can this body wherein inhere innumerable impurities be
the Purusha ?
च समाख्यातः स्वयंज्योतिर्हि पूरुषः
जडः परप्रकाश्योऽयं कथं स्याद्देहकः पुमान् ॥३७॥
There again it is clearly stated that “the Purusha is self-illumined”.
So how can the body which is inert (insentient) and illumined by an
external agent be the Purusha ?
कर्मकाण्डेन ह्यात्मा देहाद्विलक्षणः।
तत्फलं भुङ्क्ते देहपातादनन्तरम्॥।३८॥
38. Moreover, the Karma-kanda also declares
that the Atman is different from the body and permanent, as it endures
even after the fall of the body and reaps the fruits of actions (done
in this life).
चानेकसंयुक्तं चलं दृश्यं विकारि च।
तत्कथं स्यात्पुमानयम् ॥३९॥
Even the subtle body consists of many parts and is unstable. It is also
an object of perception, is changeable, limited and non-existent by
nature. So how can this be the Purusha?
एवं देहद्वयादन्य आत्मा पुरुष ईश्वरः।
सर्वात्मा सर्वरूपश्च सर्वातीतोऽहमव्ययः॥४०॥
The immutable Atman, the substratum of the ego, is thus different from
these two bodies, and is the Purusha, the Ishwara (the Lord of all),
the Self of all; It is present in every form and yet transcends them
इत्यात्मदेहभागेन प्रपञ्चस्यैव सत्यता।
यथोक्ता तर्कशास्त्रेण ततः किं
Thus the enunciation of the difference between the Atman and the body
has (indirectly) asserted, indeed, after the manner of the
Tarkashastra, the reality of the phenomenal world. But what end of
human life is served thereby ?
इत्यात्मदेहभेदेन देहात्मत्वं निवारितम्।
देहभेदस्य ह्यसत्त्वं स्फुटमुच्यते ॥४२॥
Thus the view that the body is the Atman has been denounced by the
enunciation of the difference between the Atman and the body. Now is
clearly stated the unreality of the difference between the two.
युक्तो न कर्हिचित्।
च मृषा ज्ञेयं रज्जौ सर्पग्रहो यथा॥४३॥
No division in Consciousness is admissible at any time as it is always
one and the same. Even the individuality of the Jiva must be known as
false, like the delusion of a snake in a rope.
तद्वच्चितिः साक्षाद्विश्वाकारेण केवला॥४४॥
As through the ignorance of the real nature of the rope the very rope
appears in an instant as a snake, so also does pure Consciousness
appear in the form of the phenomenal universe without undergoing any
प्रपञ्चस्य ब्रह्मणॊऽन्यन्न विद्यते ।
ब्रह्मैवास्ति न चेतरत्॥४५॥
There exists no other material cause of this phenomenal universe except
Brahman. Hence this whole universe is but Brahman and nothing else.
मिथ्या सर्वमात्मेति शासनात्।
ज्ञाते परे तत्त्वे भेदस्यावसरः कुतः ॥४६॥
46. From such declaration (of the Shruti)
as “All this is Atman”, it follows that the idea of the pervaded and
the pervading is illusory. This supreme truth being realized, where is
the room for any distinction between the cause and the effect ?
निवारितं नूनं नानात्वं स्वमुखेन हि।
भासो भवेदन्यः स्थिते चाद्वयकारणॆ॥४७॥
Certainly the Shruti has directly denied manifoldness in Brahman. The
non-dual cause being an established fact, how could the phenomenal
universe be different from It ?
दोषोऽपि विहितः श्रुत्या मृत्योर्मृत्युं स
इह पश्यति नानात्वं मायया वञ्चितो नरः॥४८॥
Moreover, the Shruti has condemned (the belief in variety) in the
words, “The person who”, being deceived by Maya, “sees variety in this
(Brahman), goes from death to death”.
सर्वभूतानि जायन्ते परमात्मनः ।
ब्रह्मैव भवन्तीत्यवधारयेत् ॥४९॥
49. Inasmuch as all beings are born of
Brahman, the supreme Atman, they must be understood to be verily
सर्वनामानि रूपाणि विविधानि च।
समग्राणि बिभर्तीति श्रुतिर्जगौ॥५०॥
50. The Shruti has clearly declared that
Brahman alone is the substratum of all varieties of names, forms and
सुवर्णत्वं च शाश्वतम्।
जायमानस्य ब्रह्मत्त्वं च तथा भवेत्॥५१॥
51. Just as a thing made of gold ever has
the nature of gold, so also a being born of Brahman has always the
nature of Brahman.
सन्तिष्ठति मूढात्मा भयं तस्याभिभाषितम्॥५२॥
Fear is attributed to the ignorant one who rests after making even the
slightest distinction between the Jivatman and the Paramatman.
यत्राज्ञानाद्भवेत् द्वैतमितरस्तत्र पश्यति।
आत्मत्त्वेन यदा सर्वं नेतरस्तत्र
53. When duality appears through ignorance,
one sees another; but when everything becomes identified with the
Atman, one does not perceive another even in the least.
भूतानि ह्यात्मत्त्वेन विजानतः ।
वै तस्य भवेन्मोहो न च शोकोऽद्वितीयतः॥।५४॥
54. In that state when one realizes all as
identified with the Atman, there arises neither delusion nor sorrow, in
consequence of the absence of duality.
हि ब्रह्मैव सर्वात्मकतया स्थितः।
निर्धारितं श्रुत्या बृहदारण्यसंस्थया ॥५५॥
55. The Shruti in the form of the
Brihadaranyaka has declared that this Atman, which is the Self of all,
is verily Brahman.
लोको व्यवहारक्षमोऽपि सन् ।
यथा स्वप्न उत्तरक्षणबाधतः॥५६॥
This world, though an object of our daily experience and serving all practical
purposes, is, like the dream world, of the nature of non-existence,
inasmuch as it is contradicted the next moment.
स्वप्नो जागरणेऽलीकः स्वप्नेऽपि जागरो न हि।
द्वयमेव लये नास्ति लयोऽपि ह्युभयोर्न च ॥५७॥
The dream (experience) is unreal in waking, whereas the waking
(experience) is absent in dream. Both, however, are non-existent in
deep sleep which, again, is not experienced in either.
त्रयमेवं भवेन्मिथ्या गुणत्रयविनिर्मितम्।
अस्य द्रष्टा गुणातीतो नित्यो
Thus all the three states are unreal inasmuch as they are the creation
of the three Gunas; but their witness (the reality behind them) is,
beyond all Gunas, eternal, one, and is Consciousness itself.
यद्वन्मृदि घटभ्रान्तिं शुक्तौ वा
तद्वत्ब्रह्मणि जीवत्वं वीक्षमाणे न पश्यति
59. Just as (after the illusion has gone)
one is no more deluded to see a jar in earth or silver in the nacre, so
does one no more see Jiva in Brahman when the latter is realized (as
one’s own self).
मृदि घटो नाम कनके कुण्डलाभिधा।
हि रजतख्यातिर्जीवशब्दस्तथा परे॥६०॥
60. Just as earth is described as a jar,
gold as an ear-ring, and a nacre as silver, so is Brahman described as
व्योम्नि नीलत्वं यथा नीरं मरुस्थले।
यथा स्थाणौ तद्वद्विश्वं चिदात्मनि ॥६१॥
Just as blueness in the sky, water in the mirage, and a human figure in
a post (are but illusory), so is the universe in Atman.
यथैव शून्ये वेतालो गन्धर्वाणां पुरं यथा।
यथाकाशे द्विचन्द्रत्वं तद्वत्सत्ये
Just as the appearance of a ghost in an empty place, of a castle in the
air, and of a second moon in the sky (is illusory), so is the
appearance of the universe in Brahman.
यथा तरङ्गकल्लोलैर्जलमेव स्फुरत्यलम्
ताम्रं हि ब्रह्माण्डौघैस्तथात्मता ॥६३॥
Just as it is water that appears as ripples and waves, or again it is
copper, that appears in the form of vessel so it is Atman that appears
as the whole universe.
घटनाम्ना यथा पृथ्वी पटनाम्ना हि तन्तवः।
जगन्नाम्ना चिदाभाति ज्ञेयं तत्तदभावतः ॥६४॥
Just as it is earth that appears under the name of a jar, or it is
threads that appear under the name of a cloth, so it is Atman that
appears under the name of the universe. This Atman is to be known by
negating the names.
ब्रह्मणा क्रियते जनैः।
विजानन्ति मृदेव हि घटादिकम् ॥६५॥
People perform all their actions in and through Brahman, (but on
account of ignorance they are not aware of that), just as through
ignorance persons do not know that jars and other earthenwares are
nothing but earth.
कार्यकारणता नित्यमास्ते घटमृदोर्यथा।
Just as there ever exist the relation of cause and effect between earth
and a jar, so does the same relation exist between Brahman and the
phenomenal world; this has been established here on the strength of
scriptural texts and reasoning.
गृह्यमाणे घटे यद्वन्मृत्तिकाऽऽभाति वै बलात्।
वीक्षमाणे प्रपञ्चेऽपि ब्रह्मैवाभाति भासुरम्
Just as (the consciousness of) earth forces itself upon our mind while
thinking of a jar, so also does (the idea of) ever-shining Brahman
flash on us while contemplating on the phenomenal world.
सदैवात्मा विशुद्धोऽस्ति ह्यशुद्धो भाति वै
यथैव द्विविधा रज्जुर्ज्ञानिनोऽज्ञानिनो
Atman, though ever pure (to a wise man), always appears to be impure
(to an ignorant one), just as a rope always appears in two different
ways to a knowing person and an ignorant one.
यथैव मृण्मयः कुंभस्तद्वद्देहोऽपि चिन्मयः।
आत्मानात्मविभागोऽयं मुधैव क्रियतेऽबुधैः॥६९॥
Just as a jar is all earth, so also is the body all consciousness. The
division, therefore, into the Self and non-Self is made by the ignorant
to no purpose.
यथा रज्जू रजतत्वेन शुक्तिका।
विमूढेन देहत्वेन तथात्मता ॥७०॥
70. Just as a rope is imagined to be a snake
and a nacre to be a piece of silver, so is the Atman determined to be
the body by an ignorant person.
यथा पृथ्वी पटत्वेनैव तंतवः।
विमूढेन देहत्वेन तथात्मता॥७१॥
71. Just as earth is thought of as a jar
(made of it) and threads as a cloth, so is Atman, etc.,
कुण्डलत्वेन तरंगत्वेन वै जलं।
72. Just as gold is thought of as an
ear-ring and water as waves, so is the Atman, etc.,
वै स्थाणुर्जलत्वेन मरीचिका।
73. Just as the stump of a tree is mistaken for a human figure
and a mirage for water, so is the Atman, etc.,
काष्ठानि खड्गत्वेनैव लोहता।
74. Just as a mass of wood work is thought of
as a house and iron as a sword, so is the Atman, etc.,
वृक्षविपर्यासो जलाद्भवति कस्यचित्।
देहत्वं पश्यत्यज्ञानयोगतः ॥७५॥
Just as one sees the illusion of a tree on account of water, so does a
person on account of ignorance see Atman as the body.
पोतेन गच्छतः पुंसः सर्वं भातीव चञ्चलम्।
देहत्वं पश्यत्यज्ञानयोगतः ॥७६॥
76. Just as to a person going in a boat
everything appears to be in motion, so does one, etc.,
हि यथा शुभ्रे दोषात्भवति कस्यचित्।
देहत्वं पश्यत्यज्ञानयोगतः ॥७७॥
77. Just as to a person suffering from a
defect (jaundice) white things appear as yellow, so does one, etc.,
भ्रमशीलाभ्यां सर्वं भाति भ्रमात्मकम्।
देहत्वं पश्यत्यज्ञानयोगतः ॥७८॥
78. Just as to a person with defective eyes
everything appears to be defective, so does one, etc.,
भ्रमणेनैव वर्तुलं भाति सूर्यवत्।
देहत्वं पश्यत्यज्ञानयोगतः ॥७९॥
79. Just as a firebrand, through mere
rotation, appears circular like the sun, so does one, etc.,
सर्वभूतानां ह्यणुत्वं ह्यतिदूरतः।
80. Just as all things that are really
large appear to be very small owing to great distance, so does one,
सर्वभूतानां स्थूलत्वं चोपनेत्रतः
81. Just as all objects that are very small
appear to be large when viewed through lenses, so does one, etc.,
जलत्वं वा जलभूमौ हि काचता।
82. Just as a surface of glass is mistaken
for water, or vice versa, so does one, etc.,
मणित्वं हि मणौ वा वह्निता पुमान्।
83. Just as a person imagines a jewel in
fire or vice versa, so does one, etc.,
सत्सु धावत्सु सोमो धावति भाति वै।
84. Just as when clouds move, the moon
appears to be in motion, so does one, etc.,
दिग्विपर्यासो मोहाद्भवति कस्यचित्।
Just as a person through confusion loses all distinction between the
different points of the compass, so does one, etc.,
यथा शशी जले भाति चञ्चलत्वेन कस्यचित्।
86. Just as the moon (when reflected) in
water appears to one as unsteady, so does one, etc.,
देहाध्यासो हि जायते।
एवात्मपरिज्ञानाल्लीयते च परात्मनि ॥८७॥
87. Thus through ignorance arises in Atman
the delusion of the body, which, again, through Self-realization,
disappears in the supreme Atman.
सर्वभावानां देहस्य चात्मता कुतः॥८८॥
When the whole universe, movable and immovable, is known to be Atman,
and thus the existence of everything else is negated, where is then any
room to say that the body is Atman?
सततं जानन्कालं नय महामते।
भुञ्जन्नोद्वेगं कर्तुमर्हसि ॥८९॥
O enlightened one, pass your time always contemplating on Atman while
you are experiencing all the results of Prarabdha; for it ill becomes
you to feel distressed.
उत्पन्नेप्यात्मविज्ञाने प्रारब्धं नैव
इति यच्छ्रूयते शास्त्रे तन्निराक्रियतेऽधुना
The theory one hears of from the scripture, that Prarabdha does not
lose its hold upon one even after the origination of the knowledge of
Atman, is now being refuted
प्रारब्धं नैव विद्यते। देहादीनामसत्यत्वात्
यथा स्वप्नो प्रबोधतः ॥९१॥
After the origination of the knowledge of Reality, Prarabdha verily
ceases to exist, inasmuch as the body and the like become non-existent;
just as a dream does not exist on waking.
कर्म जन्मान्तरकृतं प्रारब्धमिति कीर्तितम्।
तत्तु जन्मान्तराभावात् पुंसो नैवास्ति
That Karma which is done in a previous life is known as Prarabdha
(which produces the present life). But such Karma cannot take the place
of Prarabdha (for a man of knowledge), as he has no other birth (being
free from ego).
स्वप्नदेहो यथाध्यस्तस्तथैवायं हि देहकः ।
अध्यस्तस्य कुतो जन्म जन्माभावे हि तत्कुतः॥९३॥
Just as the body in a dream is superimposed (and therefore illusory),
so is also this body. How could there be any birth of the superimposed
(body), and in the absence of birth (of the body) where is the room for
that (i.e., Prarabdha) at all ?
उपादानं प्रपञ्चस्य मृद्भाण्डस्येव कथ्यते।
अज्ञानं चैव वेदान्तैस्तस्मिन्नष्टे क्व विश्वता॥९४॥
94. The Vedanta texts declare ignorance to
be verily the material (cause) of the phenomenal world just as earth is
of a jar. That (ignorance) being destroyed, where can the universe
यथा रज्जुं परित्यज्य सर्पं गृह्णाति
Just as a person out of confusion perceives only the snake leaving
aside the rope, so does an ignorant person see only the phenomenal
world without knowing the reality.
रज्जुरूपे परिज्ञाते सर्पखण्डं
अधिष्ठाने तथा ज्ञाते प्रपञ्चः
शून्यतां गतः ॥९६॥
The real nature of the rope being known, the appearance of the snake no
longer persists; so the substratum being known, the phenomenal world
देहस्यापि प्रपञ्चत्वात्प्रारब्धावस्थितिः कुतः।
अज्ञानिजनबोधार्थं प्रारब्धं वक्ति
वै श्रुतिः ॥९७॥
97. The body also being within the
phenomenal world (and therefore unreal), how could Prarabdha exist ? It
is, therefore, for the understanding of the ignorant alone that the
Shruti speaks of Prarabdha.
क्षीयन्ते चास्य कर्माणि तस्मिन्
बहुत्वं तन्निषेधार्थं श्रुत्या
गीतं च यत्स्फुटम्॥९८॥
98. “And all the actions of a man perish
when he realizes that (Atman) which is both the higher and the lower”.
Here the clear use of the plural by the Shruti is to negate Prarabdha
वेदान्तमतहानं च यतो ज्ञानमिति
If the ignorant still arbitrarily maintain this, they will not only
involve themselves into two absurdities but will also run the risk of
forgoing the Vedantic conclusion. So one should accept those Shrutis
alone from which proceeds true knowledge.
त्रिपञ्चाङ्गान्यतो वक्ष्ये पूर्वोक्तस्य
तैश्च सर्वैः सदा कार्यं निदिध्यासनमेव
Now, for the attainment of the aforesaid (knowledge), I shall expound
the fifteen steps by the help of which one should practice profound
meditation at all times.
नित्याभ्यासादृते प्राप्तिर्न भवेत्सच्चिदात्मनः
तस्मात्ब्रह्म निदिध्यासेत्जिज्ञासु: श्रेयसे चिरम्॥१०१॥
The Atman that is absolute existence and knowledge cannot be realized
without constant practice. So one seeking after knowledge should long
meditate upon Brahman for the attainment of the desired goal.
यमो हि नियमस्त्यागो मौनं देशश्च
आसनं मूलबन्धश्च देहसाम्यं च दृक्स्थितिः॥१०२॥
प्राणसंयमनं चैव प्रत्याहारश्च
आत्मध्यानं समाधिश्च प्रोक्तान्यङ्गानि
वै क्रमात् ॥१०३॥
The steps, in order, are described as follows: the control of the
senses, the control of the mind, renunciation, silence, space, time, posture,
the restraining root (Mulabandha), the equipoise of the body, the
firmness of vision, the control of the vital forces, the withdrawal of
the mind, concentration, self-contemplation and complete absorption.
सर्वं ब्रह्मेति विज्ञानादिन्द्रियग्रामसंयमः।
The restraint of all the senses by means of such knowledge as “All this
is Brahman” is rightly called Yama, which should be practiced again and
नियमो हि परानन्दो
The continuous flow of only one kind of thought to the exclusion of all
other thoughts, is called Niyama, which is verily the supreme bliss and
is regularly practiced by the wise.
त्यागः प्रपञ्चरूपस्य चिदात्मत्वावलोकनात्।
त्यागो हि महतां पूज्यः सद्यो मोक्षमयो
The abandonment of the illusory universe by realizing it as the
all-conscious Atman is the real renunciation honored by the great,
since it is of the nature of immediate liberation.
यस्माद्वाचो निवर्तन्ते अप्राप्य
यन्मौनं योगिभिर्गम्यं तद्भवेत्सर्वदा
The wise should always be one with that silence wherefrom words
together with the mind turn back without reaching it, but which is
attainable by the Yogins.
वाचो यस्मान्निवर्तन्ते तद्वक्तुं
प्रपञ्चो यदि वक्तव्यः सोऽपि शब्दविवर्जितः
इति वा तद्भवेन्मौनं सतां सहजसंज्ञितम्।
गिरां मौनं तु बालानां प्रयुक्तं
Who can describe That (i.e., Brahman) whence words turn away ? (So
silence is inevitable while describing Brahman). Or if the phenomenal
world were to be described, even that is beyond words. This, to give an
alternate definition, may also be termed silence known among the sages
as congenital. The observance of silence by restraining speech, on the
other hand, is ordained by the teachers of Brahman for the ignorant.
आदावन्ते च मध्ये च जनो यस्मिन्न
येनेदं स्ततं व्याप्तं स देशो विजनः
110. That solitude is known as space,
wherein the universe does not exist in the beginning, end or middle,
but whereby it is pervaded at all times.
कलनात् सर्वभूतानां ब्रह्मादीनां
कालशब्देन निर्दिष्टो ह्यखण्डानन्दकोऽद्वयः
The non-dual (Brahman) that is bliss indivisible is denoted by the word
‘time’, since it brings into existence, in the twinkling of an eye all
beings from Brahman downwards.
सुखेनैव भवेद्यस्मिन्नजस्रं ब्रह्मचिन्तनम्।
112. One should know that as real posture
in which the meditation on Brahman flows spontaneously and unceasingly,
and not any other that destroys one’s happiness.
सिद्धं यत्सर्वभूतादि विश्वाधिष्ठानमव्ययम्।
That which is well known as the origin of all beings and the support of
the whole universe, which is immutable and in which the enlightened are
completely merged … that alone is known as Siddhasana (eternal
यन्मूलं सर्वभूतानां यन्मूलंचित्तबन्धनम्।
मूलबन्धः सदा सेव्यो योग्योऽसौ
That (Brahman) which is the root of all existence and on which the
restraint of the mind is based is called the restraining root
(Mulabandha) which should always be adopted since it is fit for
अङ्गानां समतां विद्यात्समे ब्रह्मणि
नो चेन्नैव समानत्वमृजुत्वं शुष्कवृक्षवत्
Absorption in the uniform Brahman should be known as the equipoise of
the limbs (Dehasamya). Otherwise mere straightening of the body like
that of a dried-up tree is no equipoise.
दृष्टिं ज्ञानमयीं कृत्वा पश्येद्ब्रह्ममयं
सा दृष्टिः परमोदारा न नासाग्रावलोकिनी
Converting the ordinary vision into one of knowledge one should view
the world as Brahman itself. That is the noblest vision, and not that
which is directed to the tip of the nose.
द्रष्टृदर्शनदृश्यानां विरामो यत्र
वा भवेत् ।
दृष्टिस्तत्रैव कर्तव्या न नासाग्रावलोकिनी
117. Or, one should direct one’s vision to
That alone where all distinction of the seer, sight, and the seen
ceases and not to the tip of the nose.
चित्तादि सर्वभावेषु ब्रह्मत्वेनैव
निरोधः सर्ववृत्तीनां प्राणायामः
स उच्यते ॥११८॥
The restraint of all modifications of the mind by regarding all mental
states like the Chitta as Brahman alone, is called Pranayama.
निषेधनं प्रपञ्चस्य रेचकाख्यः समीरणः।
ब्रह्मैवास्मीति या वृत्तिः पूरको
अयं चापि प्रबुद्धानां अज्ञानां
The negation of the phenomenal world is known as Rechaka (breathing
out), the thought, “I am verily Brahman”, is called Puraka (breathing in),
and the steadiness of that thought thereafter is called Kumbhaka
(restraining the breath). This is the real course of Pranayama for the
enlightened, whereas the ignorant only torture the nose.
विषयेष्वात्मतां दृष्ट्वा मनसश्चिति
The absorption of the mind in the Supreme Consciousness by realizing
Atman in all objects is known as Pratyahara (withdrawal of the mind)
which should be practiced by the seekers after liberation.
यत्र यत्र मनो याति ब्रह्मणस्तत्र
मनसो धारणं चैव धारणा सा परा मता॥१२२॥
122. The steadiness of the mind through
realization of Brahman wherever the mind goes, is known as the supreme
ब्रह्मैवास्मीति सद्वृत्त्या निरालंबतया
ध्यानशब्देन विख्याता परमानन्ददायिनी
123. Remaining independent of everything as a
result of the unassailable thought, “I am verily Brahman”, is well
known by the word Dhyana (meditation), and is productive of supreme
निर्विकारतया वृत्त्या ब्रह्माकारतया
The complete forgetfulness of all thought by first making it changeless
and then identifying it with Brahman is called Samadhi known also as
इमं चाकृत्रिमानन्दं तावत्साधु
वश्यो यावत् क्षणात्पुंसः
प्रयुक्तस्सन् भवेत्स्वयम् ||१२५॥
The aspirant should carefully practice this (meditation) that reveals
his natural bliss until, being under his full control, it arises
spontaneously, in an instant when called into action.
ततः साधननिर्मुक्तः सिद्धो भवति
तत्स्वरूपं न चैतस्य विषयो मनसो
Then he, the best among Yogis having attained to perfection, becomes
free from all practices. The real nature of such a man never becomes an
object of the mind or speech.
समाधौ क्रियमाणे तु विघ्नान्यायान्ति
लयस्तमश्च विक्षेपो रसास्वादश्च
एवं यद्विघ्नबाहुल्यं त्याज्यं
ब्रह्मविदा शनैः ॥१२८॥
While practicing Samadhi there appear unavoidably many obstacles, such
as lack of inquiry, idleness, desire for sense-pleasure, sleep,
dullness, distraction, tasting of joy, and the sense of blankness. One
desiring the knowledge of Brahman should slowly get rid of such
भाववृत्त्या हि भावत्वं शून्यवृत्त्या
ब्रह्मवृत्त्या हि पूर्णत्वं तथा
While thinking of an object the mind verily identifies itself with
that, and while thinking of a void it really becomes blank, whereas by
the thought of Brahman it attains to perfection. So one should
constantly think of (Brahman to attain) perfection.
ये हि वृत्तिं जहत्येनां ब्रह्माख्यां
वृथैव ते तु जीवन्ति पशुभिश्च समा
Those who give up this supremely purifying thought of Brahman, live in
vain and are on the same level with beasts.
ये हि वृत्तिं विजानन्ति ज्ञात्वापि
ते वै सत्पुरुषा धन्या वन्द्यास्ते
Blessed indeed are those virtuous persons who at first have this
consciousness of Brahman and then develop it more and more. They are
येषां वृत्तिः समा वृद्धा परिपक्वा
च सा पुनः।
ते वै सद्ब्रह्मतां प्राप्ता नेतरे
Only those in whom this consciousness (of Brahman) being ever present
grows into maturity, attain to the state of ever-existent Brahman; and
not others who merely deal with words.
कुशला ब्रह्मवार्तायां वृत्तिहीनाः
तेऽप्यज्ञानतया नूनं पुनरायान्ति
यान्ति च ॥१३३॥
Also those persons who are only clever in discussing about Brahman but
have no realization, and are very much attached to worldly pleasures,
are born and die again and again in consequence of their ignorance.
निमेषार्धं न तिष्ठन्ति वृत्तिं
यथा तिष्ठन्ति ब्रह्माद्याः सनकाद्याः
The aspirants after Brahman should not remain a single moment without
the thought of Brahman, just like Brahma, Sanaka, Suka and others.
कार्ये कारणतायाता कारणे न हि कार्यता।
कारणत्वं ततो गच्छेत्कार्याभावे
135. The nature of the cause inheres in the
effect and not vice versa; so through reasoning it is found that in the
absence of the effect, the cause, as such also disappears.
अथ शुद्धं भवेद्वस्तु यद्वै वाचामगोचरम्।
द्रष्टव्यं मृद्घटेनैव दृष्टान्तेन
पुनः पुनः ॥१३६॥
Then that pure reality (Brahman) which is beyond speech alone remains.
This should be understood again and again verily through the
illustration of earth and the pot.
अनेनैव प्रकारेण वृत्तिर्ब्रह्मात्मिका
उदेति शुद्धचित्तानां वृत्तिज्ञानं
ततः परम् ॥१३७॥
In this way alone there arises in the pure-minded a state of awareness
(of Brahman), which is afterwards merged into Brahman.
कारणं व्यतिरेकेण पुमानादौ विलोकयेत्।
कार्ये नित्यं प्रपश्यति ॥१३८॥
One should first look for the cause by the negative method and then
find it by the positive method, as ever inherent in the effect.
कार्ये हि कारणं पश्येत् पश्चात्कार्यं
कार्ये नित्यं प्रपश्यति ॥१३९॥
139. One should verily see the cause in the
effect, and then dismiss the effect altogether. What then remains, the
sage himself becomes.
भावितं तीव्रवेगेन यद्वस्तु निश्चयात्मना।
पुमांस्तद्धि भवेच्छीघ्रं ज्ञेयं
A person who meditates upon a thing with great assiduity and firm
conviction, becomes that very thing. This may be understood from the
illustration of the wasp and the worm.
अदृश्यं भावरूपं सर्वमेव चिदात्मकम्।
सावधानतया नित्यं स्वात्मानं भावयेद्बुधः
The wise should always think with great care of the invisible, the
visible, and everything else, as his own Self which is consciousness
दृश्यं ह्यदृश्यतां नीत्वा ब्रह्माकारेण
विद्वान्नित्यसुखे तिष्ठेद्धिया चिद्रसपूर्णया ॥१४२॥
Having reduced the visible to the invisible, the wise should think of
the universe as one with Brahman. Thus alone will he abide in eternal
felicity with mind full of consciousness and bliss.
एभिरङ्गैः समायुक्तो राजयोग उदाहृतः।
किञ्चित्पक्वकषायाणां हठयोगेन संयुतः॥१४३॥
Thus has been described Raja-Yoga consisting of these steps (mentioned
above). With this is to be combined Hatha-Yoga for (the benefit of)
those whose worldly desires are partially attenuated.
परिपक्वं मनो येषां केवलोऽयं च
गुरुदैवतभक्तानां सर्वेषां सुलभो
For those whose mind is completely purified this (Raja-Yoga) alone is
productive of perfection. Purity of the mind, again, is speedily
accessible to those who are devoted to the teacher and the Deity.