familiar with sanskrit in terms of vocabulary, the different forms nouns,
pronouns and adjectives take conforming to the rules of grammar in respect of
conjugation of verbs from a vast store house of roots from which verbs are
formed in the various tenses (present, past, future) and moods (commands,
wishes, blessings etc.) in addition to infinitives, causative and other
not enable the reader deveop facility in speaking and writing in sanskrit but,
it is hoped, will enable him to understand and enjoy the vast treasure of
writings in Sanskrit at a reasonable level. For this purpose it is not
necessary that one should be able to reproduce from memory the multiplicity of
forms nouns, pronouns, adjectives and
roots of verbs take, but to recognise the various forms when one sees them in
print. Coupled with a reasonably good
vocabulary it should be possible to read and understand many texts in Sanskrit
without the help of translations. Most
of the modern Indian languages have generously drawn words from Sanskrit, either in their original form or with minor
modifications, especialy in serious works of literature in those languages
(Tamil is an exception in this regard). Therefore such words will be recognised by
those who have ordinary proficiency in one of those languages. With the help of a dictionary of Sanskrit
words one can improve one’s vocabulary.
Reading through these lessons a few times, it is hoped, will familiarise
the reader with the peculiarities of the language which he will be able to
recognise when he sees them used in literary and other works in Sanskrit.
Devanagari script and high school
level knowledge of English are assumed in the following lessons. Knowledge of any of the languages of
India which generously use words from Sanskrit will be helpful as indicated
is beyond the limitations of time and space, which is infinite, which is of the
form of pure consciousness and which can be attained only by one’s own deepest
second and third persons both singular
and plural. Sanskrit has an additional number, dual to indicate two of a
category. The different forms taken by these personal pronouns are
अहं (अहम्) I
वयं (वयम् ) We
The forms given within brackets ending with
‘म्’ are used generally at the end of a sentence
or when a vowel follows.
some common verbs in sanskrit and see what form these verbs take in relation to
singular, dual and plural subjects in the present tense
Third person क्रीडति क्रीडतः क्रीडन्ति
person क्रीडामि क्रीडावः क्रीडामः
तौ क्रीडतः They two play ते क्रीडन्ति They play
ते क्रीडतः They two play ताः क्रीडन्ति They play
युवां क्रीडथः You two play यूयं
that the form of the verb does not change when the subject is of the feminine
gender as in Hindi and some other Indian languages.
more roots, the present tense forms of
which are obtained in the same manner as given above, are listed below:
to eat खादति
खादतः खादन्ति etc.
to laugh हसति
to walk चलति
to wander भ्रमति
भ्रमतः भ्रमन्ति etc.
to abandon त्यजति
त्यजतः त्यजन्ति etc.
other roots are पच् to cook, रक्ष् to protect, वस् to
live, reside, भज् to worship or serve, जल्प् to prattle, talk – for these present tense forms are derived in
the same manner.
1. Write out the present tense forms in the third, second and first persons
singular, dual and plural for the
following roots (as given above for the root क्रीड्
to play )
to blame, क्रन्द् to cry, पत्
to fall, व्रज्
to go, वह् to carry कूज् to chirp,
to go, to graze, पठ् to
the above verbs in present tense sentences with personal pronouns as subjects-
as given above for the verb क्रीडति etc.
sentences with the following nouns as subjects and verbs formed of any of the
roots given above.
boy, बालिका girl, अध्यापकः
teacher, अध्यापिका female
student, माता mother
father गोपः cowherd छात्रः student